American Welding Society - User's Guide to Filler Metals - PDF Free Download (2024)

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AWS User's Guide to Filler Metals h

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AWS User’s Guide to Filler Metals

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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American Welding Society User’s Guide to Filler Metals

Text Compiled By Lee G. Kvidahl AWS President, 1993-94

Edited By Alexander M. Saitta AWS Technical Services Division

AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY 550 Northwest LeJeune Road Miami, Florida 33126 --

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COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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First Printing, 1995 International Standard Book Number: 0-87 171-466-3 American Welding Society; 550 N.W. LeJeune Road; Miami, Florida 33 126 O 1995 by American Welding Society

All rights reserved. The AWS User’s Guide to Filler Metals is a collection of commentary information selected from the 30 technical standards written by the AWS Committee on Filler Metal. The User’s Guide provides descriptions of specific filler metals and their intended usage, as well as methods for classification, welding procedures, and safety considerations. Although reasonable care has been taken in the compilation and publication of the User’s Guide to insure authenticity of the contents, no representation is made as to the accuracy or reliability of this information. The User’s Guide is intended solely as a supplement to the AWS Filler Metal Comparison Charts, and should not be regarded as a substitute for the various AWS specifications to which it refers. This publication is subject to revision at any time. Printed in the United States of America COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL 1995 m 07842b5 0514434 2 b 1 m

A5 Committee on Filler Metals

R. A. LaFave, Chairman Elliott Company D. A. Fink, Second Vice Chairman The Lincoln Electric Company

J. P. Hunt, First Vice Chairman lnco Alloys Intemational, Inc

M. T. Merlo......................................................... Consultant A. R. Mertes............................................ Ampco Metal, Inc C. L. Null............................ Naval Sea Systems Command Y. Ogata................................ Kobe SteelLtd Welding Div J. J. Payne .............................................. SS1 Services, Inc R. L. Peaslee..................................... Wall Colmonoy Corp E. W. Pickering .................................................. Consultant M. A. Quintana.................... The Lincoln Electric Company H. F. Reid........................................................... Consultant S. D. Reynolds .................................................. Consultant L. F. Roberts ............................. Canadian Welding Bureau Dr. D. Rozet ....................................................... Consultant Det Norske Veritas P. K. Salvesen ...................................... W. S. Severance....................................... Esab Group, Inc W. A. Shopp....................................................... Consultant M. S. Sierdzinski....................................... Esab Group, Inc R. G. Sim............The Lincoln Electric Company (Australia) R. W. Straiton.................................... ..Bechtel Corporation R. A. Sulit................................................. Sulit Engineering R. A. Swain ................................................... Euroweld, Ltd R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas& Co K. P. Thomberty .................................... J W HarrisCo, Inc R. Timerman.................................................... Conarco SA R. T. Webster ..................................................... Consultant H. D. Wehr ...................................................... Arcos Alloys A. E. Wiehe ....................................................... Consultant Consultant W. L. Wilcox ....................................................... Dr. F. J. Winsor .................................................. Consultant Siemens Power Corporation K. G. Wold .............................

J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society B. E. Anderson .............................. AlcoTec Wire Company Electromanufacturas S A R. L. Bateman............................. R. A. Bonneau ...................US Army Research Laboratory R. S. Brown ............................ Carpenter Technology Corp R. A. Bushey ............................................. Esab Group, Inc J. Caprarola....................................................... Consultant L. J. Christensen ............................................... Consultant R. J. Christoffel .................................................. Consultant D. J. Crement ........................ Precision Components Corp D. D. Crockett ..................... The Lincoln Electric Company R. A. Daemen ........................... Hobart Brothers Company D. A. DelSignore..................... Westinghouse Electric C o p H. W. Ebert ................. Exxon Research & Engineering Co J. G. Feldstein ...................... Foster Wheeler Energy Corp S. E. Ferree .............................................. Esab Group, Inc L. Flasche ................................... Haynes International, Inc C. E. Fuerstenau...................................... L A Ring Service G. A. Hallstrom ................................ Hallstrom Consultants R L Harris Associates R. L. Harris ....................................... NEMA W. S. Howes............................................................. R. W. Jud ........................................... Chrysler Corporation R. B. Kadiyala ................................................ Techalloy Co D. J. Kotecki ....................... The Lincoln Electric Company N. E. Larson ...................................................... Consultant A. S. Laurenson................................................. Consultant J. S. Lee ............................. Chicago Bridge & Iron Co, Inc ..MAC Associates G. H. Macshane ..................................... R. Menon ................................................ Stoody Company

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A5X Executlve Subcommittee R. A. LaFave, Chair

Elliott Company D. A. Fink, First Vice Chair The Lincoln Electric Company

J. P. Hunt ............................... lnco Alloys International, Inc D. J. Kotecki ....................... The Lincoln Electric Company S. J. Merrick ................................................. Hobart McKay R. L. Peaslee ..................................... Wall Colmonoy Corp E.W. Pickering.................................................. Consultant

J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society B. E. Anderson .............................. AlcoTec Wire Company J. Caprarola ....................................................... Consultant R. J. Christoffel .................................................. Consultant D. A. DelSignore..................... Westinghouse Electric Corp H. W. Ebert ............................. Exxon Research& Engr Co

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A5A Subcommittee on Carbon andLow Alloy Steel Electrodes and Rods for SMA and OFG Welding M. S. Sierdzinski, Chairman Esab Group, Inc M. A. Quintana, First Vice Chair The Lincoln Electric Company J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society J. R. Chylik ......................... The Lincoln Electric Company L. I. Dia-Toolan..................20 Waterside Plaza, SuiteM G H. W. Ebert ............................. Exxon Research & Engr Co G. L. Franke ......................................... Carderock Division A. L. Gombach ................Champion Welding Products Inc Westinghouse K. K. Gupta .................................................. R. B. Kadiyala ................................................ Techalloy Co D. J. Kotecki ....................... The Lincoln Electric Company R. A. LaFave .............................................. Elliott Company G. A. Leclair ....................................................... Consultant A. H. Miller ........................... Defense Industrial Supply Ctr Y. Ogata................................ Kobe Steel Ltd- Welding Div M. P. Parekh ........................................ Hobart Brothers Co SS1 Services, Inc J. J. Payne ..............................................

E. W. Pickering .................................................. Consultant L. J. Privoznik .................................................... Consultant H.F. Reid........................................................... Consultant

L. F. Roberts ............................. Canadian Welding Bureau D. Rozet............................................................. Consultant P.K. Salvesen ........................... Det Norske Veritas (DNV) J. E. Snyder................................ McKay Welding Products R. A. Swain ................................................... Euroweld, Ltd R. D. Thomas........................................ R D Thomas & Co R. Timerman.................................................... Conarco SA M. D. Tumuluru....................... Westinghouse Electric Corp G. Vytanovych..................Mobil Research& Development D. T. Wallace .......................... Newport News Shipbuilding A. E. Wiehe ....................................................... Consultant W. L. Wilcox....................................................... Consultant

A5B Subcommittee on Carbon andLow Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes forSAW D. D. Crockett, Chairman The Lincoln Electric Company

J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society G. C. Barnes ...................................................... Consultant Harbert's Products Inc H. P. Beck ....................................... W.D. Doty ............................................. Doty & Associates H. W. Ebert ............................. Exxon Research& Engr Co D. Y. Ku................................ American Bureau of Shipping Consultant G. A. Leclair ....................................................... M.T. Merlo......................................................... Consultant D. W. Meyer.............................................. Esab Group, Inc M. D. Morin....................... ABB Turbine Manufacturing Div Y. Ogata................................ Kobe Steel Ltd- Welding Div

D. M. Parker........................................ MAONVestinghouse E. W. Pickering .................................................. Consultant F. A. Rhoades; ..................................... Hobart Brothers Co L. F. Roberts ............................. Canadian Welding Bureau D. Rozet............................................................. Consultant R. A. Swain ................................................... Euroweld, Ltd R. D. Thomas........................................ R D Thomas & Co R. Timerman.................................................... Conarco SA Allied Flux Reclaiming Ltd J. Webb ..................................... W. L. Wilcox ....................................................... Consultant

A5C Subcommittee on Aluminum Alloy Filler Metals B. E. Anderson, Chair AlcoTec Wire Company A. H. Lentz, First Vice Chair Consultant

J. C. Meyers, Secretary............American Welding Society J. Bingham ................................................... J W Harris Co S. A. Collins................................ Maine Maritime Academy P. B. Dickerson .................................................. Consultant N. Dietzen ........................................ Gulf Wire Corporation L. L. Herl ................................................... Esab Group, Inc

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COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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J. S. Lee ............................. Chicago Bridge & Iron Co, Inc E. Pickering ....................................... ._Reynolds Metals Co J. D. Romann ................................... Carrier Transicold Co R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas & Co AlcoTec Wire Co L. T. Vernam ............................................. D. A. Wright ........................................ Zephyr Products Inc

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A5D Subcommittee on Stainless Steel FillerMetals D. A. Delsignore, Chair Westinghouse Electric Corp J. C. Meyers, Secretary............American Welding Society F. S. Babish............................................. Sandvik Steel Co R. S. Brown ............................ Carpenter Technology Corp R. J. Christoffel .................................................. Consultant J. G. Feldstein ...................... Foster Wheeler Energy Corp L. Flasche ................................... Haynes International, Inc A. L. Gombach ................Champion Welding Products Inc B. Herbert ................United Technologies-Elliott Company J. P. Hunt ............................... lnco Alloys International, Inc R. B. Kadiyala ................................................ Techalloy Co D. J. Kotecki ....................... The Lincoln Electric Company Esab Group, Inc. F. B. Lake ................................................ W. E. Layo .............................................. Sandvik Steel Co G. H. Macshane ....................................... MAC Associates R. Menon ................................................ S t ~ Company y M. T. Merlo......................................................... consultant

Defense Industrial Supply Ctr A. H. Miller........................... Y. Ogata................................ Kobe Steel Ltd- Welding Div E.W. Pickering .................................................. Consultant L. J. Privoznik .................................................... Consultant J. Qu ......................................... Hobart Brothers Company H. F. Reid........................................................... Consultant C. E. Ridenour ................................................ Tri-Mark, Inc D. Rozet............................................................. Consultant S. P. Sathi............................... Westinghouse Electric Corp R. A. Swain ................................................... Euroweld, Ltd R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas 8, Co R. Timerman.................................................... Conarco SA D. F. Weaver ................................................... Fluor Daniel H. D. Wehr ...................................................... Arcos Alloys W. L. Wilcox ....................................................... Consultant D. W. Yonker ................................... National Standard Co]

A5E Subcommittee on Nickel and Nlckel Alloy Filler Metals L. Flasche, Chair Haynes International,Inc

Y. Ogata................................ Kobe Steel Ltd- Welding Div J. Qu ......................................... Hobart Brothers Company D. Rozet............................................................. Consultant R. A. Swain ................................................... Euroweld, Ltd R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas& Co J. F. Turner ........................................................ Consultant H. D. Wehr...................................................... Arcos Alloys W. L. Wilcox ....................................................... Consultant

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J. C. Meyers, Secretary............American Welding Society F. S. Babish............................................. Sandvik Steel Co R. S. Brown ............................ Carpenter Technology Corp J. F. Frawley ........................ General ElectridSchenectady J. P. Hunt ............................... lnco Alloys International, Inc R. B. Kadiyala................................................ Techalloy Co F. B. Lake ................................................ Esab Group, Inc. R. Menon ................................................ Stoody Company |||| || || || || |||| || || |||||

A5F Subcommittee on Copper and Copper Alloy Filler Metals

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K. P. Thornberty, Chair

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J W Harris Co, Inc

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R. M. Henson, First Vice Chair Harris S N International A. R. Mertes............................................ Ampco Metal, Inc S. D. Reynolds .................................................. Consultant M. N. Rogers .......................... Batesville Casket Company R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas & Co J. Turriff .......................................................... Ampco Metal

J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society C. W. Dralle ............................................... Dralle Materials D. B. Holliday ......................... Westinghouse Electric Corp J. P. Hunt ............................... lnco Alloys International, Inc A. G. Kireta ........................ Copper Development Assn Inc

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A5G Subcommittee on Hard Surfacing Filler Metals

R. Menon, Chair Stoody Company

S. J. Merrick ................................................. Hobart McKay A. R. Mertes............................................ Ampco Metal, Inc J. G. Postle ....................................... Postle Industries, Inc F. A. Rhoades...................................... Hobart Brothers Co G. C. Schmid.......................... Westinghouse Electric Corp E. R. Stevens ................................ Fisher Controls Intl, Inc R. D. Thomas........................................ R D Thomas& Co R. Timerman.................................................... Conarco SA B. C. Wu.................................... Stoody Deloro Stellite, Inc

J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society

H. S. Avery ......................................................... Consultant F. Broshjeit....................................................... .Farre1 Corp D. D. Crockett ..................... The Lincoln Electric Company G. L.. Fillion ...................................... ..Wall Colmonoy Corp S. P. lyer ....................................................... Weartech, Inc R. B. Kadiyala ................................................ Techalloy Co W. E. Layo .............................................. Sandvik Steel Co G. H. Macshane ....................................... MAC Associates

A5H Subcommittee on Filler Metals and Fluxes for Brazing C. E. Fuerstenau, Chair L A Ring Service

J. A. Miller .......................................................... Consultant R. L. Peaslee ..................................... Wall Colmonoy Corp C. W. Philp ......................................................... Consultant W. D. Rupert................................... Engelhard Corporation R. Savija ..................................... Naval Air Warfare Center J. L. Schuster .............................. Omni Technologies Corp R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas & Co K. P. Thornberry .................................... J W Harris Co, Inc

J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society G. A. Andreano.............................. Gana & Associates, Inc R. E. Ballentine.................................................. Consultant Y. Baskin ....................................... Superior Flux & Mfg Co R. E. Cook ......................................................... Consultant Gasflux Company T.A. Kern ............................................... M. J. Lucas.......................................... GE Aircraft Engines W. A. Marttila ..................................... Chrysler Corporation

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Osram Sylvania Inc

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D. E. Coolbaugh ..................................

