2015-05-12 Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMG): A Brief Bibliography · 4. Outlaw motorcycle gangs -- Big five outlaw motorcycle gangs : an introduction -- Hells Angels MC (HAMC) -- Bandidos - [PDF Document] (2024)

Calhoun: The NPS Institutional Archive

Dudley Knox Library Publications Bibliographies


Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMG): A

Brief Bibliography

Marlatt, Greta E.

Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School






Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMG): A Brief Bibliography

Created 05/12/2015 Compiled by Greta E. Marlatt


BOOKS & REPORTS ..................................................................................... 1 ARTICLES ................................................................................................ 15


Abadinsky, Howard. Organized Crime. 10th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing

Co, 2013. Contents: Introduction to organized crime -- Development of organized crime in the United States -- The American mafia -- Explaining organized crime in -- Italian organized crime and the Albanian connection -- Latin American organized crime -- Black organized crime -- Asian organized crime -- Russian organized crime -- Outlaw motorcycle clubs -- "Goods and Services" : gambling, loansharking, theft, fencing, sex, trafficking in persons, arms, and counterfeit products -- Organized crime and drug trafficking -- Organized crime in labor, business, and money laundering -- Organized crime : statutes -- Organized crime : law enforcement.

Adler, Patricia A. and Peter Adler. Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context,

and Interaction. 3rd ed. Australia; Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2000.

An Inside Look at Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 1992.

Anti-Defamation League. Bigots on Bikes: The Growing Links between White

Supremacists and Biker Gangs. New York, NY: Anti-Defamation League, 2011. http://archive.adl.org/extremism/adl_cr_bigots_on_bikes_online.pdf.

Arvast, Anita. Bloody Justice: The Truth Behind the Bandido Massacre at Shedden. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons Canada, 2012.

Baker, Danny. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs Overview. Fort Smith, AR: Fort Smith Police

Department, n.d.


Barger, Ralph, Kent Zimmerman and Keith Zimmerman. Hell’s Angel: The Life and

Times of Sonny Barger and the Hell’s Angels Motorcycle Club. London: Fourth Estate, 2000.

Barker, Thomas. Biker Gangs and Organized Crime. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis Matthew

Bender, 2007. Contents: Conventional and deviant clubs -- One percent clubs : the outsiders -- Becoming a member : righteous biker to patch holder -- Deviant clubs : big five, major independents, and others -- Evolution



from clubs to gangs : outlaw motorcycle gangs – Biker gangs as organized crime -- Criminals without borders : exporting American organized crime -- The Hells are no Angels : organized crime, death, and Mayhem in Canada -- Biker gangs now and in the future.

———. Biker Gangs and Transnational Organized Crime. Second edition ed.

Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier, 2015. Contents: Introduction -- Enter the one percenters -- Evolution from clubs to gangs -- Outlaw motorcycle clubs-criminal organization continuum -- United States outlaw motorcycle gangs: Big 5, major independents -- U.S. based OMGs: criminals without borders -- Bikies Down Under-OMGs in Australia and New Zealand -- Back patch clubs in the United Kingdom -- Outlaw motorcycle gangs in Europe -- Conclusions.

———. North American Criminal Gangs: Street, Prison, Outlaw Motorcycle, and Drug

Trafficking Organizations. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2012. Contents: 1. Introduction -- What exactly is a gang? -- Selected examples of single purpose gangs -- Selected examples of organized criminal gangs -- Drug trafficking organizations -- Street gangs -- Los Angeles-based or influenced street gangs -- Chicago-based or influenced street gangs -- Prison gangs -- Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMG) -- 2. Street gangs -- Chicago-based/influenced street gangs -- Gangster Disciple Nation -- Black Gangsters or New Breed -- Latin Kings -- Black P. Stone Nation -- Vice Lords -- Four Corner Hustlers -- Maniac Latin Disciples -- Chicago Caucasian street gangs -- C-Notes -- Almighty Gaylords -- Popes -- Simon City Royals -- Los Angeles-based/influenced street gangs -- African American street gangs -- Bloods -- Crips -- Hispanic street gangs -- Surenos and Nortenos Alliances -- 18th Street -- Florencia 13 -- Mara Salvatrucha (MS 13) -- Avenues -- Varrio Azusa 13 -- Street gangs in Canada -- Territories -- Provinces -- Reading 1. Mexican American youth and adult prison gangs in a changing heroin market -- Reading 2. How the street gangs took Central America -- Reading 3. Aboriginal gangs and their (dis)placement : contextualizing recruitment, membership, and status -- Reading 4. The ballad of Daniel Wolfe -- 3. Prison gangs -- Selected prison gangs -- Aryan Brotherhood -- Barrio Azteca -- The Black Guerilla Family -- Hermanos de Pistoleros Latinos (HPL) -- Mexican Mafia (EME) -- Mexikanemi (The Texas Mexican Mafia or EMI) -- Nuestra Familia -- Public Enemy Number 1 -- Texas Syndicate (TS) -- Reading 1. Blood in, blood out : the violent empire of the Aryan Brotherhood -- Reading 2. PEN1 : Public Enemy Number 1 : California's growing racist gang -- Reading 3. Vicious cycle : Aryan Circle blamed for two cop killings -- Reading 4. The Barrio Azteca trial and the prison gang-cartel interface. 4. Outlaw motorcycle gangs -- Big five outlaw motorcycle gangs : an introduction -- Hells Angels MC (HAMC) -- Bandidos MC -- Outlaws MC -- Pagans MC -- Sons of Silence MC -- Puppet/support clubs -- Independent outlaw motorcycle gangs -- Black or interracial one-percent OMGs -- Reading 1. Crimes of the big four motorcycle gangs -- Reading 2. Coordinated chaos : the psychology and structure of organized crime among one percent bikers -- Reading 3. American-based biker gangs : international organized crime -- Reading 4. Hells Angels in springtime -- 5. Drug trafficking organizations -- Drug trafficking organizations and cartels -- Mexican drug cartels -- Reading 1. Drug violence in Mexico : data and analysis from 2001-2009 -- Reading 2. Fact sheet : Department of Justice efforts to combat Mexican drug cartels -- Reading 3. Polarization and sustained violence in Mexico's cartel war -- Reading 4. The Mexican drug cartel threat in Central America -- 6. Dealing with adult criminal gangs and drug trafficking organizations -- Investigation and prosecution strategies -- RICO and VICAR prosecutions of criminal enterprises -- Conclusion -- Reading 1. Enterprise theory of investigation -- Reading 2. The flexibility of RICO and its use on street gangs engaging in organized crime in the United States -- Reading 3. Antigang legislation and its potential impact : the promises and the pitfalls.

———. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs as Organized Crime Groups. New York: Springer,

2014. Contents: 1.; The Nature of Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs --; 2.; Hells Angels Motorcycle Club and the One Percenters --; 3.; Criminal Organizations --; 4.; Criminal Organization Continuum of Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs --; 5.; Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs --; 6.; Outlaw Motorcycle Gang Violence --; 7.; Conclusion-Organized Criminals Without Borders.

Birzer, Michael L. and Cliff Roberson. Police Field Operations: Theory Meets Practice.

Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon, 2008. Contents: 1: Police Patrol: The Backbone Of Policing -- Introduction -- Sketch of the police -- Development of police patrol -- Purpose of police patrol -- Differential Response -- Effectiveness of Police Patrol -- Reactive, proactive and coactive patrol -- Organizational features -- Types of police patrol -- Allocation of patrol personnel -- Special tactical teams -- Managing and supervising patrol activities -- Becoming a police patrol officer -- Training -- Summary -- 2: Police Field Procedures -- Introduction -- Preparing for the tour of duty -- Patrolling the beat -- Handling offenders -- Civil unrest -- High speed pursuits -- Weather and natural disasters -- Police canine -- Traffic stops -- Emergency vehicle operation -- Use of force -- 3: Police Operations in A Community Policing Environment -- Introduction -- Emergence of community policing -- Core components of community policing -- What community policing is not -- Incorporating community