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J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society M. E. Gedgaudas .................................... Arc Machines lnc G. R. Patrick ........................ Teledyne Advanced Materials H. D. Babbel........................... Bavarian Alloys Corporation R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas & Co H. B. Cary ................................. Hobart Brothers Company R. J. Christoffel .................................................. Consultant M. D. Tumuluru....................... Westinghouse Electric Corp

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Esab Group, Inc

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W. S. Severance, Chair

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A51 Subcommittee on Tungsten Electrodes

A5J Subcommittee on Electrodes and Rods for Cast Iron R. A. Bushey, Chair Esab Group, Inc

E. R. Kuch................................................. Gardner Denver A. H. Miller ........................... Defense Industrial Supply Ctr L. W. Myers ........................................... Dresser-Rand, Inc Eutectic Corporation W. F. Ridgway .................................... R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas & Co

J. C. Meyers, Secretary............American Welding Society D. E. Applegate ............................ lnco Alloys International

R. G. Bartifay ...................Aluminum Company of America R. A. Bishel........................................................ Consultant R. O. Drossman .............Wear Management Services, Inc

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A5K Subcommittee on Titanium and Zirconium Filler Metals ||||

R. T. Webster, Chair

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Consultant

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J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society R. DeNale ........................... David Taylor Research Center R. L. Krajcik ................................................. Astrolite Alloys J. J. Meyer ...................................................... Nooter Corp Westinghouse Electric C. 1. Monaco.................................... H. Nagler........................................................... Consultant

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A. P.Seidler ......................................................... Ancotech A. W. Sindel ....................................... .Sindel & Associates R. C. Sutherlin.................................. Teledyne Wah Chang R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas 81 Co J. J. Vagi .............................................. J J Vagi Consultant

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A5L Subcommittee on Magnesium Alloy Filler Metals K. P. Thomberry, Chair J. W. Harris Co., Inc

P. B. Dickerson.................................................. Consultant R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas & Co

J. C. Meyers, Secretary............American Welding Society J. F. Brown........................ Kaiser Aluminum Speciality P d A. T. D’Annessa ................................................. Consultant

A5M Subcommittee on Carbon andLow Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding M.T. Merlo, Chair Consultant

J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society J. E. Ball..................................................................... L-Tec Hobart Brothers Company J. C. Bundy ............................... D. D. Childs ............................ Newport News Shipbuilding D. D. Crockett ..................... The Lincoln Electric Company R. L. Drury ................................................... Caterpillar, Inc S . E. Ferree .............................................. Esab Group, Inc G. L. Franke ......................................... Carderock Division G. A. Hallstrom ................................ Hallstrom Consultants

R. A. LaFave.............................................. Elliott Company G. A. Leclair ....................................................... Consultant G. H. Macshane ....................................... MAC Associates Y. Ogata................................ Kobe Steel Ltd- Welding Div M. P. Parekh ........................................ Hobart Brothers Co L. J. Privoznik .................................................... Consultant L. F. Roberts ............................. Canadian Welding Bureau J. E. Snyder ................................ McKay Welding Products R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas & Co

A5N Subcommittee on Consumable Inserts A. S.Laurenson, Chair Consultant

J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society K. E. Dorschu ................................ Weldring Company, Inc D. R. Smith ........................................................ Consultant

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas & Co H.D. Wehr ...................................................... Arcos Alloys

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A 5 0 Subcommittee on Carbon andLow Alloy Steel Electrodes for Gas ShieldedArc Welding

D. A. Fink, Chair

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P. R. Grainger ................................. Continental Steel Corp R. B. Kadiyala ................................................ Techalloy Co R. H. Kratzenberg...........General Dynamics Land SysDiv R. A. LaFave ............................................ Elliott Company W. A. Marttila ..................................... Chtysler Corporation M. T. Merlo ......................................................... Consultant Y. Ogata................................ Kobe Steel Ltd- Welding Div C. F. Padden ............................................... Ford Motor Co M. P. Parekh ........................................ Hobart Brothers Co

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D. M. Parker........................................ MAONVestinghouse L. J. Privoznik .................................................... Consultant Canadian Welding Bureau L. F. Roberts ............................. R. B. Smith ............................................... Esab Group, Inc R. D. Thomas ....................................... .R D Thomas & Co R. Timerman.................................................... Conarco SA C. R. Webb ................................................... Caterpillar Inc W. L. Wilcox ....................................................... Consultant D. A. Wright........................................ Zephyr Products Inc D.W. Yonker .................................... National Standard Co

J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society J. C. Bundy............................... Hobart Brothers Company

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The Lincoln Electric Company

A5P Subcommittee on Electrodes for Electroslag and Electrogas Welding D. A. Fink, Chair The Lincoln Electric Company

L. F. Roberts ............................. Canadian Welding Bureau B. L. Shultz .................................. The Taylor Winfield Corp R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas & Co

J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society R. H. Juers ......................... Naval Surface Warfare Center D. Y. Ku................................ American Bureau of Shipping

A5R Subcommittee on Carbon-Graphite Electrodes

J. C. Meyers, Secretary

............American Welding Society

R. J. Dybas......................................

GE Power Generation

A5S Subcommittee on Gases for Gas Shielded Arc Welding and Cutting

N. E. Larson, Chair Consultant

J. R. Evans ...................................... Walker Manufacturing L. R. Pate........................................................... Airco/BOC E. R. Pierre ........................................................ Consultant R. D.Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas & Co

J. C. Meyers, Secretary............American Welding Society E. F. Craig .......................................................... Consultant Esab Group, Inc J. DeVito ................................................... J. F. Donaghy.................................................... Praxair, Inc

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A5T Subcommittee on Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines E. W. Pickering, Chair Consultant

J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society R. A. Bonneau ...................US Army Research Laboratory J. Caprarola ....................................................... Consultant J. G. Feldstein ...................... Foster Wheeler Energy Corp The Lincoln Electric Company D. A. Fink ............................ R. A. LaFave.............................................. Elliott Company

M. T. Merlo ......................................................... Consultant L. F. Roberts ............................. Canadian Welding Bureau P.K. Salvesen ........................... Det Norske Veritas (DNV) R. A. Swain ................................................... Euroweld, Ltd R. D. Thomas........................................ R D Thomas & Co A. J. Wos ............................................ NDT Specialists, Inc

A5U Subcommittee on Surfacing Materials for Thermal Spraying R. A. Sulit, Chair Sulit Engineering

J. C. Meyers, Secretary............American Welding Society R. A. Bonneau ...................US Army Research Laboratory C. C. Bryan................................. Allied High Products, Inc. J. T. Butler ............................................ ASB Industries, Inc F. Carus...................................................................... Zinco G. L. Fillion ........................................ Wall Colmonoy Corp R. H. Frost ............................ Dept Metallurgical/Matls Eng S. R. Goodspeed ................................... Miller Thermal Inc St GobainMORTON Industrial E. S.Hamel ........................ J. J. Keonig ............................... Platt Brothers& Company --

M. K. Megerle ............................. Naval Air Warfare Center R. A. Miller ............................... Sulzer Plasma Technik, Inc E. R. Novinski ....................... Sulzer Metco (Westbury) Inc M. W. Poe ............................... Mid-Atlantic Associates, Ltd F. S.Rogers......................................................... Thermion E. R. Sampson ......................... Hobart TAFA Technologies E. R. Stevens ................................ Fisher Controls Intl, Inc R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas& Co L. T. Vernam ............................................. AlcoTec Wire Co J. B. C. Wu ................................ Stoody Deloro Stellite, Inc

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A5V Subcommittee on International Speclflcations J. P. Hunt, Chair lnm Alloys International, Inc

J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society B. E. Anderson .............................. AlcoTec Wire Company R. A. Daemen ........................... Hobart Brothers Company D. A. Delsignore..................... Westinghouse Electric Corp S.E. Ferree .............................................. Esab Group, Inc

D. A. Fink ............................ The Lincoln Electric Company D. J. Kotecki ....................... The Lincoln Electric Company R. A. LaFave.............................................. Elliott Company M. S.Sierdzinski....................................... Esab Group, Inc R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas & Co

A5W Subcommittee on Moisture and Hydrogen M. A. Quintana, Chair The Lincoln Electric Company

J. C. Meyers, Secretary ............American Welding Society J. Blackburn.......................................... Carderock Division D. A. Fink ............................ The Lincoln Electric Company G. L. Franke ......................................... Carderock Division R. B. Kadiyala ................................................ Techalloy Co R. A. LaFave.............................................. Elliott Company

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

D. Lawrenz.............................................. LeCo Corporation M.P. Parekh ........................................ Hobart BrothersCo E. W. Pickering .................................................. Consultant M. S . Sierdzinski....................................... Esab Group, Inc R. D. Thomas ........................................ R D Thomas & Co D. T. Wallace .......................... Newport News Shipbuilding

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Contents

8.1 Provisions ..................... 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8.2 Introduction 8.3Method of Classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8.4 WeldingProcedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 8.5 DescriptionandIntendedUse . . . . . . . . . . . 18

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Covered Arc Welding Electrodes 5.1 Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2 Introduction .................... 11 5.3Method of Classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.4WeldingProcedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.5 Classification Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.6ElectrodeCoatingMoistureContentand Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 ..................... 13 5.7 Coverings 5.8DescriptionandIntendedUse of Electrodes . . . 13

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12 Guide to Classificationof Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for

Electroslag Welding 12.1 Provisions ..................... 28 12.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 12.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . 29 12.4DefinitionandGeneralDescription

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6 Guide to Classification of Carbon Steel 13 Filler Metalsfor Gas Shielded Arc Welding 6.1 Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.2 Introduction 6.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.4DescriptionandIntendedUse 6.5 WeldingConsiderations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

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13 Guide to Classificationof Carbon and Low 30 Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electrogas Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 13.1 Provisions 13.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 13.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 13.4DescriptionandIntendedUse . . . . . . . . . . . 31 xiii

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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11 Guide to Classificationof Low-Alloy 24 Steel Electrodesand Fluxes for Submerged ArcWelding 11.1 Provisions ..................... 24 11.2 Introduction .................... 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 11.3ClassificationSystem 11.4WeldingConsiderations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

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10 Guide to Carbon Steel Electrodes and 21 Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding 10.1 Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 10.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 10.3ClassificationSystem 10.4WeldingConsiderations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

. Guide to Classification of Low-Alloy Steel ... 11

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9 Guide to AWS Classification of Low-Alloy 19 Arc Welding Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored 9.1 Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 9.2Method of Classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 9.3WeldingProcedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 . . . . . . . . . . . 20 9.4DescriptionandIntendedUse

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4 Guide to Classification of Carbon Steel 5 Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding 4.1Provisions ...................... 5 4.2Introduction ..................... 5 4.3ClassificationSystem ................5 4.4WeldingConsiderations ...............5 4.5ElectrodeCoveringMoistureContent .......6 and Conditioning 4.6 Coverings ...................... 6 4.7DescriptionandIntendedUse of Electrodes . . . . 7 5

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3.1 Provisions ...................... 4 3.2Introduction ..................... 4 3.3ClassificationSystem ................ 4 3.4WeldingConsiderations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3.5 Description and Intended Use of Carbon . . . . . . 4 and LOW-Alloy Steel Rods

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8 Guide to Classificationof Carbon Steel Electrodes for F l u Cored Arc Welding

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3 Guide to Classification of Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Rods for Oxyfuel Gas Welding

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2 Provisions 1 2.1 Acceptance ..................... 1 ..................... 1 2.2 Certification .............1 2.3VentilationDuringWelding 2.4BumProtection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2.5ElectricalHazards 2.6Fumes andGases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.7 Radiation ...................... 3

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7 Guide to Classification of Low-Alloy Steel 15 Filler Metals for Gas Shielded Arc Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7.1 Provisions 7.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7.4Description and IntendedUse . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7.5WeldingConsiderations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

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STD-AUS UGFH-ENGL 3995

07842b5 0534442 338 W

Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Copper Alloy Arc Welding Electrodes 14.1 Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1 Provisions 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Introduction14.2 56 . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . 31 .................... 19.2 14.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 19.3Method of Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 14.4FerriteinWeld Deposits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3219.4DescriptionandIntendedUse of FillerMetal . . . 56 of FillerMetals . . 32 14.5DescriptionandIntendedUse 14.6ClassificationastoUsability . . . . . . . . . . . 37 14.7SpecialTests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 20 Guide to Classification of Copper and 57 Copper Alloy Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes 15 Guide to Classificationof Bare Stainless 38 ..................... 57 Provisions 20.1 Steel Welding Electrodes and Rods .................... 57 20.2 . . . . . . . . . .Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . 38 15.1 Provisions .............. of Classification 57 15.2 Introduction .................... 38 Method 20.3 15.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3820.4DescriptionandIntendedUseoftheWelding . . . 58 Rods and Electrodes 15.4Preparation of SamplesforChemicalAnalysis . . 38

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 15.5FerriteinWeldDeposits 15.6DescriptionandIntendedUse of FillerMetals . . 40 15.7 Usability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

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Nickel Alloy Welding Electrodesfor ShieldedMetalArcWelding Provisions 21.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 21.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 21.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 21.4WeldingConsiderations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 of Electrodes . . . 59 21.5DescriptionandIntendedUse

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16 GuidetoClassification of FluxCored 46 Corrosion Resisting Chromium-Nickel Steel Electrodes 16.1 Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 16.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 16.3Method of Classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 16.4FerriteinWeldDeposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 16.5Consideration of ChemicalRequirements . . . . . 48 16.6ClassificationAccordingtoComposition . . . . . 49

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22 Guide to Classification of Nickel and

Nickel Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods

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..................... Provisions 22.1 61 61 22.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.3 ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 WeldingConsiderations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 22.5 Description and Intended Use of Electrodes . . . 62

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17 Guide to Classification of Aluminum and 51 Aluminum Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding 17.1 Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.4 . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 17.2 Introduction 17.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . .Rods . . .and . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 17.4WeldingConsiderations 17.5DescriptionandIntendedUse of Electrodes . . . 52 | ---

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23 Guide Classification to of Welding 64 18 GuidetoClassification of BareAluminum 52 Electrodes and Rods for Cast Iron and AluminumAlloy Welding Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 and Provisions 23.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Provisions 18.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction 52 23.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Introduction 18.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification . .System . . .23.3 . . 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Welding Considerations 18.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . .23.4 . . . . . . . 52 Description and Intended Use of Electrodes . . . 66 18.4WeldingConsiderations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 23.5 18.5 Description and Intended Use of Aluminum . . . 54 and Rods for Welding Cast Iron Treatment Heat Postweld 23.6 Rods and Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 xiv COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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D 07842b5 0514443 274 H

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24 Guide to Classificationof Titanium and 68 Titanium Alloy Welding Electrodes andRods 24.1 Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 24.2 Introduction 24.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 24.4WeldingConsiderations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 24.5DescriptionandIntendedUse of Titanium . . . . 70 and Titanium Alloy Electrodes andRods

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29 Guide to Classificationof Filler Metals for

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30 Guide to Classificationof Fluxes for

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25 Guide to Classificationof Magnesium

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70 Alloy Welding Electrodes andRods 25.1 Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 25.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 25.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 25.4WeldingConsiderations 25.5 Description and Use of Magnesium . . . . . . . . 7 1 Alloy Electrodes and Rods

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26 Guide to Classificationof Zirconium and

. . . . 73

Zirconium Alloy Welding Electrodes andRods 26.1 Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 26.2 Introduction 26.3Method of Classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 26.4WeldingConsiderations of Electrodes . . . 74 26.5DescriptionandIntendedUse and Rods

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28 Guide to Classification of Composite

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105 Brazing and BrazeWelding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 30.1Provisions 30.2Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 30.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 30.4BrazingConsiderations Use of . . . . . . . . . 105 30.5DescriptionandIntended Brazing Fluxes

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31.Guide to Classification ofTungsten and 106 Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for ArcWelding and Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 31.1Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 31.2Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 31.3Classification 31.4OperationCharacteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 of Electrodes . . . 108 31.5DescriptionandIntendedUse 31.6GeneralRecommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

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32 Guide to Classification of

27 Guide to Classificationof Surfacing 74 Welding Rods and Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 27.1 Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 27.2 Introduction 27.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . 74 27.4RFe5andEFeSHigh-speedSteelFillerMetals 27.5EFeMnAusteniticManganeseElectrodes . . . . . 76 27.6 RFeCr-A and EFeCr-A Austenitic High . . . . . . 78 Chromium Iron Filler Metals 27.7RCoCrandECoCrCobalt-BaseFillerMetals . . 80 . . . . . . . . . 82 27.8Copper-BaseAlloyFillerMetals . . . 84 27.9RNiCrandENiCrNickel-Chromium-Boron Filler Metals

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109 Consumable Inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 32.1Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 32.2Introduction 32.3ClassificationSystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 32.4Description of Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 32.5 Usability

Index of Filler Metal Classificationsand Specifications

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AWS Filler Metal Specifications and Related Documents

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86 Surfacing Welding Rods and Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 28.1 Provisions 28.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 28.3ClassificationSystem . 87 28.4 We5 andEFeSHigh-speedSteelFillerMetals 28.5EFeMnAusteniticManganeseSteelElectrodes . . 88 . . . . 90 28.6WeCr-A1andEFeCr-A1AusteniticHigh Chromium Iron Filler Metals . 92 28.7Tungsten-CarbideWeldingRodsandElectrodes --

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COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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96 Brazing and BrazeWelding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 29.1 Provisions 29.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 29.3Method of Classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 29.4BrazingConsiderations . . . . . 97 29.5BrazingCharacteristicsandApplications

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S T D - A W S UGFM-ENGL L

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0 7 w z b s 0534444 L O O

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AWS User’s Guide to Filler Metals l. Scope This document contains information on the many different types of filler materials available to industry. Welding considerations and intended applications for the various materials are provided to assist the user. The information 30 AWS filler material has been extracted directly from standards, and it is recommended that the user reference these documents for additional information.