policing on the job -- Community policing and terrorism -- Does community policing work -- 4: Crime Scene And Preliminary Investigation -- Introduction -- Role of patrol in the preliminary investigation -- Initial steps in the investigation -- Photographing the scene -- Crime scene search -- Nature of evidence -- Types of evidence -- Evidence collection -- Cybercrime -- 5: Interviewing And Interrogation -- Introduction -- Principles of interviewing -- Field interviews/investigative stops -- Principles of interrogation -- Use of the polygraph and CVSA -- Human lie detector -- Law of interviewing and interrogation -- Voluntariness of a confession -- Nontestimonial evidence -- Immunity -- Art of listening -- Summary.; 6: Handling Calls For Service -- Introduction -- Police service role -- Disputes -- Suspicious character calls -- Prowlers -- Missing and runaway children -- Missing adults -- Welfare checks -- Mentally Ill -- Homeless population -- Abandoned vehicles -- Stalled vehicles -- Directing traffic -- Lost property -- Stolen property -- Repeat calls -- Citizen contacts -- Summary -- 7: Forensics -- Introduction -- Duties of a forensic scientist -- FBI Forensic Laboratory -- Crime scene -- Body fluids -- Fibers -- DNA -- Questioned documents -- Fingerprints -- Firearms -- Digital evidence -- Collection and preservation of DNA evidence -- Summary -- 8: Legal Constraints That Impact Police Operations -- Introduction -- Searches -- Warrant clause of the fourth amendment -- Exceptions to the fourth amendment -- Arrests -- Exclusionary rule -- Civil liability -- Use of force -- Summary -- 9: Police Reports And Other Correspondence -- Introduction -- Field notes -- Report writing -- Chain of custody reports -- Special reports -- Writing styles -- Computerized reports -- Recording witness recollections -- Records -- Testifying in court -- Summary -- 10: Police Communications -- Introduction -- Police language -- Radio communications -- Telephone communications -- Special communications issues -- Computer systems -- Data communications -- Computer networks -- Summary -- 11: Gangs And Drugs -- Introduction -- Gangs -- Hispanic gangs -- Female gangs -- Indian country gangs -- Outlaw motorcycle gangs -- National gangs -- Focus on drugs and alcohol: some definitions -- Drug enforcement -- Drug legislation -- Alcohol related offenses -- Solutions to drug and alcohol abuse -- Drug testing of police officers -- Gangs and drugs -- Summary -- 12: Police Operations In Culturally Diverse Communities -- Introduction -- Changing demographics -- Skeletons in the closet -- Contemporary problems -- Police-minority relations today -- Dangerous traits and behaviors -- Improving police-minority relations -- Culturally competent police officer -- Hate and bias crimes -- Summary -- 13: Crime Mapping And Analysis -- Introduction -- Crime analysts -- Crime mapping -- Should crime information be made public? -- Does hot spot patrolling simply cause crime to move around the corner? -- Hot spot theories on crime -- Summary -- 14: Handling Terrorism and Natural Disasters -- Introduction -- Terrorism and the police officer -- War on terrorism -- Terrorism alerts -- Assessing terrorist threats -- Anti-terrorist and disaster recovery agencies -- Bomb threats -- Hostages -- Summary -- 15: Ethics And Police Operations -- Introduction -- What is ethics? -- What constitutes ethical behavior? -- Ethics as a restriction on behavior -- Kantian ethics -- Moral development -- Values -- Law enforcement values -- Lying and deception -- Off-duty employment -- Internal affairs unit -- International Association of Ethics Trainers -- Summary -- Glossary -- Index -- Photo credits.

Caine, Alex. Befriend and Betray: Infiltrating the Hells Angels, Bandidos and Other Criminal Brotherhoods. Edinburgh: Mainstream, 2009.

———. Charlie and the Angels: The Outlaws, the Hells Angels and the Sixty Year

War. Toronto: Random House Canada, 2012.

———. The Fat Mexican: The Bloody Rise of the Bandidos Motorcycle Club. Crows Nest, N.S.W: Allen & Unwin, 2010.

Caine, Alex and John Lawrence Reynolds. Angel Dust: How the Outlaw Biker Gang Became a Criminal Empire. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Viking, 2014.

Campbell, Caesar and Donna Campbell. Enforcer: The Real Story of One of Australia's Most Feared Outlaw Bikers. Sydney: Pan Macmillan, 2010.

———. Outlaw. Sydney: Macmillan, 2011.

———. Wrecking Crew: The Brutal True Story of the Bandidos' Legendary Sergeant-at-Arms. Sydney: Macmillan, 2011.

Campbell, Lorne, and Peter Edwards. Satan's Choice: My Life as an Outlaw Biker with

Satan's Choice and Hells Angels. London Sidgwick & Jackson: 2013.


Cherry, Paul. The Biker Trials: Brining Down the Hells Angels. Toronto: ECW Press, 2005.

City of Glendale Police Department. Gang Training Manual. Glendale, CA: Glendale Police Dept, n.d. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/148396NCJRS.pdf.

Coulthart, Ross and Duncan McNab. Above the Law How Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs

Became the World's Biggest Criminal Empire. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2011.

Davis, Roger H. Outlaw Motorcyclists: A Problem for Police. Washington, DC: Federal

Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Dept. of Justice, 1984. Reprinted from the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, October, November, 1982

Droban, Kerrie. Running with the Devil: The True Story of the ATF's Infiltration of the Hells Angels. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press, 2007.

Edwards, Peter. The Bandido Massacre: A True Story of Bikers, Brotherhood and Betrayal. Harper Collins Publishers: 2010.

Falco, Charles and Kerrie Droban. Vagos, Mongols and Outlaws: My Infiltration of

America’s Deadliest Biker Gangs. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2013.

Fields, Charles B. and Richter H. Moore. Comparative and International Criminal

Justice: Traditional and Nontraditional Systems of Law and Control. 2nd ed.

Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2005. Contents: Crime and criminality : an international view.; Measuring cross-national crime and criminality : methodolgical considerations and concerns /; Charles B. Fields, Jeffrey E. Arrigo, & Kelly R. Webb --; Exporting U.S. organized crime : outlaw motorcycle gangs /; Thomas Barker --; Victimization of women in African society : conflict between the sexes and conflict of laws /; Edna Erez & R. Bankole Thompson --; International terrorism in historical perspective /; Jawad L. Barghothi --; International terrorism in the name of religion : perspectives on Islamic Jihad /; Hamid R. Kusha & Nasser Momayezi --; Organized crime in South Korea /; Dae H. Chang & Ronald G. Iacovetta.; Policing and social control.; Democratizing police organizations from the inside out : police-labor relations in southern Africa /; Monique Marks --; Historical trends and recent developments in international drug policy and control /; Charles B. Fields, Matthew Holt, & Gregory Ferrell --; A comparative model of democracy, respect for human rights, and the rise of democratic policing reforms /; Salih Hakan Can --; Public support for the police in countries in transition and established democracies /; Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovic’ --; The Israeli National Police : a national overview /; Travis Morris --; Reforming the police in central and eastern European states /; Otwin Marenin & Marina Caparini --; The prospects for democratic policing in the third world : the Mauritian model /; Frederick P. Roth --; Civil liberties and the mass line : police and administrative punishment in the People's Republic of China /; Dorothy H. Bracey --; Police in developing countries : the case of Cameroon /; David Chiabi.; Law and Justice : judicial systems -- formal and informal.; The elusive search for uniform sentencing : a look at Denmark and Scotland /; Rudy Prine & Mark Gertz --; Banana justice in Moroland : peacemaking in mixed Muslim-Christian towns in the southern Philippines /; Timothy Austin --; Political challenges to indigenizing justice in post-British Nigeria /; Nonso Okereafezeke --; Islamic legal systems : traditional (Saudi Arabia), contemporary (Bahrain), and evolving (Pakistan) /; Richter H. Moore, Jr. --; Privilege against self-incrimination : a comparative perspective /; Zoran Milovanovich.; Corrections, punishment, and juvenile justice.; The penalty of hand amputation for theft in Islamic justice /; Sam S. Souryal, Abdullah I. Alobied, & Dennis W. Potts --; History and development of modern correctional practices in New Zealand /; Greg Newbold & Chris Eskridge --; Police in a correctional role : cautioning by the English police and its viability as an option for offenders in the United States /; Bill Wakefield & J. David Hirschel --; Local welfare and safety planning in Finland : critical factors of success /; Hannu Kiehelä & Matti Vuorinen --; Vital questions concerning the rehabilitation of offenders : a Scandinavian perspective /; Matti Laine --; Contemporary juvenile justice issues in Japan /; Michael S. Vaughn & Frank F.Y. Huang --; Perspectives of juvenile crime prevention : the case of Finland /; Ahti Laitinen --; Juvenile delinquency in the cross-cultural context : the Egyptian experience /; Sam S. Souryal --; Kyogoin home in Japan : light and shade of tradition /; Akira Hattori.


Gaines, Larry K. and Victor E. Kappeler. Policing in America. 7th ed. Newark, NJ:

Lexis Nexis: Anderson Pub, 2011. Contents: 1. The police in American society -- The government structure and policing -- Constitutional government -- Separation of powers -- Principles of Federalism -- Police and the law -- Police in the criminal justice system -- The roles and functions of police in modern society -- Roles performed by the police -- Police activities -- Styles of police departments -- Diversity of the police establishment -- Federal law enforcement agencies -- Justice Department agencies -- Federal Bureau of Investigation -- Drug Enforcement Administration -- U.S. Marshals Service -- Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms -- Department of Homeland Security -- Transportation Security Agency -- U.S. Customs and Border Protection -- U.S. Secret Service -- Citizenship and Immigration services -- Immigration and Customs enforcement -- Federal Emergency Management Agency -- U.S. Coast Guard -- Miscellaneous Federal law enforcement agencies -- State law enforcement agencies -- State Police and Highway Patrols -- Limited-purpose state law enforcement agencies -- Local law enforcement agencies. 2. Historical perspectives -- An overview of policing in ancient times -- The birth of civilization in Mesopotamia -- Civilization in Ancient Egypt -- The rise of Greek city-states -- The Roman Empire's contribution to policing -- Police development in England -- Medieval England -- Early English law enforcement -- The English reformers -- Henry Fielding -- Patrick Colquhoun -- Sir Robert Peel -- Charles Rowan and Richard Mayne -- American policing in retrospect -- Early American policing -- Policing America: the modern era -- The political entrenchment phase -- The reform efforts -- Investigative commissions -- Police administrative reform -- General political reform -- Professional policing comes to America -- The law enforcement role -- The bureaucratic model -- Science and technology -- Public and community relations return to policing -- The community policing era -- The post-community policing era? 3. Police human resources -- Toward a theory of police selection -- Affirmative action and police selection -- Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act -- Minorities in policing -- Women in policing -- Sexual harassment -- Recruiting police officers -- Establishing minimum selection standards -- Residency requirements -- Vision standards -- Educational standards -- Physical agility standards -- Background and work history -- Medical standards -- Psychological screening -- The police selection process -- The written test -- The oral interview board -- The assessment center -- Training police officers -- Basic or academy training -- Field training officer (FTO) programs -- In-service training -- Police officer career development -- Lateral expansion -- Vertical expansion -- Impact of race and gender on police officer careers. 4. Organization and management -- The specifics of police administration (POSDCORB) -- Levels of administration and supervision -- Principles of organization and police administration -- Classical organizational principles -- Hierarchy -- Specialization -- Procedural guidelines -- Organizational documentation -- Organizational authority -- Appointment based on qualifications -- Problems with classical organizational principles and traditional police administration -- Human relations organizational theory -- The Hawthorne Studies -- McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y -- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs -- Innovative management strategies in policing -- Participative management -- Vertical staff meetings -- Problem-solving groups -- Contingency management -- Total quality management -- Culture -- Customers -- Counting -- Managing community policing -- Crime analysis and COMPSTAT -- Police collective bargaining -- Contract negotiation. 5. Police operations -- Allocating police personnel -- Receiving and managing calls for service -- Police patrol -- Deploying patrol personnel -- One-officer and two-officer patrol units -- Methods and techniques of patrol -- Foot patrol -- Horse patrol -- Bicycle patrol -- Aircraft patrol -- Watercraft patrol -- Police patrol strategies -- Routine preventive patrol -- Routine preventive patrol reconsidered -- Maximizing resources for directed patrol -- Reducing patrol time -- Delayed police response -- Differential police response -- Not responding to certain calls -- Directed patrol -- D-runs -- Split force -- Saturation patrol or crackdowns -- Suspect-oriented techniques -- Racial profiling and traffic stops -- Criminal investigations -- Investigations: a historical perspective -- The detective as secretive rogue -- The detective as inquisitor -- The detective as bureaucrat -- The investigation process -- Preliminary investigation -- Follow-up or latent investigation -- Research on the effectiveness of investigations -- The traffic function -- The police and the traffic function -- Driving-under the influence enforcement -- Police paramilitary units -- Distinguishing police paramilitary units from regular police -- Police partnerships. 6. Police discretion -- The nature of police discretion -- Administrative discretion -- Enforcement discretion -- The police decision-making process -- The decision to invoke the Criminal Justice Process -- Offender variables -- Age -- Race -- Socioeconomic status -- Demeanor -- Gender -- Situation variables -- Seriousness of offense -- Officer-initiated actions and citizen calls for assistance -- System variables -- Community expectations -- Community support agencies -- Departmental culture -- Community policing -- Discretionary situations in law enforcement -- Domestic violence -- Vice crimes -- Prostitution and human trafficking -- p*rnography -- Gambling -- The investigation of vice -- Policing hate crimes -- Disenfranchised populations -- The homeless -- The mentally ill -- Controlling police discretion -- Understanding the need for control mechanisms -- Internal control mechanisms -- External control mechanisms -- Control by the citizens -- Legislative control -- Control by the courts. 7. Police of force -- The meaning of excessive force -- Legal standards of police use of force -- Patterns of police use of force -- Determinants of police use of force -- Controlling police discretion in situations involving the use of force -- Use-of-force continuum -- Use-of-force policy considerations -- Use of force by off-duty police officers -- Early warning systems to identify problem officers -- Less-than-lethal force -- Oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray -- Impact munitions -- Conduct energy devices -- Net widening and use of force -- Homicides and assaults of police officers -- The dangers of policing in context -- Suicide by cop. 8. Police culture and behavior -- The psychological perspective -- The sociological perspective -- Types of police officers -- The anthropological perspective -- The police subculture -- The Law and police culture --


The police worldview -- Police bravery, autonomy, and secrecy -- Police isolation and solidarity -- Police postulates and the Code -- Police subcultures of violence and social context -- Police stress -- Sources of police stress -- Effects of police stress -- Police suicide -- Alcoholism and drug abuse -- Mortality and health problems -- Reducing police stress. 9. Ethics and deviance -- Sources of ethics -- Justice -- Law -- Agency policy -- Professional Code of Ethics -- Social norms and personal values -- A conflict of values -- Police crime, abuse of authority, occupational deviance, and corruption -- Bribery -- Extortion -- Narcotics violations -- The scope and forms of police corruption -- Rotten apples or systemic abuse? -- Deviant behavior -- Statistical definition of deviance -- Absolutist definition of deviance -- Reacitivist definition of deviance -- Normative definition of deviance -- Alcohol and other drugs of abuse -- Sexual misconduct -- Sexual harassment -- Police sexual violence -- Stacking-up, jacking-up, and using cover charges -- Gratuities -- Goldbricking versus quotas. 10. Civil liberty -- The incidence of civil suits -- Police fear of litigation -- Lawsuits, police perceptions, and behavior -- Frivolous lawsuits -- The cost of civil liberty -- Litigants in liability cases -- Police civil liability and Tort Law -- Strict Tort liability -- Intentional Torts -- Wrongful death -- Assault and battery -- False arrest and imprisonment -- Negligence -- Legal duty -- Breach of duty -- Proximate cause -- Damage or injury -- Common claims of police negligence -- Negligent operation of emergency vehicles -- Negligent failure to protect -- Negligent failure to arrest -- Negligent failure to render assistance -- Negligent selection, hiring, and retention -- Negligent police supervision and direction -- Negligent entrustment and assignment -- Negligent failure to discipline and investigate -- Defenses to claims of police negligence -- Contributory negligence -- Comparative negligence -- Assumption of risk -- Police liability under Federal Law -- Acting under Color of State Law -- Violation of a Constitutional Right -- Municipal liability for failure to train -- Defenses to Section 1983 lawsuits -- Absolute immunity -- Qualified immunity -- Probable cause -- Good faith -- Preventing liability. 11. The police in the modern community -- An overview of public perceptions of the police -- Public attitudes toward the police -- Individual-level variables -- Age -- Race -- Gender -- Socioeconomic status -- Contact with the police -- Major incidents -- Crime prevention -- The theory of crime prevention -- Primary crime prevention techniques and programs -- Environmental design -- Neighborhood watches -- Media programs -- Juvenile curfews -- Community policing -- The philosophical dimensions -- Broad police function -- Citizen input -- Neighborhood variation -- The strategic dimension -- Geographical focus -- Prevention focus -- Substantive focus -- The programmatic dimensions -- Reoriented police operations -- Problem solving and situational crime prevention -- Community engagement -- Management issues -- Operational examples. 12. Policing the drug problem -- The nature and extent of the drug problem -- Drugs and crime -- the nation's drug strategy -- Interdiction -- Drug prevention programs -- Drug treatment -- The illegal drug delivery system -- Criminal organizations -- Colombian drug cartels -- Organized criminal groups -- Mexican Mafia -- Outlaw motorcycle gangs -- Youth street gangs -- Drug enforcement techniques and programs -- Attacking high-level distributors -- Drug enforcement at the retail level -- Traditional enforcement -- Gang strategies -- Citywide street sweeps -- Neighborhood crackdowns -- Public housing and drugs -- Third-party policing -- Community policing and drugs. 13. Globalization, terrorism, and homeland security -- Globalization, conflict, and policing -- Globalization -- Terrorism, politics, and police -- Defining terrorism and its variations -- Weapons of mass destruction -- Nuclear weapons -- Biological weapons -- Chemical weapons -- Extremist groups -- Extremist groups and the Middle East -- Hamas -- Hezbollah -- Islamic Jihad -- Al Qaeda -- Extremist groups and the United States -- The Arizona Patriots -- Patriot Council -- Oklahoma Constitutional Militia -- Ku Klux Klan -- Extremist groups and Israel -- The Jewish Defense League -- Kach -- Fighting Jewish Organization -- Homeland security -- The National Infrastructure Protection Plan -- Threat identification -- Threat assessment -- Target assessment -- Response-protection decisions -- Homeland security and local policing -- Intelligence-led policing and threat assessment -- Fusion centers -- Critical infrastructure identification -- Enforcement and critical infrastructure personnel -- Public education -- New York City and homeland security.