Part A:

General Information 2. Provisions Each of the AWS filler material specifications contain sections that establish provisions for material acceptance andcertification,aswellas safety considerations. Because this information isnecessary for the proper application of all filler materials, these sections are included in this guide. --

2.1 Acceptance. Acceptance of all welding materials |||| || || || || |||| || || ||||| | |||| | ---

is in accordance withANSUAWSA5.01, Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines, as the specification states. Any testing a purchaser requires of the supplier, for material shipped in accordance withthe specification, shallbe clearly stated in the purchase order according to the provisions of ANSUAWS A5.01. In the absence of any such statement in the purchase order, the supplier may ship the material with whatever testing is normally conducted on material of the same classification, as specified in Schedule F, Table 1, ofANSYAWSA5.01. Testing in accordance with any other schedule in that table shall be specifically required by the purchase order. In such cases, acceptance of the material shipped shall be in accordance with those requirements.

rial, in thiscase, is any production runof that classification using the same formulation. “Certification” is not to be construed to mean that tests of any kind were necessarily conducted on samples of the specific material shipped. Tests on such material may or may not have been conducted. Thebasis for the certification required by the specification is the classification test of “representative material” cited above,and the Manufacturer’s Quality Assurance Program in ANSUAWS A5.01, Filler Metal Procurernent Guidelines.

2.3 Ventilation During Welding. Five major factors govern the quantity of fumes in the atmosphereto which welders and welding operators are exposed during welding; they are: (1) the dimensions of the space in which weldingis performed (with special regardto the height of theceiling); (2) the number of welders and welding operators working in that space; (3)the rate of evolutionof fumes, gases, or dust, according to the materials and processes used; (4)the proximity of the welders or welding operators to the fumes as they issue from the welding zone, and to the gases and dusts in the space in which they are working; and (5) the ventilation provided to the space in which the welding is performed. American National Standard 249.1, Safety in Welding and Cutting (published by the AmericanWelding Society), discusses the ventilation that is required during welding and should be referredto for details. Attention is drawn particularly to the section of that document on health protection and ventilation.

2.4 Burn Protection. Molten metal, sparks, slag, and hot worksurfacesareproducedbywelding, cutting, and allied processes. These can cause bums if precautionary measures are not used. Workers should wear protective 2.2Certification. The act of placing the AWS specificlothing made of fire-resistant material. Pant cuffs, open cation and classification designationson the product pockets, or other places on clothing that can catch and packaging, or placing the classification on the product retain molten metal or sparks should not be worn. Highitself, constitutes the supplier’s (manufacturer’s) certifitopshoes or leather leggings and fire-resistant gloves cation that the product meets all of the requirements of should beworn. Pant legs should be wornover the outside the specification. of high-top shoes. Helmets or hand shields that provide The only testing requirement implicit in this certification protection for the face, neck, and ears, and a head coveris that the manufacturer has actually conducted the tests ing to protect the headshould be used. In addition, approrequired by the specification on material that is represenpriate eye protection should be used. fative of that being shipped and that the tested material met Whenwelding overheador in confined spaces, ear the requirementsof the specification. Representative mate- plugs to prevent weld spatter from entering the ear canal

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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should be worn in combination with goggles, or equivalent, to give addedeye protection. Clothing should be kept free of grease and oil. Combustible materials should not be carried in pockets, If any combustible substance has been spilled on clothing, a change to clean, fire-resistant clothing should be made before working withopen arcs or flame. Aprons, cape-sleeves, leggings, and shoulder covers with bibs designed for welding service should be used. Wherewelding or cutting of unusually thick base metal is involved, sheet metal shields should be used for extra protection. Mechanization of highlyhazardous processes or jobsshould be considered. Other personnel in the work area should be protected by the use of noncombustible screens or by the use of appropriate protection as described in the previous paragraph. Beforeleaving a work area, hot work pieces should be marked to alert other persons of this hazard. No attempt should be made to repair or disconnect electrical equipment when it is under load. Disconnection under load producesarcing of the contacts and may cause bums, or shock, or both. (Note: Burns can be caused bytouching hot equipment such aselectrodeholders,tips, andnozzles. Therefore, insulated gloves should be worn when such items are handled.) Thefollowing sources are recommended for more detailed information on personal protection: (1) American National Standards Institute. ANSUASC 249.1, Safety in Welding and Cutting (published by the AmericanWeldingSociety).Miami,FL:American Welding Society. (2) ANSUASC 287.1, Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye andFace Protection. New York: American National Standards Institute.’ (3) ANSI/ASC 241.1, Safety-Toe Footwear. New York: American National Standards Institute. (4) Occupational Safety andHealthAdministration. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29 Labor, Chapter XVII,Part 1910. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.2 |||| || || || || |||| || || ||||| | |||| | ---

2.5 Electrical Hazards. Electric shock can kill. However, it can be avoided. Live electrical parts should not be touched. The manufacturer’s instructions and recommended safe practices should be read and understood. Faulty installation, impropergrounding, and incorrect operation and maintenance of electrical equipment are all sources of danger. ANSI documents are available from the American National Standanis Institute, I 1 W. 42nd St., New York, NY 10036. OSHA documentsareavailable from US. GovernmentPrinting Ofice, Washington,D.C., 20402. NEC available from National Fire Protection Association, Banerymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

All electrical equipment and the workpieces should be grounded. The workpiece lead is not a ground lead. It is used only to complete the welding circuit.A separate connection is required to ground the workpiece. The workpiece should not be mistakenfor a ground connection. The correct cable size should be used, since sustained overloading will cause cablefailure and result inpossible electrical shock or fire hazard. All electrical connections shouldbe tight, clean, and dry. Poor connections can overheat and even melt. Further, they can produce dangerous arcs and sparks. To prevent shock, water, grease, or dirt should not be allowedin the workarea; and equipment and clothing should be kept dry at all times. Weldersshould wear dry gloves and rubber-soled shoes, or should stand on a dry board or insulated platform. Cables and connections should bekept in good condition. Improper or worn electrical connections may create conditions that could cause electrical shock or shortcircuits. Worn, damaged, or bare cables shouldnotbe used. Open-circuit voltageshould be avoided. When several welders are worhng with arcs of different polarities, or when a number of alternating-current machines are being used, the open-circuit voltages can be additive. The added voltages increase the severity of the shock hazard. In case of electric shock, the power should be turned off. If the rescuer must resort to pulling the victim from the live contact, non-conducting materials should be used. If the victim is not breathing, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should be administered as soon as contact with the electrical source is broken. A physician should be called and CPR continued until breathing has been restored, or until a physician has arrived. Electrical bums are treated as thermal bums; that is, clean, cold (iced) compressesshouldbe applied. Contamination should be avoided; the area should be covered with a clean, dry dressing; and the patient should betransported to medical assistance. Recognized safety standards such as ANSVASC 249.1, Safetyin Welding and Cutting, andNFPA No. 70, National Electrical Codes, should be followed. 2.6 Fumes and Gases.Many welding, cutting, and allied processes produce fumes and gases which may be harmful to one’s health. Fumes are solid particles which originate from welding filler metals andfluxes, the base metal, or any coatings present on the base metal. Gases are produced during the welding processor may be produced by the effects of process radiation on the surrounding environment. Management, welders, and other personnelalike should be aware of the effects of these fumes and gases. The amount and composition of these fumes and gases depend upon the composition cf the filler metal and base metal,weldingprocess, current level, arc length, and other factors.

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2.7.2 Non-IonizingRadiation. The intensity and wavelength of non-ionizing radiant energyproduced depends on many factors, such as the process, welding parameters, electrode and base metal composition, fluxes,

2.7.4 Thefollowingsourcesprovideinformation regarding non-ionizing radiation: (1)ANSIZ136.1: Safe Use of Lasers; American National Standards Institute; New York, NY. (2) ANSVASC 249.1: Safety in Welding and Cutting; American Welding Society; Miami, FL. (3) ANSIIASC 287.1: Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and FaceProtection; American National Standards Institute; New York, NY. (4) Hinrichs,J.F.:“Projectcommitteeon radiation - summary report;” Welding Journal,January 1978.

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2.7.1IonizingRadiation. Ionizing radiation is produced by the electron beam welding process. Ordinarily it is controlled within acceptance limits by use of suitable shielding to enclose the welding area.

2.7.3 Ionizing radiation informationsourcesinclude ANSI AWS F1.1-78, RecommendedSafe Practices for Electron Beam Welding and Cutting and the manufacturer’s product information literature.

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2.7Radiation. Welding, cutting, and allied operations may produce radiant energy (radiation) that is harmful to health. One should become acquainted with the effects of this radiant energy. Radiant energy may be ionizing (such as x-rays), or nonionizing (such as ultraviolet,visible light, or infrared). Excessive exposure to radiation can produce a variety of effects, such as skin burns and eye damage, depending on the radiant energy’s wavelength and intensity.

andany coating or platingon the basemetal. Some processes such as resistance welding and cold pressure welding ordinarily produce negligible quantities of radiant energy.However, mostarcweldingand cutting processes (except submergedarcwhenused properly), laser welding and torch welding, cutting, brazing, or soldering can produce quantities of non-ionizing radiation sufficient to warrant precautionary measures. Protection from possible harmful effects caused by non-ionizing radiant energy from weldinginclude the following measures: (1) Oneshould not look at welding arcs except through welding filter plates which meet the requirements of ANSIIASC 287.1, Practice for Occupationaland Educational Eye and Face Protection, published by the American National Standards Institute. It should be noted that transparent welding curtains are notintended aswelding filter plates, but rather are intended to protect a passerby from incidental exposure. (2)Exposed skin should be protected with adequate gloves and clothing as specified ANSVASC 249.1, Safety in Weiding and Cutting, published by American Welding Society. (3)Reflections from welding arcs should be avoided, and all personnel should be protected from intense reflections. (Note: Paints using pigments of substantially zinc oxide or titanium dioxide have a lower reflectance f o r ultraviolet radiation.) (4) Screens, curtains, or adequate distance from aisles, walkways, etc., should be usedto avoid exposing passersby to welding operations. ( 5 ) Safety glasses with UV-protective side shields, which have been shown to provide some beneficial protection from ultraviolet radiation produced by welding arcs, should be worn.

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The possible effects of over-exposure rangefrom irritation of eyes, skin, and respiratory system to more severe complications. Effects may occur immediately or at some later time. Fumes can cause symptoms such as nausea, headaches, dizziness, and metal fume fever. The possibility of more serious health effects exists when especially toxicmaterialsare involved. In confined spaces, the shielding gases and fumes might displace breathing air and cause asphyxiation. One’s head should alwaysbe kept out of the fumes. Sufficient ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both, should be used to keep fumes and gases from one’s breathing zone and from the general area. In some cases, natural air movementwill provide enough ventilation. Where ventilation may be questionable, however, air sampling should be conducted to determine if corrective measures should be applied. More detailed information on fumes andgasesproduced by the various welding processes may be found in the following sources: (1) The permissible exposure limits required by OSHA can be found in Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Chapter XVII Part 1910. (2)The recommended threshold limit values for these fumes and gases may be found in the ACGIH, Threshold Limit Values for ChemicalSubstances and Physical Agents in the Workroom En~ironment.~ (3)The results of an AWS-funded study are available in a report entitled, Fumes and Gases inthe Welding Envir~nment.~

ACGIH documents are available from the American Conference of GovernmentalIndustrialHygienists,KemperWoodsCenter. 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45211. AWS documents are available from the American Welding Society, 550 N.W.LÆJeune Road, P.O.Box 351040, Miami, FL 33135.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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07842b5 0514447 91”

4

(5)Moss, C.E.andMurray,W.E.:“Opticalradiation levels produced in gas welding, torch brazing, and oxygen cutting;” Welding JournaZ, September 1979. (6) Moss, C.E.; “Optical radiation transmission levels through transparent welding curtains;” Welding Journal, March 1979. (7) Marshall, W.J., et al: “Optical radiation levels produced by air-carbon arc cutting processes;” Welding Journal, March 1980. (8) Non-ionizingRadiationProtection Special Study No.42-0053-77: Evaluation of the Potential Hazards from Actinic Ultraviolet Radiation Generated by Electric WeldingandCutting Arcs; ADA-033768;National Technical InformationService; Springfield, VA. (9)Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection Special Study No.42-0312-77: Evaluation of the Potential Retina Hazards from Optical Radiution Generated by Electrical Welding and Cutting Arcs;” ADA-043023;National Technical Information Service; Springfield, VA.

Part B:

Carbon and Low-Allov Steels 3. Guide toClassification of Carbon andLow-Alloy Steel Rodsfor Oxyfuel Gas Welding 3.1 Provisions. Excerptsfrom ANSUAWS A5.2-92, Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Rods for Oxyfuel Gas Welding 3.2Introduction. This guidewas designed to correlate rod classifications presented in ANSVAWS A5.2-92 with their intended applications. Such correlations are intended as examples rather than complete listings of the materials for which each filler metal is suitable. 3.3 Classification System 3.3.1 The systemfor identifying rod classifications follows the standard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The letter “R” at the beginning ofeach classification designation stands for rod. The digits (45, 60, 65, and100)designate a minimumtensile strength of the weld metal, in the nearest thousands of pounds per square inch,depositedinaccordancewiththetestassembly preparation section of the specification. 3.3.2 “G” Classification. ANSUAWS A5.2-92 includes filler metals classified as RXXX-G. The “G” indicates that the filler metal is of a “general” classification. It is generalbecausenotallofthe particular requirements specified for each of the other classifications are specified for this classification. The intent in establishing this classification is to provide a means by whichfiller metals that

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COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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differ in some respect (chemical composition, for example) from all other classifications in ANSUAWS A5.2-92 still can be classified according to the specification. In the case of the example, if the chemical composition doesnot meet the composition specified for any of the classificationsinthe specification, the filler metal still canbe included within the “G’ classification. The purpose is to allow a useful filler metal - one that otherwise would have to await arevision of the specification - to be classified immediately, under the existing specification. This means, then, that two filler metals, each bearingthe same “G” classification, may be quite different in some respect (chemical composition, again, as an example).

3.4 Welding Considerations 3.4.1 The oxyfuel gasto the torch should be adjustedto give a neutral or slightly reducing flame. This assures the absence ofthe oxidizingflame whichcould adversely influence weld quality. The extent of the excess fuel gas is measured by the length of the streamer (the so-called “feather”) of unburned fuel gas visible at the extremity of the inner cone. This streamer shouldmeasure about oneeighth to one-quarter the length of the inner cone of the flame. Excessivelylong streamersshouldbe avoided, since they may addcarbon tothe weld metal. 3.4.2 In forehand welding,the torch flame points ahead in the direction of welding, and the welding rodprecedes the torch flame. To distribute the heat and molten weld metal, it is necessary to use opposing oscillating motions for the flame and welding rod. This may cause excessive melting of the base metal and mixing of base metal and weld metal. Weld metal properties may be altered. 3.4.3 Inbackhand welding, the torch flame points back at the molten metal, and the welding rod is interposed between the flame and molten metal. There is Significantly less manipulation of the flame, the welding rod, and the molten metal.Therefore, a backhand weld is more likely toapproach the chemicalcomposition of undiluted weld metal. 3.5 Description and Intended Use of Carbon andLowAlloy SteelRods 3.5.1 Oxyfuel gas welding rods have no coverings to influence usability of the rod. Thus, the ability to weld in the vertical or overhead position is essentially a matter of welder skill and can be affected to some degree by the chemical composition of the rod. 3.5.2 Class R35 welding rods are a low-carbon steel composition used for the welding ofsteel, where the min-

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STD.AWS UGFM-ENGL 1995

07842b5 0514448 85b

m 5

imum tensile strength requirement does not exceed 35 ksi (310 MPa).

3.5.3 Class R60 welding rods are used for the oxyfuel gas welding of carbon steels, where the minimum tensile strength requirement does not exceed 60 ksi (315 MPa). Class R60 rods are carbon steel composition. 3.5.4 Class R65 welding rods are used for the oxyfuel gas welding of carbonandlow-alloy steels, wherethe minimum tensile strength requirement does notexceed 100 ksi (690 MPa) in the as-welded condition. Users are cautioned that response of the weld metal and base metal to postweld heat treatment may bedifferent. 4. Guideto Classification of Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding. 4.1 Provisions. Excerptsfrom ANSUAWS A5.1-91, Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding 4.2Introduction. This guide was designed to correlate the covered electrode classifications presented in ANSVAWSA5.1-91withthe intended applications. Such correlations are intended as examples rather than complete listings of the base metals for which each filler metal is suitable. 4.3 Classification System 4.3.1 The system for electrode classification follows the standard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The letter “E’ at the beginning of each classification designation stands for electrode. The first two digits, 60, for example, designate tensile strength of at least 60 ksi of theweldmetal,producedin accordance withthetest assemblypreparationsection of the specification. The third digit designates position usability that willallow satisfactory welds to be produced with the electrode. Thus, the 1, as in E6010, means that the electrode is usable in all positions (flat, horizontal, vertical, and overhead). The 2, as in E6020 designates that the electrode is suitable for use in flat position and for making fillet welds in the horizontal position. The 4, as in E7048, designates that the electrode is suitable forusein vertical weldingwith downward progression and for other positions. The last two digits taken together designate the type of current with which theelectrode can be used and the type of covering on the electrode. 4.3.2 Optional designators are also usedin order to identify electrodes that have met the mandatory classification requirements and certain supplementaryrequire-

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ments as agreed to between the supplier and the purchaser. A “-1” designator followingclassification identifies an electrode whichmeets optional supplemental impact requirements at a lower temperaturethan required for the classification. An example of this isthe E7023-1 electrode,whichmeetsthe classification requirements of E7023 and also meets the optional supplemental requirements for fracture toughness and improved elongation of the weldmetal. Certain low-hydrogen electrodes also may have optional designators. A letter “R’ is a designator used with the low-hydrogen electrode classifications. The letter “R’ is used to identify electrodes that have been exposed to a humid environment for a given length of time and tested for moisture absorption in addition to the standardmoisture test required for classification of low-hydrogen electrodes. An optional supplemental designator “HZ’ following the four-digit classification designator -or followingthe “-1” optional supplemental designator, if used - indicates an average diffusible hydrogen content of not more than “ Z ’ mWlOOg of deposited metal when tested in the “as-received‘’ or conditioned state in accordance with ANSUAWS A3.3, Standard Methods for Determination of Difisible Hydrogen Content of Martensitic, Bainitic, and Ferritic Steel Weld Metal Produced by Arc Welding. Electrodes thataredesignated as meetingthe lower or lowest hydrogen limits are also understood to be able to meet any higher hydrogen limits even though these are not necessarily designated alongwith theelectrode classification. Therefore, as an example, an electrode designated as H3 also meets H8 and H16 requirements without being designated assuch.

4.4 Welding Considerations 4.4.1 Weld metal properties may vary widely according to size of the electrode and amperage used, size of the weld beads, base metal thickness, joint geometry, preheat and interpass temperatures, surface condition, base metal composition, dilution, etc. 4.4.2 It should be recognized that production practices may be different. The differences encountered may alter the properties of the weld metal. For instance, interpass temperatures may range from subfreezingto several hundred degrees. No single temperature or reasonable range of temperatures canbechosen for classification tests whichwillbe representative of all of the conditions encountered in production work. Properties of production welds may vary accordingly, depending onthe particular welding conditions. Weld metal properties maynot duplicate, or even closely approach, the values listed and prescribed for test welds. For example, ductility in single pass welds in thick base

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6

metal made outdoors in cold weather without adequate preheating may drop to little more than half that required herein and normally obtained. This does not indicate that either the electrodes or the welds are below standard. It indicates only thatthe particular production conditions are more severe than the test conditions prescribed. 4.4.3 Hydrogen is another factor to be considered. Weld metals, other than those from low-hydrogen electrodes (E7015, E7018, E7018M, E7028, and E7038), contain significant quantities of hydrogen for some period of time after they have been made. Thishydrogen gradually escapes. After two to four weeks at room temperature or in 23 to 38 hours at 200 to 220°F (95 to 105"C), most of it hasescaped. As a result of this change in hydrogen content, the ductility of the weld metal increases toward its inherent value, while the yield, tensile, andimpact strengths remain relatively unchanged.

characteristics. Certain minor differences continue to exist from onebrand to another dueto differences in preferences that exist regarding specific operating characteristics. Furthermore, the only differences between the present E60XX and E70XX classifications are the differences in chemical composition and mechanical propertiesof the weldmetal. ln many applications, electrodes of either E6OXX or E7OXX classifications may be used. 4.4.8 Since the electrodes within a given classification have similar operating characteristics andmechanical properties, the user can limit the study of available electrodes to those within a single classification after determiningwhich classification best suits the particular requirements. 4.5 Electrode Covering Moisture Content and

Conditioning

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4.4.4 When weldments are given a postweld heattreatment, the temperature and time at temperature are very important. The tensile and yield strengths generally are decreased as postweldheattreatment temperature and time at temperature are increased. || || || || |||| || || ||||| | ||||

4.4.5 Welds made with electrodes of the same classification and the same welding procedure will have significantly different tensile and yield strengths in the aswelded and postweld heat-treated conditions. Comparison of the values for as-welded and postweld heattreated [1150"F (620°C) for one hour] weld metal will show the following: | ---

4.4.5.1 The tensile strengthof the postweld heat-treated weld metal will be approximately 5 ksi (33.5 MPa) lower than that of the weld metal in the as-welded condition. 4.4.5.2 The yield strength of the postweld heat-treated weld metal will be approximately 10 ksi (69 MPa) lower

than that of the weld metal in the as-welded condition. 4.4.6 Conversely, postweldheat-treated welds made with the same electrodes and usingthe same welding procedure except for variation in interpass temperature and postweld heat treatment time can have almost identical tensile and yield strengths. As an example, almostidentical tensile and yield strengths may be obtained in two welds - one using an interpass temperature of 300°F (150°C) and postweld heat-treatedfor one hour at 1150°F (62OoC), and the other using an interpass temperature of 200°F (93°C) and postweld heat-treated for 10 hours at 1150°F (620°C). 4.4.7 Electrodes whichmeetall the requirements of any given classification may be expected to have similar

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

4.5.1 Hydrogen can have adverse effects on welds in some steels under certain conditions. One source of this hydrogen is moisture in the electrode coverings. For this reason, the proper storage, treatment, andhandling of electrodes are necessary. 4.5.2 Electrodes are manufactured to be within acceptable moisture limits, consistent with the type of covering and strength of the weld metal. They are then normally packaged in a container which has been designed to provide the degree of moisture protection considered necessary for the type of covering involved. 4.5.3 If there is a possibility thatthe noncellulosic electrodes may have absorbed excessive moisture, they may be restored byrebaking. Some electrodes require rebaking at a temperature as high as 800°F (400°C) for approximately one to two hours. The manner in which the electrodes have been produced and the relative humidity and temperature conditions underwhich the electrodes are stored determine the proper length of time and temperature used for conditioning. 4.5.4 Cellulosic coverings for E6010 and E601 1 electrodes need moisture levels of three to seven percent for proper operation; therefore, storage or conditioning above ambient temperature maydry them too much and adversely affect their operation. 4.6 Coverings 4.6.1 Electrodes of some classifications have substantial quantities of iron powder added to their coverings. The iron powder fuses with the core wire and the other metals in thecovering as the electrode melts and is

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STD=AWS UGFM-ENGL L975

deposited as part of the weld metal, just as is the core wire. Relatively high currents can be used, since a considerable portion of the electrical energy passing through the electrode is used to melt the thicker covering containing iron powder. The result is that more weld metal may be obtained froma single electrode with iron powder in its covering than from a single electrode of the same diameter without iron powder.

4.6.2 Due to the thick coveringanddeepcup produced at the arcing end of the electrode, iron powder electrodes can be used very effectively with a “drag” technique. This technique consists of keeping the electrode covering in contact withthe workpiece at all times, which makes for easy handling. However, a technique using a short arc length is preferable if the 3/32 in (2.3 mm) or 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) electrodes are to be usedin other than flat or horizontal fillet welding positions or for making groove welds. 4.6.3 The E70XX electrodes are included to acknowledge the higher strength levels obtained with many of the iron powder and low-hydrogen electrodes, as well as to recognize the industry demand for electrodes with 70 ksi (382 MPa)minimumtensile strength. Unlike the E70XX-X classification in ANWAWS A5.5, Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Covered Arc Welding Electrodes, these electrodes do not contain deliberate alloy additions, nor are they required to meet minimum tensile properties after postweld heat treatment.

0784265 0534450 404

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4.6.4 E70XX low-hydrogen electrodes have mineral coverings which are high in limestone and other ingredients that are low in moisture and hence “low in hydrogen content.” Low-hydrogen electrodes were developed for weldinglow-alloyhigh-strength steels, some ofwhich were high in carbon content. Electrodes with other than low-hydrogen coverings may produce “hydrogen-induced cracking” in thosesteels. These underbead cracks occurin the base metal, usually just below the weld bead. Weld metal cracks also may occur. These usually, are caused by the hydrogen absorbed from the arc atmosphere. Although these cracks do not generally occur in carbon steels which have a low carbon content, they may occur whenever other electrodes are used on higher carbon or alloy steels. Low-hydrogen electrodes are alsoused to weld high-sulphur and enameling steels. Electrodes with other than low-hydrogen coverings give porous welds on high-sulphur steels. With enameling steels, the hydrogen that escapes after welding with other than low-hydrogen electrodes produces holes in the enamel. 4.6.5 AmperageRanges. Table 1 givesamperage ranges which are satisfactory for most classifications. When welding vertically upward, currents near the lower limit of the rangeare generally used. 4.7 Description and Intended Use of Electrodes 4.7.1 E6010 Classification. E6010 electrodesare characterized by a deeplypenetrating, forceful, spray-type arc and readily removable, thin, friable slag which may

Table 1 W ”” Electrode E7024 and

m10

E7018M

E7015

E6027 . and

Diameter

in.

mm

1.6 1116 5/64

2.0

23 ./ 43 ,2.

Mo13

E6011 E6012

-

40 to 80

118

3.2

75 to 125

Mo19

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

80 lo 125

65 to I IO

70 to 100

1 0 0 to

I25 to I85

110 to

1 0 0 to

I50

Il5 to 165

80 to

I60

1 4 0 to 190

140 to 190

1 6 0 to

IS0 to

1 4 0 to

I 50 lo

150 to

240

210

200

220

180 to 250

I70 to 400

210 to 300

200 to 275

180 to

255

200 to 275

230 to 305

210 to 270

370 to 520

250 to 350

260 to 340

240 to 320

260 lo 340

275 to 365

300 to 420

330 to 415 390 to 500

300 to 390

315 to

375 to 475

375 IO 470

335 to 430 400 to 525

25 to 60

35 to

35 to 85 80 to 140

45 to 90

50 to 90

80 to

80 IO

I D O to

I10 IO

I30

I40

I50

160

I30 to

I30 to I90

I90 to 250

I75 to 250 225 to 310 275 to 375 340 to 450

190

4.83/16

140 to 215

1 4 0 to

150 to

240

230

5.67132

170 to 250

200 to 320

210 to 300

240 to

210 to 320

250 to 400

250 to 350

310 to

275 to 425

300 to 500

320 to 430

190

310

360 360 to 410

-

-

375 to 475

400

T h i s diameter is not manufactured in the E7028 classification.