Grennan, Sean. Gangs: An International Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice

Hall, 2000. Contents: 1. Gangs in history -- 2. What is a gang? -- 3. Gang structure and organization : Why people join ; How people join -- 4. Italian organized crime : Homeland foundations and American mobsters ; Structure ; A brief history in the United States ; Five families from New York ; Criminal prosecution -- 5. Outlaw motorcycle gangs : History ; The big four ; Criminal activities ; Law enforcement -- 6. Supremacists and militias : Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam ; Black Panthers ; Black Guerilla Family and other prison gangs ; Similarities among Black supremacist gangs ; White power ; KKK ; White Aryan Resistance ; Aryan Nations ; Contemporary gangs: skinheads and beyond ; Other notable groups ; Similarities and differences among groups ; Commonalities between supremacist gangs and street gangs ; Distinguishing between supremacist gangs and street gangs -- 7. Street gangs : Chicago-based street gangs ; Los Angeles gangs ; The gangsters' "new" face ; Gang identifiers ; Influence of rap music ; Strange facts -- 8. Jamaican and Nigerian gangs : Jamaican organized gangs ; Nigerian organized crime -- 9. Chinese gangs : Asian organized crime groups ; Chinese groups ; History ; Chinese street gangs ; The gangs ; Criminal activities ; Specific geographic regions -- 10. Japanese, Vietnamese, and Korean gangs : Japanese organized crime ; The gangs ; Criminal activities of Yakuza ; Vietnamese organized crime ; Vietnamese gangs ; Criminal activities of Vietnamese gangs ; Korean organized crime ; The gangs ; Criminal activities of Korean gangs -- 11. Hispanic gangs : Cuban organized crime ; Colombian organized crime ; Mexican organized crime ;


Dominican organized crime -- 12. Russian and Israeli gangs : Russian organized crime ; Israeli organized crime -- 13. Other worldwide organized crime groups : Third World groups ; Eastern European groups ; Emerging high-profile gangs in the United States -- 14. Conclusions : Appendix A. Thirty-six oaths of the Hung societies ; Thirty-six strategies of the Hung societies ; Oaths of a Chinese street gang -- Appendix B. Brief of the most active Asian gangs.

Hall, John. Riding on the Edge: A Motorcycle Outlaw's Tale. Minneapolis, MN: MBI

Pub. Co. and Motorbooks, 2011.

Harris, Maz. Bikers: Birth of a Modern-Day Outlaw. London; Boston: Faber and Faber, 1985.

Hayes, Bill. American Biker: The History, the Clubs, the Lifestyle, the Truth. Birmingham, MI: Flash Productions, LLC, 2010.

———. Hell on Wheels: An Illustrated History of Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Motorbooks, 2014.

———. The One Percenter Encyclopedia: The World of Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs from

Abyss Ghosts to Zombies Elite. Minneapolis, MN: MBI Publishing Co., Motorbooks, 2011.

Hayes, Richard and Mary Gardner. Outlaw Biker: My Life at Full Throttle. New York: Citadel Press, 2008.

Hesterman, Jennifer L. The Terrorist-Criminal Nexus: An Alliance of International

Drug Cartels, Organized Crime, and Terror Groups. Boca Raton: Taylor &

Francis, 2013. Contents: Machine generated contents note: References -- Multinational Corporate Sophistication -- Transnational Organized Crime on the Rise -- Scoping the TOC Challenge -- Eurasian Transnational Crime: Size, Wealth, Reach -- Italian Transnational Crime: Not Your Grandfather's Mafia -- Baltic Transnational Crime: Emergent and Deadly -- Asian Transnational Crime: Sophisticated and Multicultural -- African Criminal Enterprises: Internet Savvy and Vast -- Emerging Area of Concern: North Korea -- Fighting Transnational Crime Overseas ... and within Our Borders -- Palermo Convention: First Strike on TOC -- National Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime -- Agencies and Methods -- INL -- DOJ -- FBI -- Major Areas of Concern, Progress, and Lessons Learned -- Counternarcotics -- Human Trafficking -- Money Laundering -- Corruption -- Lessons Learned -- References -- Postmodern Organizational Theory: The Rise of Modern Terrorism and Groups -- Genesis of Postmodern Groups and Thinking. Contents note continued: Upstream Thinking -- Epistemology -- Deconstruction -- Deconstruction's Danger -- Postmodern Organizational Theory -- Neo-Marxist Organizational Theory -- Diagnostic Tools of Postmodernism -- Systems Theory -- Environmental Theory -- Symbolic Theory -- Postmodern Theory and the Rise of Modern Terrorism -- Final Thoughts on Postmodernism -- Modern Terrorism's Roots -- What Is Terrorism? -- Terrorism's Target -- The New Anatomy of a Terrorist Group -- Life Cycle Study -- Terrorist Group Members -- Behavior -- Motivation -- Culture -- Environment -- How Terrorist Groups End -- International Terrorist Groups: The "Big 3" -- Al Qaeda and Affiliates -- The Ideology -- Rise of bin Laden and al Qaeda -- Emergent al Qaeda -- AQAP or Ansar al-Sharia -- Other Al Qaeda Splinter Groups -- Bin Laden Speaks -- Al Qaeda's New Goals and Tactics -- Al Qaeda and Nexus -- Hezbollah -- Unique Structure -- Methodology and Objectives -- Primary Area of Operations. Contents note continued: Tactical Depth and Breadth -- Political Acumen -- Leveraging the Community -- Strong Leadership -- Active and Deadly -- Global Operations -- Latin America -- Nexus Concern: Venezuela -- West Coast of Africa -- Europe -- Iraq -- Canada -- United States -- U.S. Response -- FARC -- Colombia: A Sophisticated, Transnational Narco-State -- Final Thoughts -- References -- History of Domestic Terrorism in the United States -- The Twenty-First Century and the Rising Tide of Domestic Extremism -- Right-Wing Extremism -- Militias -- Sovereign Citizens -- Left-Wing -- Anarchists -- Single-Issue or Special-Interest Terrorism -- The Earth Liberation Front (ELF) -- Animal Liberation Front (ALF) -- Homegrown Terror -- Rehabilitation and the Domestic Terrorist -- Jihadist Defined -- Recidivism -- Terrorist Recidivism -- Counterradicalization Efforts -- Inside the Saudi Program -- Possible Solutions in the Homeland -- The Lone Wolf -- Gangs: Evolving and Collaborating. Contents note continued: MS-13-Moving toward 3G2 -- History -- Structure -- Operational Activities -- Adaptable and Morphing -- Sophistication -- Internationalization -- Rival Gang -- Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMGs) -- Prison Gangs -- Special Concern: Gangs and the Military -- The Way Ahead -- References -- The Battle in Mexico -- Ideology: Money -- Tactic: Brutal Violence -- Goals: Money, Power,


Control -- Major DTOs Impacting the United States -- Nuevo Cartel de Juárez -- Gulf Cartel/New Federation -- Sinaloa Cartel -- Beltran Leyva Organization (BLO) -- Tijuana/Arellano Felix Organization (AFO) -- La Familia Michoacana (LFM) -- Special Concern: Los Zetas -- Zeta Tactics -- Increasing Reach in the United States -- Interaction with Dark Networks -- Nexus with Gangs -- Criminal Activity Expanding -- Savvy Propaganda Campaigns -- DTOs Cross the Border: Cartels in the Heartland -- LE Operations against DTOs in the United States -- Operation Dark Angel -- Project Delirium. Contents note continued: Project Deliverance -- Project Xcellerator -- Project Reckoning -- Nexus Area: Terrorists, SlAs, and DTOs -- Corruption at the Border: Opening the Gates -- DTOs: Foreign Terrorist Organizations? -- Final Thoughts -- References -- Funding Terror -- Earning, Moving, Storing -- Tactics -- Earn -- Move -- Store -- Earning -- Charities -- Designation -- Zakat -- Commodities Smuggling and Organized Retail Crime -- Intellectual Property Crime (IPC) -- Identity Theft -- Other Fund-Raising Methods -- Mortgage Fraud: Emergent Earning Method -- Moving -- A Paper Chase in a Paperless World: Informal Value Transfer Systems -- Hawala -- Storing, Earning, and Moving -- Precious Metals and Diamonds -- Money Laundering -- Fronts, Shells, and Offshores -- Bulk Cash Smuggling -- E-gambling and E-gaming: Emergent Money-Laundering Concerns -- E-gambling -- E-gaming -- The Way Forward -- References -- New Payment Methods Defined -- Typologies and Concerns. Contents note continued: Use of a Third Party -- Person-to-person (P2P) Transactions -- Lack of Human Interaction and Oversight -- NPM Financing -- Nonbanks -- Internet-Based Nonbanks -- The MSB -- Methods of Using MSBs to Move Money -- Digital Currency Exchange Systems -- Prepaid Access Cards -- Limited-Purpose/Closed-Loop Cards -- Multipurpose/Open-Loop Cards -- E-purse or Stored-Value Cards (SVCs) -- Devices with Stored Value -- Auction and Bulletin Board Websites -- Auction Sites -- Auction Site Intellectual Property Theft (IPT) -- P2P Websites -- Digital Precious Metals -- E-dinar -- The Battle Ahead -- References -- The Internet: A Twenty-First-Century Black Swan -- Rise of Social Networking: Are We Users ... or Targets? -- The Mind as a Battlefield: The War of Ideology -- Shifting the Cognitive Center of Gravity -- Preying on Maslow's Needs: Affiliation -- Social Cognitive Theory at Play -- Marketing Ideology and Fear -- Hizb-ut-Tahrir (HuT). Contents note continued: Exploitation by Other Groups -- Looking through a New Lens at Social Networking -- Second Life -- LinkedIn -- Facebook -- YouTube -- Hidden Messages on the Web -- Enter Hackers and Cyber Vigilantes -- th3j35t3r and th3raptor -- Other Notable Vigilantes -- The Way Ahead -- References -- Drug-Trafficking Organizations and Terrorist Group Interface -- Tunnels -- Bombs -- IRA Inc. -- Hezbollah and Hamas: Partnering for Success -- IEDs, Fertilizer, and Sticky Bombs -- IEDs -- Fertilizer -- Sticky Bombs -- First Response and the Threat of Secondary Devices -- Use of Human Shields by Terror Groups on the Rise -- Hamas -- LTTE -- Asymmetric Threats -- WMD -- Final Thoughts -- References -- Resiliency as a Weapon -- Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations -- Identification -- Designation -- Legal Criteria for Designation under Section 219 of the INA as Amended -- Legal Ramifications of Designation -- Other Effects of Designation.

Hopper, Columbus B. and Johnny Moore. "Women in Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs." In

Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction, edited by

Adler, Patricia A., and Peter Adler, 389-401. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co, 1994.

An Inside Look at Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 1992.

Kerr, John. Outlaw Bikers. Melbourne: Wilkinson Publishing, 2009.

Langton, Jerry. Showdown: How the Outlaws, Hell Angels and Cops Fought for Control of the Streets. Mississauga, Ontario: John Wiley & Sons Canada, 2010.

Langton, Jerry and Walter Stadnick. Fallen Angel: The Unlikely Rise of Walter

Stadnick in the Canadian Hells Angels. Mississauga, Ont.: J. Wiley & Sons

Canada, 2006.

Leet, Duane A., George E. Rush, and Anthony Smith. Gangs, Graffiti, and Violence: A

Realistic Guide to the Scope and Nature of Gangs in America. 2nd ed. Incline

Village, NV: Copperhouse Pub. Co., 2000. Contents: Introduction -- Hispanic gangs -- African-American gangs -- Asian Gangs -- Skinhead gangs -- Taggers -- Outlaw motorcycle gangs -- Prison gangs -- Jamaican posse -- Cuban gangs -- Chicago street gangs -- The future.

Liddick, Don. The Global Underworld: Transnational Crime and the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.


Lunde, Paul. Organized Crime: An Inside Guide to the World's Most Successful

Industry. 1st American ed. London; New York: DK, 2004. Contents: What is organized crime? -- Defining organized crime -- Organized crime activities -- Exploiting the human condition -- Supplying the illicit -- Extortion and protection -- Manipulating money -- Organized crime groups -- The Sicilian Mafia -- Other Italian groups -- Organized crime in Britain -- The Russian Mafiya -- Organized crime in Albania -- The Yakuza -- The Triads and the Tongs -- The American Mafia -- Outlaw motorcycle gangs -- The Mexican cartels -- Yardies and posses -- The Medellín and Cali cartels.

Lyman, Michael D. and Gary W. Potter. Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and

Control. 5th ed. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis / Anderson Pub, 2007. Contents: pt. I. Understanding the problem -- 1. The nature of the drug problem -- Statistical evidence of drug use -- This book's theme -- Overview of the drug crisis -- Drugs and the family -- Drugs and schools -- The cost of combating drugs -- The economics of the drug war -- Drug-related deaths -- Health complications -- Attitudes about drugs -- Why do people get high? -- The "usefulness" of drugs -- Drug abuse forums -- The natural high -- Happy hour -- Medicinal use -- Religious use -- To alter moods and metabolism -- To inspire creativity -- Measuring drug abuse -- Who are the drug users? -- Geographical differences -- The social costs of drug abuse -- Violence -- Addicted babies -- Drugs and HIV -- Lost productivity -- Drug consumerism -- Theories of drug abuse and crime -- Vice and "victimless" crime -- Social disorganization theory -- Cultural transmission -- Anomie -- Opportunity theory -- Differential association -- Summary -- Discussion questions -- Class project -- 2. The history of drug abuse -- History repeats itself -- The opium menace of the 1800s -- Late nineteenth-century developments -- The twentieth century -- The prohibition era -- Post-prohibition drug abuse -- The postwar era -- The turbulent 1960s -- Late-twentieth-century developments -- The twenty-first century and beyond -- Summary -- Discussion questions -- 3. Understanding drugs of abuse -- Defining drugs -- Drugs and the brain -- Side effects -- Outcomes of drug abuse -- Dependence versus abuse -- Drug categories -- Stimulants -- Depressants -- Hallucinogens -- Newer hallucinogens -- Narcotics -- Cannabis -- Steroids -- Inhalants -- Diet drugs -- Summary -- Discussion questions -- 4. The illicit drug trade -- Illegal drug trafficking in the twenty-first century -- The economics of drug trafficking -- Drug prices -- Demand elasticity -- Financing drug deals -- Merchandising and distribution of illegal drugs -- Marketing illicit drugs -- Distributing illegal drugs -- Profit margin -- The international perspective -- Mexico -- Colombia -- Bolivia -- Peru -- Trafficking trends in South America -- Trafficking trends in the Caribbean -- Southeast Asia -- Southwest Asia -- Latin America -- Hong Kong -- Summary -- Discussion questions -- Class projects -- 5. Domestic drug production -- The pharmaceutical drug industry -- The business of painkilling -- The doctor's dilemma -- The cost crisis -- The drug approval dilemma -- Adverse drug reactions -- Domestic marijuana cultivation -- Business considerations -- Types of domestic marijuana -- Clandestine laboratories -- The growing meth menace -- Categories of illicit labs -- Controlling precursor chemicals -- Pharmaceutical diversion -- The scammer -- Doctors as offenders -- Theft of drugs -- Addressing the problem -- Problems in diversion investigations -- The drug audit -- Summary -- Discussion questions -- 6. Drugs and crime -- Drug use and predatory crime -- Drugs and violent crime -- Other factors -- Police corruption -- Preconditions for corruption -- Types of police corruption -- Corruption in New York City -- Corruption in Philadelphia -- Institutional corruption -- Fighting police corruption -- Corruption in foreign countries -- Cuba -- Mexico -- The Bahamas -- Panama -- Money laundering -- Current money-laundering trends -- The laundering specialists -- Concealment -- Money-laundering techniques -- Fighting money laundering -- Summary -- Discussion questions.; pt. II. Gangs and drugs -- 7. Organized crime and the drug trade -- The nature of drug trafficking -- Defining organized crime -- The criminal group -- The protectors -- Specialized support -- The alien conspiracy theory -- The Mafia -- Drug gangs as organized crime -- Summary -- Discussion questions -- Class project -- 8. Domestic drug-trafficking organizations -- Traditional organized crime : the Mafia -- The Mafia's history -- The Mafia and the drug trade -- Contemporary research on organized crime -- Outlaw motorcycle gangs -- The Hell Angels -- The Outlaws -- The Pagan -- The Bandidos -- Youth gangs -- Special youth gang problems -- Defining the youth gang -- Gang formation -- Prison gangs -- Ancillary trafficking organizations -- Summary -- Discussion questions -- 9. Foreign drug-trafficking organizations -- Colombian cartels -- Colombian traffickers and the cocaine market -- Cocaine wholesaling structure -- The heroin trade -- The Medellin cartel -- The Cali cartel -- Colombian drug-trafficking organizations at the millenium -- Mexican drug syndicates -- Drug trafficking and the Southwest border -- Cocaine trafficking across the U.S./Mexico border -- Trafficking routes and methods -- Importation points -- Heroin trafficking across the U.S./Mexico border -- Mexican methamphetamine trafficking -- Mexican marijuana trafficking -- Mexican MDMA trafficking -- Narcoterrorism -- Southwest Asia -- South America -- Cuban drug traffickers -- Asian organized crime -- Chinese organized crime -- Yakuza -- Vietnamese gangs -- Nigerian drug traffickers -- Dominican drug-trafficking organizations -- Albanian drug-smuggling networks -- Summary -- Discussion questions.; pt. III. Fighting back -- 10. The drug control initiative -- The goals of drug control -- Drug laws -- The history of federal drug enforcement -- The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) -- The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) -- Drug interdiction -- The U.S. Coast Guard -- U.S. Customs and Border Protection -- Interdiction support agencies -- Coordination organizations -- The task of agency coordination -- Strategies for street-level enforcement -- Discreet and nondiscreet markets -- The kingpin strategy -- Marijuana citations -- Undercover operations -- Other concerns -- Police-community drug control efforts -- -- Community policing -- Summary -- Discussion questions -- 11. Critical issues in drug control -- Drug lord abductions -- Drug courier profiling -- Drug evictions -- The reverse drug sting -- Entrapment and reverse stings -- Zero tolerance -- The war on drugs as a war on women -- The "crack babies" scare -- Mandatory minimum sentencing -- Electronic surveillance -- Drug testing -- Home drug testing -- Drug testing in