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-

-

55

105 to I80

8.0

-

25 to 60

I I O to

5/16

and E7028 E7048

-

20 to 40

I10 to 170

114

and

E7018

20 to 40

4.05/32

6.4

and

E6020 E6022 E7027 E7014 E7016

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145

-

-

I40 220

-

-

-

-

-

STDmAWS UGFM-ENGL L995

8

not seem to completely coverthe weld bead. Fillet welds usually have a relatively flat weld face and have a rather coarse, unevenly spaced ripple. The coveringsare high in cellulose, usually exceeding 30 percent by weight. The other materials generally used in the covering include titaniumdioxide,metallicdeoxidizerssuch as ferromanganese, varioustypes of magnesium or aluminum silicates, and liquid sodium silicate as a binder. Because of their coveringcomposition, these electrodes are generally described as the high-cellulose sodium type. These electrodes are recommended for all welding positions, particularlyon multiple-pass applications inthe vertical and overhead welding positions and where welds of goodsoundnessare required. They frequently are selected for joining pipeand generally are capable of weldinginthevertical position with either uphill or downhill progression. The majority of applications for these electrodes is in joining carbon steel. However,theyhavebeenused to advantage on galvanized steel andon some low-alloy steels. Typical applications include ship hulls, buildings, bridges, storage tanks, piping, and pressure vesselfittings. Since the applications are so widespread, a discussion of each is impractical. Sizes larger than 3/16 in. (3.8 mm) generally have limited use inother than flat or horizontalfillet welding positions. These electrodes have been designed for use with dcep (electrodepositive). The maximumamperagethatcan generally be used with the larger sizes of these electrodes is limited in comparison to that for other classifications, due to the high spatter loss that occurs with high amperage.

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4.7.2E6011 Classification. E601 1 electrodesare designed to be used with ac current and to duplicate the usability characteristics and mechanical properties of the E6010 classification. Although also usablewithdcep (electrode positive), a decrease in joint penetration will be notedwhencomparedtothe E6010 electrodes. Arc action, slag, and fillet weld appearance are similar to those of the E6010 electrodes. Thecoverings are also high in cellulose and are described as the high-cellulose potassium type. In addition to theother ingredients normally found in E6010 coverings, small quantities of calcium and potassium compounds usually are present. Sizes larger than 3/16 in. (3.8 mm) generally havelimited use in other than flat or horizontal-fillet welding positions. |||| || || || || |||| || || ||||| | |||| | ---

4.7.3 E6012 Classification. E6012electrodesare characterized by low penetrating arc, and a dense slag that completely covers the bead. This may result in incomplete root penetration in fillet welded joints. The coveringsare high in titania, usually exceeding 35 percent by weight;

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

and they usually are referred to as the “titania”or “rutile” type. The coveringsgenerally also contain small amounts of cellulose and ferromanganese, alongwithvarious siliceous materials such as feldspar and clay with sodium silicate as a binder. Also, small amounts of certain calcium compounds may be used to produce satisfactory arc characteristics on dcen (electrode negative). Fillet welds tend to have a convex weld face with smooth, even ripples inthe horizontal welding position, andwidelyspaced rougherripplesinthe vertical weldingpositionwhich become smoother and more uniform as the size of the weld is increased. Ordinarily, a larger size fillet must be made in thevertical and overhead weldingpositions using E6012 electrodes compared to weldswithE6010and E601 1 electrodes of the same diameter. The E6012 electrodes are all-position electrodes and usually are suitable for welding in the vertical welding position with either upward or downward progression. More often, however, the larger sizes are used in the flat and horizontal welding positions rather than in the vertical and overhead welding positions. The larger sizes are often used for single pass, high-speed, high-current fillet welds in the horizontal welding position. Their ease of handling, good fillet weld face, and ability to bridge wide root openings under conditions of poor fit and to withstand high amperages, makethem very well suited to this type of work. The electrode size used for vertical and overhead position welding is frequently one size smaller than would be used with an E6010 or E6011 electrode. Weld metal from these electrodes is generally lower in ductility and may be higher in yield strength [ l to 2 ksi (690 to 1380 kPa)] than weld metal fromthe same size of either the E6010 or E601 1 electrodes.

4.7.4E6013 Classification. E6013 electrodes, although very similar to the E6012 electrodes, have distinct differences. Their flux covering makes slag removal easier andgives a smoother arc transfer than E6012 electrodes. This is the case particularly for the small diameters [ 1/16, 5/63, and 3/32 in. (1.6, 2.0, and 2.3mm)I. This permits satisfactory operationwith lower open-circuit ac voltage. E6013 electrodes were designed specifically for light sheet-metal work. However, thelarger diameters are used on many of the same applications as E6012 electrodes and provide low penetratingarc. The smallerdiameters provide a less-penetrating arc than is obtained with E6012 electrodes, and this may result in incomplete penetration in fillet welded joints. Coverings of E6013 electrodes contain rutile, cellulose, ferromanganese,potassium silicate as a binder, and other siliceous materials. The potassium compounds permit the electrodes to operate with ac at low amperages and low open-circuit voltages.

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4.7.7E7015 Classification. E7015electrodes are low-hydrogen electrodes to be used with dcep (electrode positive). The slag is chemically basic. E7015 electrodes are commonly used for making small welds on thick base metal, since the welds are less susceptible to cracking. They are also used for welding highsulphur and enameling steels. Welds made with E7015 electrodes on high-sulphur steels may producea very tight slag and a veryrough or irregular beadappearancein comparison to welds with the sameelectrodes in steels of normal sulphur content. The arc of E7015 electrodes is moderately penetrating. The slag is heavy, friable, and easy to remove. The weld face is convex, although a fillet weld face may be flat. E7015 electrodes up to and including the 5/32 in. (3.0 mm) size are used in all welding positions. Larger electrodes are used for groove weldsin the flat welding position and for fillet welds in the horizontal and flat welding positions. Amperages for E7015 electrodes are higher than those usedwith E6010 electrodes of the same diameter. The shortest possible arc length should be maintained for best results with E7015 electrodes. This reduces the risk of porosity. The necessity for preheating is reduced; therefore, better welding conditions are provided.

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4.7.5E7014Classification. E7014 electrode coverings are similar to those of E6012 and E6013 electrodes, but with the addition of iron powder for obtaining higher deposition efficiency. Thecovering thicknessandthe amount of iron powder in E7014 are less than in E7024 electrodes. The iron powder also permits the use of higher amperages than are used for E6012 and E6013 electrodes. The amount and character of the slag permit E7014 electrodes to be used in all positions. The E7014 electrodes are suitable for welding carbon and low-alloy steels. Typical weld beads are smooth with fine ripples. Joint penetration is approximately the same as that obtained with E6012 electrodes, which is advantageous when welding over a wide root opening due to poor fit. The face of fillet welds tend to be flat to slightly convex. The slag is easy to remove. In many cases, it removes itself.

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optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator to the classification designation. In order to maintainlow-hydrogen electrodes with minimalmoisture in their coverings, these electrodes shouldbe stored andhandled with considerable care. Electrodes whichhavebeenexposedto humidity may absorb substantial moisture, and their low-hydrogen character may be lost. Conditioning canthen restore their low-hydrogen character. Low-hydrogen electrode coverings can be designed to resistmoistureabsorption for an extensive timein a humid environment. The absorbed moisture test assesses this characteristic by determining the covering moisture after nine hours of exposure to air at 80°F (27°C) and 80 percent relative humidity. If, after this exposure, the covering moisturedoes notexceed 0.3 percent,thenthe optional supplemental designator, “R,” may be added to the electrode classification designation.

4.7.6Low-HydrogenElectrodes. Electrodes of the low-hydrogen classifications (E7015,E7016,E7018, E7018M, E7028, and E7048) are madewithinorganic coverings thatcontainminimalmoisture. The covering moisturetest converts hydrogen-bearingcompoundsin any form in the covering into water vapor that is collected and weighted.The test thus assesses the potential hydrogen available from an electrode covering. All lowhydrogen electrodes, in the as-manufactured conditionor after conditioning, are expected to meet a maximum covering moisture limit of 0.6 percent or less. The potential for diffusible hydrogen in the weld metal canbeassessedmore directly, but less conveniently, by the diffusible hydrogen test. The results of this test, using electrodes in the as-manufactured condition or after conditioning, permit the addition ofan

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

4.7.8 E7016 Classification. E70 16 electrodes have all the characteristics of E7015 electrodes, plus the ability to operate on ac. The core wire and coverings are very similar to those of E7015, except for the use of a potassium silicate binder or other potassium salts in thecoverings to facilitate their use with ac. Most of the preceding discussion on E7015 electrodes applies equally well to the E7016 electrodes.

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E6013 electrodes are similar to the E6012 electrodes in usability characteristics andbeadappearance. The arc action tends to be quieter and the bead surface smoother with a finer ripple. The usability characteristics of E6013 electrodes vary slightly from brand to brand. Some are recommended for sheet-metal applications, where their ability to weld satisfactorily in the vertical welding position with downward progression is an advantage. Others, with a more fluid slag, are used for horizontal fillet weldsand other general-purposewelding.These electrodes produce a flat fillet weld face rather than the convex weld face characteristic ofE6012 electrodes. They are also suitable for making groove welds because of their concave weld face and easily removable slag.In addition, the weld metal is definitely freer of slag and oxide inclusions than E6012 weld metal, andit exhibits better soundness. Welds with the smaller diameter E6013 electrodes often meet the Grade 1 radiographic requirements.

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STD*AWS UGFM-ENGL L775

STD-AUS UGFM-ENGL 1775

I078112b5 05141153 553

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Electrodes designatedas E7016- 1 have thesame usabilityandweldmetal compositionasE7016 electrodes except that the manganesecontent is set at the high end of the range. They are intended for welds requiring a lower transitiontemperaturethan is normally available from E7016 electrodes.

4.7.9 E7018 Classification. E7018 electrode coverings are similar to E7015 coverings, except for the addition of a relatively high percentage of iron powder. The coverings on these electrodes are slightly thicker than those of theE7016 electrodes. E7018 low-hydrogen electrodes can be used with either ac or deep. They are designed for the same applications as the E7016 electrodes. As is common with all low-hydrogen electrodes, a short arc length should be maintained at all times. In addition to their use oncarbon steel, the E7018 electrodes are also used for joints involving high-strength, high-carbon, or low-alloy steels. The fillet welds made in the horizontal and flat welding positions have a slightly convex weld face, with a smooth and finely rippled surface. The electrodes are characterized by a smooth, quiet arc, very low spatter, and medium arc penetration. E7018 electrodes can be used at high travel speeds. Electrodes designatedas E701 8-1 havethe same usabilityandweldmetal compositionasE7018 electrodes, except that the manganesecontent is set at the high end of the range. They are intended for welds requiring a lower transition temperature than is normally available from E7018 electrodes. 4.7.10E7018MElectrodes. E7018M electrodes are similar to E7018-1H4R electrodes, except that the testing for mechanical properties and for classification is performed on a groove weld that has a 60” included angle and, for electrodes up to 5/32 in. (3.0 mm), is welded in the vertical position withupwardprogression.The impact test results are evaluated using all five test values, and higher valuesare required at -20°F (-29°C). The maximum allowable moisture-in-coating values in the “asreceived” or reconditioned state are more restrictive than that required for E7018R. This classification closely corresponds to MIL-7018” in MIL-E-22200/10 specification, with the exception that the absorbed moisturelimits on the electrode covering and the diffusible hydrogen limits on the weld metal are not as restrictive as those in MIL-E-22200/10. E7018M is intended to be used with dcep-type current in order to produce the optimum mechanical properties. However, if the manufacturer desires, the electrode may also be classified as E7018,provided all the requirements of E70 18 are met.

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COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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In addition to their use on carbon steel, the E701 8M electrodes are used for joining carbon steel to high-strength low-alloy steels and higher carbon steels. Fillet welds made in the horizontal and flat welding positions have a lightly convex weld face, witha smooth and finely rippled surface. The electrodes are characterized by a smooth, quiet arc, very low spatter, and medium arc penetration. 4.7.11 E7028 Classification. E7028electrodes are verymuch like the E7018 electrodes. However, E7028 electrodes are suitable for fillet welds in the horizontal weldingpositionand groove weldsinthe flat welding position only, whereas E7018 electrodes are suitable for all positions. The E7028 electrode coverings are much thicker. They make up approximately 50 percent of the weight of the electrodes. The iron content of E7028electrodes is higher (approximately 50 percent of the weight of the coverings). Consequently, on .fillet welds inthe horizontal position and groove welds in the flat welding position, E7028 electrodes give a higher deposition rate than the E7018 electrodes for a given size of electrode.

4.7.12E6019Classification. E60 19 electrodes, although very similar to E6013 and E6020 electrodes in their coverings, have distinct differences. E6019 electrode, with itsrather fluid slag system, provides deeper arc penetration: and it produces weld metal that meets a 22-percentminimumelongationrequirement,conforms to the Grade 1 radiographic standards, and has an average impact strength of20 ft.lb (275) when tested at 0°F (-18°C). E6019 electrodes are suitable for multiple-pass welding of steel up to one inch (25 mm) thick. They are designed for use with ac, dcen, or dcep. While 3/16 in. (3.8 mm) and smaller-diameterelectrodes can be used for all welding positions (except vertical welding position withdownward progression), the use of larger-diameter electrodes should be limited to the flat or horizontal fillet welding position. When welding in the vertical welding position with upward progression, weaving should be limited to minimize undercut. 4.7.13 E6020 Classification. E6020 electrodes have a high iron-oxidecovering.They are characterized by a spray-type arc, produce a smoothand flat or slightly concave weld face, and have an easily removable slag. A low-viscosity slag limits the use of E6020 electrodes to horizontal fillets and flat welding positions. With arc penetrationranging from medium to deep(depending upon welding current), E6020 electrodes are best suited for thicker base metal.

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4.7.14 E7024Classification. E7024 electrode coverings contain large amounts ofiron powder incombination with ingredients similar to those used inE6012 and E6013 electrodes. The coverings on E7023 electrodes are very thickandusually amounttoabout 50 percent of the weightof the electrode, resulting inhigherdeposition efficiency. The E7024 electrodes are well-suited for making fillet welds in the flat or horizontal position. The weld face is slightly convex to flat, with a very smooth surface and a very fine ripple. These electrodes are characterized by a smooth, quiet arc, very low spatter, and low arc penetration. Theycanbeusedwithhightravelspeeds. Electrodes of these classifications can be operated onac, dcep, or dcen. Electrodes designatedas E7023-1 havethe same general usability characteristics as E7023 electrodes. They are intended for use in situations requiring greater ductility and a lower transition temperature than normally is available from E7023electrodes.

5. Guide to Classification of Low-Alloy Steel Covered Arc Welding Electrodes.

4.7.15 E6027 Classification. E6027 electrode coverings contain large amounts of iron powder in combination with ingredients similar to those found in E6020 electrodes. The coverings on E6027 electrodes are also very thick and .usually amount to about 50 percent of the weight of the electrode. The E6027 electrodes are designed for fillet or groove welds in the flat welding position with ac, dcep, or dcen, and will produce flat a or slightly concave weld face on fillet welds in the horizontal position with either ac ordcen. E6027 electrodes have a spray-type arc. They will operate at hightravelspeeds.Arcpenetrationismoderate. Spatter loss is very low.E6027 electrodes produce a heavy slag which is honeycombed on the underside. The slag is friable and easily removed. Welds produced with E6027 electrodes have a flat to slightly concave weld face with a smooth, fine, even ripple and good wettingalong the sides of the joint. The weld metal may be slightly inferior in radiographic soundness to that from E6020 electrodes. High amperages can be used, since a considerable portion of the electrical energy passing throughthe electrode is used to melt the covering and the iron powder itcontains. These electrodes are wellsuited for thicker base metal.