schools -- Needle exchange programs -- Forfeiture of attorney's fees -- Drug control and sports -- Why athletes use drugs -- Drug control in amateur sports -- Medical marijuana -- Other public policy issues -- Reduce aid to source countries -- Increase aid to source countries -- Expand the role of the military -- Legalizing drugs -- Increase spending for drug education programs -- Summary -- Discussion questions -- Class project -- 12. The issue of legalizing drugs -- Public opinion -- Getting tougher with dealers -- Marijuana as medicine -- Mixed attitudes -- The basis for the debate -- The pros : arguments for legalization -- The futility of enforcement -- The restriction of the drug market -- The hypocrisy of drug laws -- International relations -- Personal freedom -- The crime rate -- Public health -- Issues to consider -- The cons : arguments against legalization -- The alcohol argument -- The crime rate -- New revenues -- The addicts -- Organized crime -- Personal freedom -- The cost of legalization -- Drugs in Amsterdam : the "Dutch way" -- The British experiment -- The Alaskan pot legalization experience -- A proposed solution -- A comment from the authors -- Discussion questions -- Class projects -- 13. Understanding drug control policy -- Shared responsibility -- Development of federal drug control efforts -- Policy-related factors -- Private-sector responses -- The role of the military -- Development of American drug policy -- Demand reduction -- The supply-reduction paradigm -- Drug use -- Other variables -- Strategies in national drug control -- Politics and the ONDCP -- Prohibition then and now -- Comparative lessons from prohibition -- Legal tools in drug control -- The Racketeer-Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) -- The Continuing Criminal Enterprise (CCE) statue -- Conspiracy laws -- Forfeiture sanctions in drug control -- Drug tax laws -- Grand juries and immunity -- The witness security program -- Summary -- Discussion questions -- 14. Control through treatment and prevention -- Understanding the drug user -- The rise in addiction -- Treatment programs -- Detoxification -- Maintenance (substitute therapy) -- Narcotic antagonists -- The therapeutic approach -- Does drug treatment work? -- Drug treatment in lieu of prison -- Social reintegration -- Relapse -- Problems with drug treatment -- The cost of drug treatment -- Drug prevention -- Prevention programs -- Prevention through education -- Project DARE -- Concerns about DARE -- Summary -- Discussion questions.

Mallory, Stephen L. Understanding Organized Crime. 2nd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones &

Bartlett Learning, 2012. Contents: An introduction to organized crime -- Evolution of organized crime and the impact on investigative strategies and law enforcement -- Theories on the continued existence of organized crime -- Colombian drug cartels -- Mexican drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) -- The Russian mafia -- The Italian-American mafia -- The Yakuza -- Triads and tongs -- American outlaw motorcycle gangs -- Hispanic and African-American gangs -- Major statutes, legislation, and methods of organized crime investigations -- The intelligence function in organized crime -- The nexus of transnational organized crime and terrorism -- Where do we go from here?.

Marsden, William and Julian Sher. Angels of Death: Inside the Bikers' Empire of Crime. Toronto: Vintage Canada, 2007.

Mays, G. Larry. Gangs and Gang Behavior. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1997. Contents: I. Definitions : a struggle for understanding. The logic of definition in criminology : purposes and methods for defining "gangs" / by Richard A. Ball and G. David Curry -- The definition and measurement of "gang status" : policy implications for juvenile justice / by L. Thomas Winfree, Jr. . [and others] -- Gang crime and law enforcement recordkeeping / by G. David Curry, Richard A. Ball, and Robert J. Fox. II. Theories : a search for explanation. Social learning theory, self-reported delinquency, and youth gangs : a new twist on a general theory of crime and delinquency / by L. Thomas Winfree, Jr., Teresa Vigil Bäckström, and G. Larry Mays -- Crime, youth gangs, and urban transition : the social dislocations of postindustrial economic development / by Pamela Irving Jackson -- Age, social context, and street gang membership : are "youth" gangs becoming "adult" gangs? / by James R. Lasley -- Perceived blocked opportunity as an explanation of delinquency among lower-class Black males : a research note / by Ronald L. Simons and Phyllis A. Gray. III. The demographics of gangs : gender, race, and ethnicity. Self definition by rejection : the case of gang girls / by Anne Campbell -- Cholas, Mexican-American girls, and gangs / by Mary G. Harris -- Gang involvement and delinquency among Hispanic and African-American adolescent males / by G. David Curry and Irving A. Spergel -- Los cholos : legal processing of Chicano gang members / by Marjorie S. Zatz -- Patterns of Chinese gang extortion / by Ko-Lin Chin, Jeffrey fa*gan, and Robert J. Kelley -- A short history of Asian gangs in San Francisco / by Calvin Toy. IV. Gang activity : drugs and violence. Gangs, drugs, and delinquency in a survey of urban youth / by Finn-Aage Esbensen and David Huizinga -- "Crack," street gangs, and violence / by Malcolm W. Klein, Cheryl L. Maxson, and Lea C. Cunningham -- Differences between gang and nongang homicides / by Cheryl L. Maxson, Margaret A. Gordon, and Malcolm W. Klein -- Gang homicide, delinquency, and community / by G. David Curry -- Routine activities and a subculture of violence : a study of violence on the street / by Leslie W. Kennedy and Stephen W. Baron. V. Different contexts, different gangs. Women in outlaw motorcycle gangs / by Columbus B. Hopper and Johnny Moore -- A comparative analysis of prison gang members, security threat group inmates, and general population prisoners in the Texas Department of Corrections / by Robert S. Fong and Ronald E. Vogel -- The threat of the Jamaican posses to the United States in the 1990s / by Ronald A. Pincomb and Daniel L. Judiscak. VI. Gang policies : prevention, intervention, and enforcement. Community organization


and gang policy response / by G. David Curry and Rodney W. Thomas -- Gangs, neighborhoods, and public policy / by John M. Hagedorn -- The police and social threat : urban transition, youth gangs, and social control / by Pamela Irving Jackson -- Street gangs and preventive interventions / by David W. Thompson and Leonard A. Jason -- Deviant adolescent subcultures : assessment strategies and clinical interventions / by Cynthia M. Clark.

McGuire, Phillip. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs : Organized Crime on Wheels.

Washington, DC: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, U.S. Dept. of the Treasury, 1987. http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011411946.

McNab, Duncan. Outlaw Bikers in Australia. Sydney, N.S.W.: Pan Macmillan Australia, 2013.

Menginie, Anthony and Kerrie Droban. Prodigal Father, Pagan Son: Growing Up

Inside the Dangerous World of the Pagans Motorcycle Club. New York: Thomas

Dunne Books, 2011.