5.3 Method of Classification. The classification system used follows the established pattern. The letter “E’ designates an electrode; the first two digits (or three digits for a five-digit number) 70 for example, designate the minimum tensile strength of the deposited metal in lo00 psi. The third digit (or fourth digit of a five-digit number) indicates the position in which satisfactory welds can be made with the electrode. Thus, The 1, as in E7010, means that the electrode is satisfactory for use in all positions (flat, vertical, overhead, and horizontal). The 2, as in E7020, indicates that the electrode is suitable for the flat position and also for making fillet welds in the horizontal position. The last two digits, taken together, indicate the type of current with which the electrode can be used, and the type of coveringon the electrode. In addition, a letter suffix, such as Al, designates the chemical composition of the deposited weld metal. Thus, a complete classification of an electrode would be E7010-A1, E8016-C2,etc.

4.7.16E7029Classification. E7027 electrodes have the same usabilityand design characteristics as E6027 electrodes, except they are intended for use in situations requiring slightly higher tensile and yield strengths than are obtained with E6027 electrodes. They must also meet chemical composition requirements.In other respects, all previous discussions for E6027 electrodes also apply to E7027 electrodes.

5.4 Welding Procedure

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

Note: The specific chemical compositions are not always identified with specific mechanical properties. However, a supplier is required to include the mechanical properties appropriatefor a particular electrodein classification of that electrode. Thus, a complete designation is E8016-C2; Exx16-C2 is not a complete classification.

5.4.1 Whenexamining the weld metal properties required in test welds, it should be recognized that the properties may vary widely, depending on electrode size and amperage used, plate thickness, joint geometry, preheat and interpass temperatures, surface condition, base metal composition, and admixtures withthe deposited

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5.2Introduction. This guide is a source of information regarding the welding rods and electrodes presented in ANSVAWS A5.5-81 . In recent years, theservice requirements of low-alloy steel arcwelding electrodes have become more and more exacting. For many applications, consumers require low-alloy steel electrodes that will provide weld metal ofspecific mechanical properties, as well as other specific properties. In addition to the mechanical requirements,chemicalcomposition oftheweldmetal must be within a specified analysis range. Electrodes are required to meet a specific chemical analysis, as well as certain mechanical properties. This guide coversonly the most frequently used low-alloy steel electrodes.

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5.1 Provisions. Excerptsfrom ANSVAWS A5.5-8 1, Spec$cation for Low-Alloy Steel Covered Arc Welding Electrodes.

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5.4.6 When two stress-relieved weldments made with the same classification of low-hydrogen electrode and using the same welding procedure, excepting a variation in interpass temperature and stress relief time, can have almost identical tensile and yield strengths.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

5.6 Electrode Coating Moisture Content and Conditioning 5.6.1 Hydrogen can have adverse effects on welds in some steels under certain conditions. One source of this hydrogen is moisture in the electrode coverings. For this reason,theproper storage, treatment, andhandling of electrodes is necessary.

5.6.4 The low-hydrogen(EXX15and EXX16) and low-hydrogenironpowder (EXX18) electrodes are the most critical types for moisture absorption. These types of inorganic-covered electrodes are designed and developed to contain the very minimum amount of moisture in their coverings. They should be stored and handled with con-

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5.6.3 Electrodes can be maintained for many months under proper storage at normal room temperatures with relative humidity at 50 percent or less, or inholding ovens.However, if the containers are damaged or the electrodes are improperly stored, their coverings may absorb excessive atmospheric moisture.

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5.6.2 Electrodes are manufactured to be within acceptable moisture limits, consistent with the type of covering and strength of the weld metal. They are then normally packaged in a container which has been designed to provide the degree of moisture protection considered necessary for the type ofcovering involved.

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5.4.5 Welds made with low-hydrogenelectrodes of the same classification and the same welding procedure (including the same interpass temperature) may have significantly different tensile and yield strengths in the aswelded and stress-relieved conditions.

5.5.3 ANSVAWSA5.5 does not establish values for all characteristics of the electrodes falling within a given classification, but it does establish values to measure those of major importance. In some instances, a particular characteristic is common to a number of classifications, and testing for it is not necessary. In other instances, the characteristics are so intangible that no adequate tests are available.

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5.4.4 When weld deposits are given a postweld heat treatment, the temperature andtimeattemperatureare very important. Thefollowing pointsconcerningpostweld heat treatment (stress relief in this case) should be kept in mind.The tensile and yield strengths generally are decreased as stress relief temperature and time attemperature are increased.

5.5.2 Since the electrodes within a given classification have similar operating characteristics and mechanical properties, the user can limit the study of available electrodes to those withina single classification after determining which classification best suits his particular requirements.

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5.4.3 Weld metal hydrogen content will affect the properties of depositedweldmetals.Depositedweldmetal, other than those from low-hydrogen electrodes, contain significant quantities of hydrogen for some periodof time aftertheyhavebeendeposited. This hydrogen escapes gradually. After twoto four weeks at room temperature, or in 23 to 48 hours at 200 to 220°F(95 to 105°C)most of it has escaped. As a result of this change in hydrogen content, the yield, tensile, and impact strength remain relatively unchanged. Although the ductility of the weld metal increases toward its inherent value.

5.5.1 Electrodes whichmeet all the requirements of any given classification may be expected to havesimilar characteristics. Certainminor differences continue to exist from onebrand to another dueto differences in production facilities and the usual differences in preferences that exist regarding specific operating characteristics.

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5.4.2 Weld metal properties may be altered dueto variations in production. For instance, interpass temperatures may range from subfreezing to several hundred degrees Fahrenheit (Celsius). No single temperature or reasonable range of temperatures can be chosen for classification tests whichwillberepresentativeofalloftheconditions encountered in production work. Properties of production welds may vary accordingly, depending on the particular welding conditions, and may not duplicate or even closely approach the values specified for test welds. For example, ductility in single-passfillet welds or welds in heavy plate made outdoors in chilly weather may drop to little more than half that required and normally obtained. This does not indicate that either the electrodes or the welds are below standard.Itindicatesonlythattheparticularproduction conditions are more severe than the test conditions.

5.5 Classification Tests

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metal, etc. Because of the profound effect of the variables, a test procedure was chosen which would represent good welding practice andminimizevariation of themost potent of these variables.

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Users not familiar with the characteristics of low-alloy steels are referred toChapter 63 of the Welding Handbook, Volume 4, Sixth Edition and other publications on low-alloy steels.

siderable care. For this reason, a requirement covering the moisture content of the coverings of low-hydrogen electrodes packagedin hermetically sealed containers is included in the specification. Electrodes which have been exposedtohumid atmospheres may absorbexcessive moisture. The moisture contentof electrodes which have been exposed to the atmosphere should not exceed the specified limits.

6. Guideto Classification of Carbon Steel Filler Metals for Gas Shielded Arc Welding 6.1 Provisions. Excerpts fromANSUAWSA5.18-79, Spec$cation for Carbon Steel Filler Metals for Gas Shielded Arc Welding.

5.6.5 If there is a possibility that the electrodes may have picked up excessive moisture, they may be restored by rebaking. Some electrodes require rebaking at temperature as high as 800°F (327°C) for approximatelytwo hours. The manner in which theelectrodes have been produced, the relative humidity, and temperature conditions under which the electrodes are stored determine the proper length of time and temperature used for reconditioning. The supplier shouldberequested to furnish the proper length of time and temperature for this purpose.

6.2Introduction. The purpose of this guide is to correlate the filler metal classifications presented in ANSVAWS A5.18-79 with their intended applications. 6.3 Classification System

5.8 Description and Intended Useof Electrodes. The steels commonly welded with low-alloy electrodes usually are used for specific purposes. The welding of these steels requires an understanding of their properties and heat treatment beyond that which could becovered in this text. Therefore, the sections dealing with usability of lowalloy steel electrodes have not beenincluded in thisguide.

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ER70S-2. The prefix

letters “ER’ at the beginning of a classification indicate that the bare filler metal may be used as an electrode or welding rod. The number 70 indicates the required minimum tensile strength in multiples of lo00 psi (6.9 MPa) of the weld metal in a test weld made using the electrode in accordance with specified welding conditions. The letter “S” designates a bare, solid electrode or rod. The suffix 2 relates to the specific chemical composition.

When filler metals are deposited, the weld metal chemical composition will not vary greatly from the as-manufactured composition whenusedwith argon-oxygen

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The following is a description of the characteristics of the filler metal classifications and the intended uses of each classification. It should be notedthat weld properties mayvary appreciablydepending on several factors filler metal size and current used, plate thickness, joint geometry, preheatand interpass temperatures, surface conditions, base metal composition and extent of alloying with the filler metal, and shielding gas.

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6.4 Description and Intended Use

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6.3.3 At the option and expense of the purchaser, acceptance may be based on theresults of any or all of the classification tests required by the specification made on a gas tungsten arc welding test assembly.

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5.7.2 Due to the thick covering and deep arc cup produced, iron powder electrodes can be used very effectivelywith a “drag” technique. Thistechnique consists of keeping the electrode covering in contact with the workpiece (both members, in fillet welds) at all times, which makes for easy handling. However,an open-arc technique is preferable if the 3/32 in. (2.3 mm) or 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) sizes are to be used inout-of-position welding or for making groove welds. Tests conducted to date have not indicated any significant difference in mechanical properties for the two techniques.

6.3.2 As anexample,consider

“E’ designates an electrode as in other specifications. The

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5.7.1 Electrodes of some classifications have substantial quantities of iron powder added to their coverings. The iron powder fuses with the core wire and the other metal in the covering as the electrode melts down, and it is deposited as weldmetal along withthe core wire. Relatively high currents can be used,since a considerable portion of the electrical energy passing through the electrode is used to melt the larger covering and iron powder therein. The result is that electrodes with iron powder in their covering usually have higher deposition rates than electrodes without iron powder.

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5.7 Coverings

6.3.1 The classification system follows as closely as possible thestandardpatternusedinAWS filler metal specifications. The inherent nature of the products being classified has, however, necessitated specific changes which more ably classify the product.

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shielding gas, but it will show a considerable reduction in circuiting type transfer, but can be used for welding steels content of manganese, silicon, and other deoxidizers whichhavearusty or dirty surface, withapossible sacrias the shielding gas. This reduction fice of weld quality, depending on the degree of surface whenusedwithCO, willdiminishthetensileandyieldstrengths of thewelds contamination.These filler metals are notrequiredto properties. made using CO, shielding gas, but these values will not be demonstrate impact less than the minimum values specified. 6.4.5ER70S-6Classification. Filler metals of this 6.4.1 ER70S-2 Classification. This classification covclassification have the highest combination of manganese ers multiple deoxidized steel filler metals which contain a and silicon, permitting high current welding with C02 gas nominal combined total of 0.20 percent zirconium,titanishielding even in rimmed steels. These filler metals also um, and aluminum in addition to the silicon and manmay be used to weld sheet metal in which smooth weld ganese contents. These filler metals are capable of probeads are desired, or to weld and steels which have modducing sound welds in semikilled and rimmed steels, and erate amounts of rust and mill scale. The quality of the also in killed steels of various carbon levels. Because of weld will depend onthe degree of surface impurities. This the added deoxidants, these filler metals can be used for filler metal is also usable out-of-position with short cirwelding steels which have a rusty or dirty surface, with a cuiting transfer. possible sacrifice of weld quality depending on the degree of surface contamination.They can be used with shielda 6.4.6 ER70S-7 Classification.These filler metals have ing gas of argon-oxygen mixtures, COZ, or argon-CO, a manganese content that is essentially equal to that of mixtures; and they are preferred for out-of-position weldER70S-6,andsubstantiallygreaterthanthoseof the ing with the short-circuiting type of transfer because of ER70S-3 classification. This provides slightly better wettheir ease of operation. ting and weld appearance with slightly higher tensile and yield strengths, and it may permit increased speeds com6.4.2 ER70S-3 Classification. These filler metals will pared with ER7OS-3 filler metals. These filler metals genmeet the requirements of ANSVAWS A5.18 with either erally are recommended for use with argon-oxygen shieldCO2 or argon-oxygen as a shielding gas. They are used ing-gas mixtures, but they are usable with argon-CO2 mixprimarily on single-pass welds, but can be used on multitures andCO, under the same general conditions as for the ple-pass welds, especially when welding killed or semiER70S-3 classification. Under equivalent welding condikilled steel. Small diameterelectrodes can beused for outtions,weldhardnesswillbe lower thanER70S-6weld of-position welding and for short circuiting type transfer metal, but higher than ER70S-3 deposits. withargon-CO2mixtures or CO, shieldinggases. However, it should be noted that the use of CO2 shielding 6.4.7 ER7OS-G Classification. This classification ingas in conjunction withexcessively high heat inputs may cludes those solid filler metals which are not included in result in failure to meet the minimumspecified tensile and the preceding classes. The filler metal supplier should be yield strength. consulted for the characteristicsandintended use. ANSVAWS A5.18-93 does not list specific chemical 6.4.3 ER70S-4 Classification.These filler metals concomposition or impact requirements. These are subject to tain slightly higher manganese and silicon contents than agreement between supplier and purchaser. However, any those of the ER70S-3 classification, and they produce a filler metal classified ER70S-Gmustmeet all other weld deposit of higher tensile strength. The primary useof requirements of the specification. these filler metals is for CO2 shielded welding applications whereaslightly longer arc or other conditions require more deoxidation than provided by the ER70S-3 filler metals. These filler metals are notrequired to demonstrate impact properties.

6.4.4 ER70S-5 Classification. This classification covers filler metals which contain aluminum in addition to manganese and silicon as deoxidizers. These filler metals can be used when welding rimmed, killed, or semikilled steels with C02 shielding gas and high welding currents. The relatively large amount of aluminum assures the deposition of welldeoxidizedand sound weldmetal. Because of the aluminum, they are not used for the short-

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6.5 Welding Considerations 6.5.1 Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) can be divided into four categories based on the mode of metal transfer employed. The methods are known as spray, pulsedspray, globular, and short-circuiting type transfer. Spray, pulsed spray, and globular transfer occur as distinct droplets detached from the electrode in a fine stream or as globules. The droplets or globules transfer along the arc column into the weld puddle. In short-circuiting type transfer, the electrode is deposited during frequent short circuiting of the electrode into the molten pool.

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6.5.5 Short-Circuiting-Type Transfer. This method of (GMAW) is generally done with 0.030 to 0.035 in. (0.8 to 1.2 mm) diameter electrodes, using lower arc voltages andamperagesthansprayarc welding, andapower source designed for short circuiting transfer. The electrode short-circuits to the workpiece, usually at a rate of

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

7.2Introduction. The purpose of this guide is to correlate the filler metal classifications presented in AWS A5.28-79 with their intended application. 7.3 Classification System

7.3.3 Atthe option and expense of the purchaser, acceptance may be based on theresults of any or all of the tests required by ANSVAWS A5.28-79 made on GTAW test assembly. Compositeelectrodes are not recommended for GTAW or PAW.