Miller, J. Mitchell and Richard A. Tewksbury. Extreme Methods: Innovative

Approaches to Social Science Research. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2001. Contents: Beyond convention : extreme methods of fieldwork -- Acting like an insider : studying hidden environments as a potential participant / Richard Tewksbury -- Covert participant observation : reconsidering the least used method / J. Mitchell Miller -- Covert participant observation : on its nature and practice / Richard A. Hilbert -- Doing research in prison : the strengths and weaknesses of full participation as a guard / James W. Marquart -- Comparison of self-reported recycling attitudes and behaviors with actual behavior / Kathleen Barker [and others] -- Establishing entrée and rapport -- Establishing rapport with deviant groups / Richard A. Berk and Joseph M. Adams -- Assumed and presumed identities : problems of self-presentation in field research / Richard Tewksbury and Patricia Gagné -- A snowball's chance in hell : doing fieldwork with active residential burglars / Richard Wright [and others] -- Doing gang research in the 1990s : pedagogical implications of the literature / Mark S. Hamm -- Get a little dirt on your hands : illustrations of extreme fieldwork -- Drug enforcement's double-edged sword : an assessment of asset forfeiture programs / J. Mitchell Miller and Lance H. Selva -- Women in outlaw motorcycle gangs / Columbus B. Hopper and Johnny Moore -- Into the darkness : an ethnographic study of witchcraft and death / Wendy G. Lozano and Tanice G. Foltz -- Turns-ons for money : interactional strategies of the table dancer / Carol Rambo Ronai and Carolyn Ellis -- Nonmainstream body modification : genital piercing, branding, burning, and cutting / James Myers -- Stigma, danger, and ethics : problems of extreme methods -- On having one's research seized / David Sonenschein -- Personal safety in dangerous places / Terry Williams [and others] -- The ethics of deception in social research : a case study / Erich Goode -- Scholarly ethics and courtroom antics : where researchers stand in the eyes of the law / Rik Scarce.

Morton, James and Susanna Lobez. Gangland Sydney. Carlton, Vic: Victory Books, 2011.

Nicaso, Antonio and Lee Lamothe. Angels, Mobsters & Narco-Terrorists: The Rising

Menace of Global Criminal Empires. Mississauga, Ont: J. Wiley & Sons Canada,

2005. Contents: Italian organized crime groups. 'Ndrangeta ; Sicilian Mafia ; La Cosa Nostra ; Camorra ; Sacra Corona Unita -- Asian organized crime. Structure ; Triads ; Tongs ; Operation Candy Box ; The 125 Organization ; Japanese/Korean crime groups ; Yakuza ; Korean organized crime ; The North Korean government ; Myanmar -- Russian organized crime groups. Crime and emigration ; Vory v Zakone ; "Yaponchik" ; Brighton Beach ; Project Osada ; Semion Mogilevich and the YBM scandal -- Israeli organized crime. The Ecstasy connection ; The Rosenstein-Aberjil war -- Albanian organized crime. The Balkan connection ; "The Corporation" ; A terrorist connection? -- Colombian and Mexican cartels. The border economy ; Colombian cartels ; The rise and fall of cartels ; Mexico ; International criminal networks ; MS-13 -- Outlaw motorcycle gangs. Businessmen in biker attire ; Hells Angels -- African organized crime. The black hole -- Narco-terrorism. Brothers in arms and drugs ; Cyber crime -- Canada : the triple-threat country. Haven, transit and source.


Nichols, Dave. One Percenter: The Legend of the Outlaw Biker. St. Paul, MN:

Motorbooks, 2007. Contents: Motorcycle mavericks -- The seeds of rebellion -- American rebels -- Birth of the one percenter -- The wild ones -- There are no gangs -- Easyriders -- Worldwide outlaws -- The Harley connection -- The rebel in all of us -- Marketing the rebel -- Beyond here there be dragons.

Nichols, Dave and Kim Peterson. The One Percenter Code: How to be an Outlaw in a World Gone Soft. Minneapolis, MN: Motorbooks, 2012.

Paradis, Peter. Nasty Business: One Biker Gang’s Bloody War Against the Hells

Angels. Toronto: HarperCollins, 2002.

Queen, William. Under and Alone: The True Story of the Undercover Agent Who

Infiltrated America's Most Violent Outlaw Motorcycle Gang. New York: Random House, 2005.

Richardson, Ann. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs - USA Overview. Sacramento, CA: CA

Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Organized Crime and Criminal Intelligence, 1991.


Rivera, Louis Reyes and Bruce George, eds. Bandana Republic: A Literary Anthology

by Gang Members and their Affiliates. New York, NY, USA: Soft Skull Press,


Contents: Alicia Benjamin-Samuels -- Oscar Brown, Jr. -- Commander -- Ruby Dee -- Shaggy Flores --

Erica Ford -- chairman Fred Hampton, Jr. -- Layding Kaliba -- The Last Poets -- Akua Njeri -- Jesus Papoleto Melendez -- Willie Perdomo -- Dead prez -- T. Todgers -- Luis J. Rodriguez -- Leila Steinberg -- Kublai Toure -- Ted Wilson -- Comrade X -- Malik Yoba.

Rolfe, Peter Lars and Zelma E. Greeson. Gangs USA. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press,

1992. Contents: The gangs of America -- Prison gangs -- Outlaw motorcycle gangs -- The Jamaican invasion -- The Columbian connection -- The new Yakuza -- The Cuban mafia -- Here come the dragons, Pt I -- Here come the dragons, Pt II -- The gang rulers of Chicago.

Rowe, George. The Gods of Mischief: My Undercover Vendetta to Take Down the

Vagos Outlaw Motorcycle Gang. New York: Touchstone Book, 2013.

Ruiz, Jim and Donald C. Hummer. Handbook of Police Administration. Boca Raton,

FL: Taylor & Francis, 2008. Contents: Psychology for police leadership / Randy Garner -- Importance and incorporation of community policing characteristics in midsize and large police departments / Sutham Cheurprakobkit -- Role of citizen surveys in responsive policing / Jim Ruiz, Charles Burckhardt -- Examining the role of the police in reentry partnership initiatives / Don Hummer, James M. Byrne -- Dilemmas confronting female police officer promotional candidates / Deborah G. Wilson, Thomas S. Whetstone -- Difference in the police department / Venessa Garcia -- Supreme court and police practices / Craig Hemmens -- Protected expression / William P. Bloss -- Americans with Disabilities Act and law enforcement / Lisa S. Nored -- Law enforcement employment discrimination based on sexual orientation / R. Alan Thompson, Lisa S. Nored -- Importance of theory to police research and practices / Barbara Sims -- Technology applications / Vicki S. Williams, Barry O. Williams -- Understanding the use and abuse of statistics / Randy Garner -- Impact of distance learning / Doug Dailey -- Professional courtesies / John Kleinig, Albert J. Gorman -- What price a freebie?: the real cost of police gratuity acceptance / Jim Ruiz, Christine Bono -- Supervising the undercover function / Michael L. Arter -- Law enforcement responses to ethnic street gangs / Pamela Preston -- Outlaw motorcycle gangs / Thomas Barker -- Physical fitness in policing / Jeffery C. Lee -- Retiring the old centurion / Jim Ruiz, Erin Morrow -- Police, a community consultation in Australia / John Casey, Margaret Mitchell -- Improving impact / Catherine Layton, Christine Jennett -- Conflict of interest and police / Stephen Coleman -- Understanding and managing professional distance / Anna Corbo Crehan -- Research literacy in police organizations / Margaret Mitchell, Christine Jennett.


Savelli, Lou. Gangs Across America and their Symbols : Including Street Gangs,

Ethnic Gangs, Occult Groups, Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, Hate Groups,

Extremists, Terrorists, and Prison Gangs. Flushing, N.Y: Loosleaf Law

Publications, 2004. Contents: Introduction -- The history of gangs -- Understanding and analyzing gang graffiti -- How to identify if someone is in a gang -- Gangs and their symbols -- Bloods -- Bloods symbols -- Crips symbols -- People Nation gangs symbols -- Folk Nation gangs symbols -- Latino gangs symbols -- Prison gangs symbols -- Asian gangs symbols -- Outlaw motorcycle gangs symbols -- Hate groups/extremists symbols -- Occult symbols -- Miscellaneous gangs symbols -- Terrorists groups symbols -- Gang colors reference guide -- Sports apparel and designer clothing -- Symbol/phrase/word/# reference -- Gang/group information.

Schneider, Stephen. Iced: The Story of Organized Crime in Canada. Mississauga,

Ont: Wiley, 2009. Contents: Part I. Antecedents (1596-1907): Shiver me northern timbers; pirates and privateers of Atlantic Canada -- Outlaws on the Canadian plains; bank robbers, horse thieves, cattle rustlers, smugglers, swindlers, whiskey traders, and other varmints -- Part II. Genesis (1908-1933): The black hand of death; extortion and violence in Canada's early Italian communities -- Canadian vice; dope peddlers, white slavers, and fantan operators -- Speakeasy or die; organized crime in the era of prohibition -- Part III. Ascendance (1934-1984): La Cosa Nostra comes to Canada; the ascendancy of the Italian Mafia in North America -- Âllo police; the Montreal Mafia and other crimes organisés in Quebec -- The undertaker, the three Dons, the enforcer, and other tales of the Mafiosi in Ontario -- Part IV. Proliferation (1985-2006): Challenging the Mafia hegemony; the expansion, proliferation, and internationalization of organized crime -- A strange and terrible Canadian saga; the Hells Angels and other outlaw motorcycle gangs -- Sword of the Triad It's raining corpses in Chinatown! Asian organized crime in Canada -- A different kind of snow; the Colombian Cartels come north -- Return of the Italians; the Canadian connection, redux.

Sher, Julian and William Marsden. Angels of Death: Inside the Biker Gangs’ Crime Empire. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2006.

———. The Road to Hell: How the Biker Gangs are Conquering Canada. Toronto: A.A.

Knopf Canada, 2003.

Spiteri, David. The Prez: Money, Violence, Women and "The Code": The Inside Story of an Outlaw Brotherhood. Sydney South, N.S.W: HarperCollins, 2012.

Tewksbury, Richard A. and Patricia Gagné. Deviance and Deviants: An Anthology. Los Angeles: Roxbury, 2000.

Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels: A Strange and Terrible Saga. New York: Modern Library, 1999.

Thompson, Tony. Outlaws: How a Small Town Biker Gang Took On the Hell’s Angels -

and Lived to Tell the Tale. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2011.

———. Outlaws: Inside the Violent World of Biker Gangs. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2011.

———. Outlaws: One Man’s Rise Through the Savage World of Renegade Bikers, Hell's Angels, and Global Crime. New Work: Penguin Group, 2013.

Veno, Arthur and Ed Gannon. The Brotherhoods: Inside the Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs. Rev. ed. Crows Nest, N.S.W., Australia: Allen & Unwin, 2003.

Veno, Arthur and Edward Winterhalder. Biker Chicks: The Magnetic Attraction of Women to Bad Boys and Motorbikes. Crows Nest, N.S.W: Allen & Unwin, 2009.


Winterhalder, Edward and Wil De Clercq. The Assimilation Rock Machine Become

Bandidos--Bikers United Against the Hells Angels. Toronto: ECW Press, 2008. Contents: Chapter 1; Welcome to the Great White North; 1 --; Chapter 2; Reflections; 25 --; Chapter 3; A Matter of Fate; 49 --; Chapter 4; Sturgis High ... Montreal Low; 63 --; Chapter 5; Birth of a Biker; 83 --; Chapter 6; Living on Borrowed Time; 119 --; Chapter 7; Fools Masquerading as Masterminds; 127 --; Chapter 8; On the Road Again; 145 --; Chapter 9; The Hammer Drops on the Quebec Bandidos; 161 --; Chapter 10; Be Careful What You Wish For; 179 --; Chapter 11; Quebec Justice; 193 --; Chapter 12; Painting Canada Red & White From Coast To Coast; 203 --; Chapter 13; Trouble In Hells' Paradise; 211 --; Chapter 14; Disillusionment; 221 --; Chapter 15; The Shedden Massacre; 231 --; Appendix A; Hangaround & Prospect Information; 251 --; Appendix B; Bylaws of the USA Bandidos Motorcycle Club; 261 --; Appendix C; Projects & Job Assignments for El Secretarios; 265 --; Appendix D; Edward's Projects & Job Assignments for National Chapter; 267 --; Appendix E; Bandidos Motorcycle Club Active Chapters; 268 --; Appendix F; Bandidos Support Club Chapters; 272 --; Appendix G; Bandidos Motorcycle Club Inactive Chapters; 277 --; Appendix H; Newspaper Articles; 278.

Wolf, Daniel R. Rebels: A Brotherhood of Outlaw Bikers. Toronto, Ontario: University

of Toronto Press, 1991.



Albanese, Jay S. "North American Organised Crime." Global Crime 6, no. 1

(February, 2004): 8-18.

Austin, D. Mark, Patricia Gagne, and Angela Orend. "Commodification and Popular

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2015-05-12 Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMG): A Brief Bibliography · 4. Outlaw motorcycle gangs -- Big five outlaw motorcycle gangs : an introduction -- Hells Angels MC (HAMC) -- Bandidos - [PDF Document] (2024)


What are the big 4 bike gangs? ›

The Big Four OMGs are the Hells Angels MC, the Outlaws MC, the Bandidos MC, and the Pagans MC. The first three, although American based, have international chapters and are the largest motorcycle gangs in the world. All four are known for their criminal activity and violence toward each other.

Who is the biggest 1% MC club? ›

The Hells Angels are the largest, most organized, and wealthiest outlaw motorcycle gang in the world.

Who are the big 5 motorcycle clubs? ›

The Hells Angels, Mongols, Bandidos, Outlaws, and Sons of Silence pose a serious national domestic threat and conduct the majority of criminal activity linked to OMGs, especially activity relating to drug-trafficking and, more specifically, to cross-border drug smuggling.

What does the term 1 er mean in the culture of outlaw motorcycle gangs? ›

Outlaw or 1%er can mean merely that the club is not chartered under the auspices of the AMA, implying a radical rejection of authority and embracing of the "biker" lifestyle as defined and popularised since the 1950s and represented by such media as Easyriders magazine, the work of painter David Mann and others.

What is the most secretive motorcycle club? ›

The Pagans Motorcycle Club, the most secretive of the clubs, does not list their chapters and does not have chapters outside the United States.

What are the 1% black biker gangs? ›

The Zulus Motorcycle Club, or Zulus MC, is a club for one percenter motorcycle enthusiasts. The club has a history of almost 50 years and is known for being one of the first black one percenter motorcycle clubs.

Who are the top 3 outlaw motorcycle clubs? ›

The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Criminal Intelligence Service Canada have designated four MCs as "outlaw motorcycle gangs": the Hells Angels, the Pagans, the Outlaws, and the Bandidos, known as the "Big Four".

What does 13 mean to Bandidos? ›

Generally, it is assumed someone wearing a 13 patch is either a user of marijuana or other drugs, or is involved with the sale of them. The M also has been known to stand for "methamphetamine".

What biker patches not to wear? ›

This applies to colors as well – many MCs brand their logos / lettering using gold, red, or black colors, and those three colors are considered off-limits for any rider NOT affiliated with an MC. Finally, don't wear any patches that could be mistaken for the initials or logos or lettering of some other MC.

Who is bigger Hells Angels vs Bandidos? ›

Today, both of these infamous outlaw motorcycle clubs are considered a national threat. The Hells Angels are still the largest motorcycle club in the world, with Bandidos right behind them. After a troubled and bloody past, the two rival gangs seem perfectly set up to enjoy a violent and murderous future together.

What is the best MC to join? ›

1. American Motorcycle Association AMA. The American Motorcycle Association is the largest motorcycle club in the world. More than a million motorcyclists have joined this club because of its fun-filled legal activities and strong advocacy for rider rights.

What does 1% mean to a biker? ›

The American Motorcycle Association stated: “99% of the motorcycling public are law-abiding; there are 1% who are not.” Thus, the “1%” patch (Figure 1) is worn only by clubs immersed in criminality and large enough to defend the claim to be the “baddest of the bad” against all.

Can anyone wear a 1% patch? ›

Don't Wear 1%er or Outlaw Patches

(Such clubs are sometimes referred to as “one-percenters.”) Wearing a 1%er or outlaw patch identifies you as a member of such a club. If you're not a member, sporting such patches can be extremely dangerous for a number of reasons.

What does 99% mean in bikers? ›

The term “1%” refers to a claim made by the American Motorcyclist Association that 99% of motorcycle riders are law-abiding citizens, while the remaining 1% are outlaws. These are the guys wearing the coveted three-piece patch denoting geography. 1.

What are the big 4 motorcycle brands? ›

The Big Four motorcycle manufacturers, Honda, Yamaha, Suzuki, and Kawasaki, are known for producing high-quality bikes with innovative features and excellent performance. While each manufacturer has its own strengths and weaknesses, they are all well-respected in the industry and have a loyal following of riders.

What are the two biggest biker gangs? ›

Formed in San Leon, Texas, in 1966, the Bandidos MC is estimated to have between 2,000 and 2,500 members and 303 chapters located in 22 countries, making it the second-largest motorcycle club in the world behind the Hells Angels.

What are the gangs of motorcycles? ›

The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Criminal Intelligence Service Canada have designated four MCs as "outlaw motorcycle gangs": the Hells Angels, the Pagans, the Outlaws, and the Bandidos, known as the "Big Four".

What does 13 mean in biker gangs? ›

The letter M, being the 13th letter of the alphabet, often is said to stand for marijuana or motorcycle. Generally, it is assumed someone wearing a 13 patch is either a user of marijuana or other drugs, or is involved with the sale of them. The M also has been known to stand for "methamphetamine".


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