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7.3.2 As an example, consider ER80S-B2 and E8OC-B2. The prefix “E’ designates an electrode, as in other specifications. The letters “ER’ at the beginning of a classification indicate that the filler metal may be used as an electrode or welding rod. The number 80 indicates therequiredminimum tensile strengthin multiples of lo00 psi (6.9 MPa) of the weld metal in a test weld made using the electrode in accordance with specified welding conditions. Three digits are used for weldmetal of 100000psi (690 MPa) tensile strength and higher. The letter “S” designates a bare solid electrode or rod. The letter “C” designates a composite metal cored or stranded electrode. The suffix B2 indicates a particular classification based on as-manufactured chemical composition.

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7.3.1 The classification system follows as closely as possible the standard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The inherent nature of the products being classified have,however,necessitated specific changes which more ably classify the product.

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6.5.4 Globular-Type Transfer. The method of transfer which characterizes welding with CO2 shielding gas is globular and nonaxial in nature. Common practice with globular transfer is to uselowarc voltagetocause a “buried arc” which produces deep penetration and minimizes spatter. For this type of transfer, 0.035 and 1/16 in. (1.2 and 1.6 mm) diameter electrodes are normally used at welding currents in a rangeof 275-300 amperes(dc). The rate of droplets (globules) transferred ranges from 20 to 70 per second depending on the electrode, welding current, and voltage.

7.1 Provisions. Excerpts from AWS A5.28-79, Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Filler Metal for Gas Shielded Arc Welding.

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6.5.3 Pulsed-Spray-Type Transfer.Metal transfer in pulsedspray arc welding is similar to the spray arc described above and occurs at lower average currents. Lower current welding is made possible by rapid pulsing of the current between ahigh level where metal will transfer in the spray mode and a low level where no transfer takes place. At a typical rate of 60 to 120 pulses per second, a melted drop is formed by the low-current arc, then “squeezed off’ by the high current pulse. This mode permits all-position welding in a manner similar to short-circuiting transfer described below.

7. Guideto Classificationof Low-Alloy Steel Filler Metals for Gas Shielded Arc Welding.

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6.5.2.1 Spray-type transfer welding of carbon steel is mostcommonlydonewithashieldinggasmixtureof argon and2 to 5 percent oxygen.A characteristic of spraytype transfer welding with argon-oxygen shielding gas is the smooth arc plasma through which hundreds of droplets per second are transferred axiallyfrom the electrode to the weld puddle. With CO, shielding gas, however, rapid rate of transfer of droplets across the arc does not occur unless very high currents are used. 6.5.2.2 Axial spray transfer in argon-oxygen shielding gas is mainly related to the magnitude and polarityof the arc current and electrical resistance heating of the electrode. The high droplet rate (approximately 250 droplets persecond)developssuddenlyaboveacriticalcurrent level,commonlyreferredtoasthe transitioncurrent. Below this current. the metal is transferred in drops generally larger in diameter than the electrode at a rate of 10 to 20 drops per second (globular transfer). The transition current is dependent to a great extent on electrode diameter and chemical composition. For 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) diameter carbon steel electrodes, a transition current of 270 amperes (dc, electrode positive) is common. Alternating current is not recommended.

50 to 200 timesper second. Metalis transferred with each short circuit and notacross the arc.Short-circuiting of carbon steel is most commonly done with shielding gas mixtures of argon-C02 or with 100 percent welding grade CO,. Penetration of welds made with CO2 shielding gas is greater than with argon-CO2 mixtures. Shielding gas mixtures of 50 to 80 percent argon-remainder CO2 result in higher short circuiting rates and lower minimum currents and voltages than with CO, shielding. This can be an advantage in welding thin plate.

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6.5.2 Spray-Type Transfer

7.4 Description and Intended Use. The following is a description of the characteristics and intended use of the filler metals classified by ANSVAWS A5.28-79.

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It should be noted that weld properties may vary appreciablydependingon filler metalsizeandcurrentused, plate thickness, joint geometry, preheat and interpass temperatures, surface conditions, base-metal composition and extent of alloying with the filler metal, and shielding gas. For example, when filler metals having a certain analysis are deposited, the weld-metal chemical composition will not vary greatly from the as-manufactured composition of the filler metal when used with argon-oxygen shielding gas; but they will show a considerable reduction in the content of manganese, silicon, and other deoxidizers when used with CO, as the shielding gas. || || || || |||| || || ||||| | |||| | ---

7.4.1 ERSOSB2 and ESOGB2 Classifications. Filler metals of these classifications are used to weld 1/2Cr-l/2Mo, 1 Cr-l/2Mo, and 1-1/4Cr-l/2Mo steels for elevated temperatures and corrosive service. They are also used for joining dissimilar combinations of Cr-Mo and carbon steels. The spray transfer, short-circuiting, or pulsed power modesof the GMAW process may be used. Carefulcontrol of preheat, interpass temperatures, and postheat is essential to avoid cracking. 7.4.2 ERSOS-B2L and ESOC-B2L Classifications. These filler metals are identical to the types ER8OS-B2 and E8OC-B2 except for the low carbon content (0.05 per maximum). This alloy exhibits greater resistance to cracking and is more suitable when welds are to be left in the as-welded condition or when the accuracy of the PWHT operation is questionable. 7.4.3 ER90S-B3 and E90C-B3 Classifications.Filler metalsof these classifications are usedtoweldthe 2- 1/4Cr-1Mo steels used for high temperature-high pressure piping and pressure vessels. These may also be used for joining combinations of Cr-Mo and carbon steel. All gas metal arc welding modes may be used. Careful control of preheat, interpass temperatures, and postheat are essential to avoid cracking. 7.4.4 ER90S-B3L and E90C-B3LClassifications. These filler metals are identical to the types ER90S-B3 and E90C-B3 exceptfor the low carbon content (0.05percent maximum). These alloys exhibit greater resistance to cracking and are more suitable for welds to be left in the as-welded condition. 7.4.5 ERSOS-NilandESOC-NilClassifications. These filler metals deposit weld metal similar to 8018-C3 covered electrodes and are used for weldinglow-alloy high-strength steels requiring good toughness at temperatures as low as -40°F (-40°C).

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7.4.6 ERSOS-Ni2 and ESOC-Ni2 Classifications. These filler metals deposit weld metal similar to 8018-C 1 electrodes. Typically, they are used for welding 3-112 percent nickel steels and other materials requiring a tensile strength of 80ksi (550 MPa) and good toughness at temperatures as low as -75°F (-60°C). 7.4.7ERSOS-Ni3andESOC-Ni3 Classifications. These filler metals deposit weld metal similar to 8018-C2 electrodes. Typically they are used for welding 3-1/2 percent nickel steels for low-temperatureservice wherea tensile strength of 90 ksi (620 MPa) is required. 7.4.8ERSOS-D2Classification. This filler metalis the same as E70S-1B of A5.18-93. Filler metals of this classification contain a high level of deoxidizers (Mn and Si), to control porosity when welding with CO, as the shielding gas, andmolybdenum for increased strength. They will give radiographic quality welds with excellent bead appearance inbothordinaryand difficult-to-weld carbon and low-alloy steels. They exhibit excellent outof-position welding characteristics with the short-circuiting and pulsed-arc processes. The combination of weld soundness and strength makes filler metal of this classification suitable for single- and multiple-pass welding of a variety of carbon andlow-alloy steels. 7.4.9 ER100S-1, ER100S-2, ER11OS-1, and ER120S-1Classifications. These filler metals deposit high-strength, very tough weld metal for critical applications. Originallydevelopedforwelding HY80 and HYlOO steels for military applications, they are also used for a variety of structural applications where tensile strength requirementsexceed 100 ksi (690MPa) and excellent toughness is required to temperatures as low as -60°F (-50°C). 7.4.10 ERXXS-G and EXXC-G Classifications. These classifications include those solid electrodes and rods and composite metal cored and stranded electrodes which are not included in the preceding classes. The supplier shouldbe consulted for the characteristics and intended use of these filler metals. ANSUAWS A5.28-92 does not list specific chemicalcomposition or impact requirements. These are subject to agreementbetween supplier and purchaser. However, any filler metal classified ERXXS-G or EXXC-G must meet all other requirements of the specification. 7.5 WeldingConsiderations 7.5.1 Gas metal arc welding can be divided into four categories based on the mode of metal transfer employed. The methods are known as spray, pulsed spray, globular,

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8.2 Introduction. This guide is provided as a source of 7.5.3 Pulsed-Spray Type Transfer. Metal transfer in

pulsed-spray arc welding is similar to the spray arc described above and occurs at lower average currents. Lower-current welding is made possible by rapid pulsing of the current between a high level where metal will transfer in the spray mode and a low level where no transfer takes place. At a typical rate of 60 to 120 pulses per second, a melted drop is formed by the low current arc and then “squeezed off’ by the high current pulse. This mode permits all-position welding in a manner similar to shortcircuiting transfer, described below. 7.5.4 Globular-TypeTransfer. The method of transfer which characterizes welding with CO2 shielding gas is globular and non-axial in nature. Common practice with globular transfer is to uselow arc voltage to cause a “buried arc” which produces deep penetration and minimizes spatter. For this type of transfer, 0.045 and 1/16 in. (1.2 and 1.6 mm) diameter electrodes are used normally at

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information regarding the application of filler metal classifications specified in ANSI/AWS A5.20-79. 8.3 Method of Classification

8.3.1 The classification system usedinANSVAWS A5.20 follows as closely as possible the standard pattern usedinAWS filler metal specifications. The inherent nature of the products being classified has, however, necessitated specific changes which more suitably classify the product. 8.3.2 An illustration of the method of classification of electrodes is shown in Figure l . 8.3.3 Some products maybe designed for the flat and horizontal positions regardless of size. Others maybe designed for out-of-position welding in the smaller sizes and flat and horizontal positions in the larger sizes. The

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7.5.5 Short Circuiting Type Transfer. This method of gas metal arc welding is generally done with 0.030 to 0.045 in. (0.8 to 1.2 mm) diameter electrodes using lower arc voltages and amperages than spray arc welding and a 7.5.2 Spray-Type Transfer special power supply. The electrode short-circuits to the 7.5.2.1 Spray-type transfer welding of low-alloy steel is workpiece, usually at a rate of 50 to 200 times per second. mostcommonlydonewith a shieldinggasmixtureof Metal is transferred with each short circuit and not across argon and 2 to 5 percent oxygen.A characteristic of spray the arc. Short circuiting gas metal arc welding of lowtype transfer welding with argon-oxygen shielding gas is thesmootharcplasma,throughwhichhundreds of alloy steel is most commonly done with shielding gas droplets per second are transferred axially from the elecmixtures of argon-C02, 100 percent welding grade COZ, trode to the weld puddle. With COz shielding gas, howev- and occasionally with mixtures ofhelium-argon-CO2. er, rapid rateof transfer of droplets across the arc does not Penetration of weldsmade with CO, shielding gas is occur unless very high currents are used. greater than with argon-C02 mixtures, but mixtures con7.5.2.2 Axial spray transfer in argon-oxygen shielding taining substantial amounts of argon or helium generally gas is mainly related to the magnitude and polarity of the result in superior weld metal impact properties. Shielding arc current and electrical-resistance heating of the elecgas mixtures of 50 to 90 percent argon-remainder CO2,or trode. The high droplet rate (approximately 250 droplets 50 to 90 percent helium-remainder CO,, result in higher persecond)developssuddenlyabove a criticalcurrent short-circuiting rates and lower minimum currents and level,commonlyreferredtoasthetransitioncurrent. voltages than does CO2 shielding alone. This can be an Below this current, themetal is transferred in drops generadvantage when welding thin plate or in the achievement ally largerin diameter than the electrode ata rate from 10 to 20 per second (globular transfer). The transition current of superior impact properties. is dependent to a great extent on electrode diameter and chemicalcomposition. For 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) diameter 8. Guide to Classification of Carbon Steel Electrodes low-alloysteelelectrodes, a transitioncurrent of 270 for FluxCored Arc Welding. amperes (dc, electrode positive) is common. Alternating current is not recommended. 8.1 Provisions. Excerpts from ANSVAWS A5.20-79 7.5.2.3 Shielding gasmixturesofargon-CO2,argonSpecijìcationfor Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored COz-oxygen, and CO2-oxygen have found limited use for Arc Welding. spray arc welding of low-alloy steel.

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welding currents in a range of 275 to 400 amperes (dc). The rate of droplets (globules) transferred ranges from 20 to 70 per second, depending on the electrode, welding current, and voltage.

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and short-circuiting type transfer. Spray, pulsed spray, and globular transfer occur as distinct droplets detached from the electrode in a fine stream or as globules. The droplets or globules transfer along the arc column into the weld puddle. In short-circuiting type transfer, the electrode is deposited during frequent short-circuiting of the electrode into the molten pool.

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specification allows dual classification for theprimary weld positions on thelatter types.

ilar flux or corecomponents andwhich usability characteristics.

8.4 Welding Procedure.

8.5.4 T-1 Electrode Classification, Electrodes of the T-1 group are classifiedwith C02 shielding gas. However, gas mixtures of argon-C02 are also used to improve usability, especially for out-of-position applications. Decreasing amountsof CO2 in the argon-C02 mixture will increase manganese and silicon in the deposit and may improve the impact properties. These electrodes are designed for single- and multiple-pass welding. The larger diameters [usually 5/64 in. (1.6 mm) and smaller] are used for welding in all positions. The T-1 electrodes are characterized by a spray-transfer, low-spatter-loss, flat to slightly convexbead configuration, anda moderate volume of slag that completely covers the weldbead. Most electrodes in this group have a rutile base slag.

When examining the weld metal properties required in test welds in accordance with the specification, it should be recognized thatthe properties mayvary widely, depending on electrode size, amperage and voltage used, type and amount of shielding gas, electrical extension, plate thickness, joint geometry, preheatand interpass temperature, surface condition, base metal composition and admixture of the base metal with thedeposited metal, etc.

8.5 Description and Intended Use 8.5.1 The toughness requirements for classifications can be used as a guide in the selection of electrodes for applications wherelow-temperature notchtoughnessis specifically required. For a given electrode there can be a considerable difference between impact test results from one assembly to another, or even from one impactspecimen to another, unless particular attention is given to the welding procedure, details of specimen preparation (even its location within the weld), temperature of testing, and the operation of the testing machine. 8.5.2 Electrodes coveredby the specification are capable of producingweld deposits thatmeetmostradiographic quality requirements.

8.5.3 The specification classifiestwelvedifferent types of flux cored electrodes. Each suffix (T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, T-5, T-6, T-7, T-8, T-10, T-1 1, T-G, and T-GS) indicates a general groupingof electrodes which contain simDesignates m electrode.

'F

Indicates the minimum tensde strength of the depositedweld metal in a test weld mada wth the elmrode and in rcC0rd.m witk WeClfiCd welding

conditions.

Il EX

1 h "te

XT-X

lndiites the primary welding position for which dectrode ir designed:

E

O

- flat and horizontalpositions

1

- ail positions

Indicatesuubilitv and performam wpabilities.

Indiates a flux cored electrode.

nelewr-X-u

N-:

i fipn in r k c v o d e c * o i ~ ~ r v t i o ninr UC specification ub*iauu h r rpcoifis d 6 ~ i g ~ t in id 0iu ~rodby hi figure.

Figure 1 - Method of Classification of Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding

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have similar

8.5.5 T-2 Electrode Classification. Electrodes of this classification are essentially T-1 electrodes withhigher manganese or silicon or both, and they are designed primarily for single-pass welding in the flat position and for horizontal fillets. The higher levels of deoxidizers in these electrodes allow single-pass weldingover scaled or rimmed steel. The specification does not impose chemical composition requirements for single-pass electrodes, since checking the undiluted deposit chemistry will not demonstrate their normalsingle-pass deposit chemistry.The tworun technique (one passfrom each side on the butt welds) is equivalent to the single-pass applications becauseof the similar weld-metal dilution obtained. T-2 electrodes that use manganese as the principal deoxidizing element give good mechanical properties in both single- and multiplepassapplications.However,themanganese content and tensile strength will be high in multiple-pass applications. These electrodes can be used for welding material which has heavier mill scale, rust, or other foreign materials on its surface than can be tolerated by some electrodes of the T- 1 classification and still produce welds of radiographic quality. The arc characteristics and deposition rates are similar to those of the T-1 electrodes. 8.5.6 T-3 Electrode Classification. Electrodes of the T-3 classification are self-shielded, are used on dc with positive polarity, and have a spray-type transfer.The slag system is designed to give characteristics which makepossible very high welding speeds. They are used to make single-pass welds in the flat, horizontal, and(up to20")downhill positions on sheet metal up to 3/16 in. (4.8 mm) thick. They should not be used for welding material thicker than 3/16 in. (4.8 mm) or for makingmultiple-passwelds.

8.5.7 T-4 Electrode Classification. Electrodes of the T-4 classification are self-shielded, operate on dc with

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positive polarity, and have a globular-type transfer. The slag system is designed to give characteristics which make possible veryhigh deposition rates, and also to desulfurize theweldmetal to averylow level, which helps make the weld deposit very resistant to cracking. These electrodes are designed for low penetration beyond the root of the weld, which enables them to be used for welding joints with poor fit-up, and for single-and multiple-pass welding in the flat and horizontal positions.

8.5.12 T-10 Electrode Classification. Electrodes of the T-10 classification are self-shielded and operate on dc withnegativepolarity. The slagsystem is designed to give characteristics that enable welds to be made at high travel speeds. They are used for making single-pass welds on material of anythickness in the flat, horizontal, and (up to 20") downhill positions.

8.5.13 T-11 Electrode Classification. Electrodes of theT-1 1 classification are self-shielded, operate on dc with negative polarity, and have a smooth spray-type arc. The slag system is designed with characteristics that

8.5.8 T-5Electrode Classification. Electrodes of the

T-5group are designed to be used with "2

gas beused as in the T-1 types) for (argon-C02may single- and multiple-pass welding inthe flat position, and for horizontal fillets. These electrodes are characterized by a globular transfer, slightly convex beadconfiguration, and a thin slag which may notcompletely coverthe weld bead' in this group have a lime-fluoride base slag. Weld deposits produced by electrodes of this group have improved impact properties and crack resistance in comparison to the rutile types.

enable these electrodes to be used in all-position welding and to m&e welds at high travel speeds.They are used as general purpose electrodes for single- and multiple-pass welding in all positions. 8.5.14 T-G Electrode Classification. The EXXT-G is for new multiple-pass electrodes which are not covered under anyof the presently defined classifications. Themultiple-pass properties canbeanything covered by these specifications. The slag system, arc characteristics, weld appearance, and polarity are not defined.

8.5.9 T-6 Electrode Classification. Electrodes of the T-6 classification are self-shielded, operate on dc with positive polarity, and have a spray-type transfer. The slag system is designed to give verygoodlow-temperature impact properties, deep penetration beyond the root of the weld, and excellent deep-groove slag removal. They are used for single- and multiple-pass welding in the flat and horizontal positions.

8.5.15 T-GS Electrode Classification. The EXXTGS classification is for new single-pass electrodes which are not covered under any other presently defined classification. The single-pass properties can be anything covered by the specifications. The slag system, arc characteristics, weld appearance, and polarity are not defined.

9. Guide to AWS Classification of Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding

8.5.10 T-7 Electrode Classification. Electrodes of the T-7 classification are self-shielded and operate on dc with negative polarity. The slag system is designed to give characteristics which allow the larger sizes of these electrodes to be used for high deposition rates and the smaller sizes to be used for all-position welding. The slag system is also designed to desulfurize the weld metal to a very low level, which helps make the weld deposit resistant to cracking. Electrodes of the T-7 classification are used for single- and multiple-pass welding.

9.1 Provisions.Excerptfrom ANSUAWS A5.29-80, Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding. 9.2 Method of Classification

8.5.11 T-8Electrode Classification. Electrodes of the T-8 classification are self-shielded and operate on dc with negative polarity. The slag system is designed to give characteristics which make it possible to use these electrodes for all-position welding. The slag system is also designed to produce very good low-temperature impact properties in the weld metal and to desulfurize the weld metal to a very low level, which helps resist weld cracking. Electrodes of the T-8 classification are used for single- and multiple-pass welding.

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9.2.1 The classification system follows as closely as possible the standard patternusedinAWS filler metal specifications. The inherent nature of the products being classified has, however, necessitated specific changes that more suitably classify the product. 9.2.2 An illustration of the method of classification of electrodes is shown in Figure 2. 9.2.3 Some products may be designed for the flat and horizontal positions regardless of size. Others maybe designed for out-of-position welding in the smaller sizes and flat and horizontal positions in the larger sizes. The

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welding of these steels requires an understanding of their properties and heat treatment. Users not familiar with the characteristics of low-alloy steels are referred to Chapter63 of the Welding Handbook, 6th Edition, and other publications of low-alloy steels.

specification allows dual classification for the primary weld positions on the latter types.

9.3 Welding Procedures When examining the weld metal properties required in test welds, it should be recognized that the properties may vary widely, depending on electrode size, amperage and voltage used, type and amount of shielding gas, electrical extension, plate thickness, joint geometry, preheat and interpass temperature, surface condition, base metal composition, and admixture of the base metalwith the deposited metal.

9.4.4 It should be noted that the flux cored electrodes are intended primarily for welding in the flat and horizontal positions, if designated EXOTX-X. These electrodes may be used in other positions if the proper welding current and electrode diameter are used. Electrode diameters below 3/32 in. (2.4 mm), and currents on the low side of the range recommended by the manufacturer, may be used for out-of-position welding. TheEXlTX-X electrodes are designed for all-position usability.

9.4 Description and Intended Use 9.4.1 The toughness requirements for classifications can be used as a guide in the selection of electrodes for applications where low-temperature notch toughness is specifically required. For a given electrode, there can be a considerable difference between impact test results from one assembly to another -or even from one impact specimen to another - unless particular attention is given to the welding procedure, details of specimen preparation (even its location within the weld), temperature of testing, and the operation of the testing machine.

9.4.5 The specification classifies four general types of flux cored electrodes: T l , T4, T5, and T8. Each suffix (Tl, T4, T5, or T8) indicates a general grouping of electrodes that contain similar flux or core components that produce distinctive welding characteristics and similar slag systems. 9.4.5.1 Tl Electrode Classification. Electrodes of the Tl group are classified with CO, shielding gas. However, gas mixtures of argon-CO2 may be usedwhererecommendedby the manufacturer to improve usability, especiallyforout-of-positionapplications.Theseelectrodes are designed for single- and multiple-pass welding. The larger diameters [usually 5/64 in. (2.0 mm) and smaller] are used for welding in all positions. TheTl electrodes are characterized by a spray transfer, low spatter-loss, flat to slightly convex bead configuration, and a moderate volume of slag that completely covers the weld bead. Most electrodes in this group havea rutile base slag. 9.4.5.2 T4 Electrode Classification. Electrodes of the T4 classification are self-shielded, operate on dc with positive polarity, and have a globular-type transfer. The slag system is designed to give characteristics that make possible very high deposition rates, and also to desulfurize the weld metal to a very low level, which helps make the weld depositveryresistanttocracking.Theseelectrodesare designed for low penetration beyond the rootof the weld, which enables them to be usedfor weldingjoints with poor fit-up and for single- and multiple-pass welding in theflat and horizontal positions. 9.4.5.3 T5 Electrode Classification. Electrodes of the T5 group are designed to be used with CO, shielding gas (argon-C02mixtures may be used where recommended by the manufacturer, as in theTl types) for single- and multiple-pass welding in the flat position, and for horizontal fillets.Certain T5 electrodesaredesignedtoweldon straight polarity with argon-C02 mixtures, for use in outby of-position welding. These electrodes are characterized a globulartransfer,slightlyconvexbeadconfiguration, and a thin slag that may not completely cover the weld bead. Electrodes in this group have a lime-fluoride base

9.4.2 Electrodes covered by ANSUAWS A5.29-80 are capable of producing weld deposits that meet most radiographic quality requirements. 9.4.3 The steels commonly welded with low-alloy steel electrodes usually are used for specific purposes. The Osnpnatu an electrode. Indicatu the monomum lensole strenN of lhe demrited weld m1.l in a lest m(d mada with the elmrode a d in r m r d m c e with Ipslficd vratding mndtttons lndroter the promaw weldwq w s ~ i o nfor which D designed:

the electrod+

O

-

flat andhorozontalporttaons

1 - all positlonr

EXXTX-X TT T

Figure 2 - Method of Classification of Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding

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slag. Weld deposits produced by electrodes of this group have improved impact properties and crack-resistance in comparison to the rutile types. 9.4.5.4 T8 Electrode Classification. Electrodes of the T8 classification are self-shielded and operate on dc with negativepolarity.Theslagsystemisdesigned togive characteristicsthat makeitpossibletousetheseelectrodes for all-position welding. The slag system is also designed to produce very good low-temperature impact properties in the weld metal and to desulfurize the weld metal to a very low level, which helps resist weld cracking. Electrodesof the T8 classification areused for singleand multiple-pass welding. 9.4.5.5 TX-G Electrode Classification. The EXXTX-Gclassificationisfornewmultiple-passelectrodesthatarenotcoveredunderanyofthepresently definedclassifications.Thepropertiescan be anything covered by the specification. The slag system, arc characteristics, weld appearance, and polarity are not defined.

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10. Guide to Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes Submerged Arc Welding

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10.1 Provisions. Excerpts from ANSVAWS A5.17-89 Specijìcationfor Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding. 10.2 Introduction. The purpose of this guide is to correlate the electrode andflux classifications presentedin ANSVAWSA5.17-89with their intended applications. Reference to appropriate base metal specifications is made whenever possible and when it would be helpful. Such references areintended as examples only, rather than complete listings of the base metals for which each electrode and flux combination is suitable.

10.3 Classification System 10.3.1 Classification of Electrodes. The system for identifying the electrode classifications follows the standard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The Letter “E’ at the beginning of each classification designation stands for electrode. The remainder of the designation indicates the chemical composition of the electrode -or, in thecase of composite electrodes, of the low-dilution weld metal obtained with a particular flux. The letter “L” indicates that the solid electrode is comparatively low in manganese content.The letter “ M ’ indicates a medium manganese content, while the letter “H’ indicates a comparatively high manganese content. The one or two digits following themanganese designator indicate the nominal carbon contentof the electrode. The letter “K’, which appears in some designations, indicates that the electrode is made from a heat of silicon-killed

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steel. Solid electrodes are classified only on the basis of their chemical composition. A composite electrode is indicated bythe letter “C” after the “E’, along with a numerical suffix. The composition of a composite electrode is meaningless; the user is therefore referred to weld metal composition with a particular flux, rather than to electrode composition.

10.3.2 Classification of Fluxes. Fluxes are classified on the basis of the mechanical properties of the weld metal they produce witha certain classification of electrode. As examples of flux classifications, consider the following designations: F6AO-EH 14 FVP6-EM 12K F7P4-EC 1 The prefix “F’ designates a flux. This is followed by a single digit representing theminimum tensile strength required of the weld metal in 1O O00 psi increments. for When the letter “ A follows the strength designator, it indicates that the weld metal was tested(and is classified) in the as-welded condition. When the letter “F‘” follows the strength designator, it indicates that the weld metal was tested (and isclassified) after postweld heat treatment called for in the specification. The digit that follows the “A” or “ P will be a number or the letter “Z”. This digit refers to the impact strength of the weld metal.Specifically, it designates the temperature at (and above) which the weld metal meets, or exceeds, the required 20 ft-lb (275) CharpyV-notchimpact strength; or, if the letter “Z” is designated, it indicates that noimpact requirement isspecified. These mechanical property designations are followed by the designation of the electrode used in classifying the flux. The suffix EH14, EM12K, EC 1, etc. - included after the hyphen refers to the classification of electrode which, combined with the flux, will deposit weld metal that meets the specified mechanical properties when tested as called for in the specification. It should be noted that flux of any specific trade designation may have many classifications. Thenumber is limited only by the number of different electrode classifications and the condition of heat treatment (as-welded and postweld heat-treated) with which the flux can meet the classification requirements. The flux marking lists at least one, and may list all, classifications to which the flux conforms. Solid electrodes having the same classification are interchangeable when used with a specific flux; composite electrodes may not be. However, the specific usability (or operating) characteristics of various fluxes of the same classification may differ in one respect or another.

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10.4 Welding Considerations 10.4.1 Type of Fluxes. Submerged arc welding fluxes are granular, fusible mineral compounds of various proportions and quantities, manufactured by any of several different methods. In addition, some fluxes may contain intimately mixed metallic ingredients to deoxidize the weld pool. Any flux is likely to produce weld metal of somewhat different composition than that ofthe electrode used with it due to chemical reactions in the arc andsometimes to the presenceof metallic ingredients in the flux. A change inarcvoltage during weldingwill change the quantity of flux interacting with a given quantity of electrode and may, therefore, change the composition of the weldmetal. This latter changeprovidesameans of describing fluxes as “neutral”, “active”, or “alloy”. 10.4.2 Neutral Fluxes. Neutral fluxes are those which will not produce any significant change in the weld metal chemical analysis as a result of a large change in the arc voltage, and thus, the arc length. The primary use for neutral fluxes is in multiple-pass welding, especially whenthe base metal exceeds 1 in. (25 mm) in thickness. Note the following considerations concerning neutral fluxes: (1) Since neutral fluxes contain little or no deoxidizers, they must rely on the electrode to provide deoxidation. Single-pass welds with insufficient deoxidation on heavily oxidized base metal may be prone to porosity, centerline cracking, or both. (2) While neutral fluxes do maintain the chemical composition of theweldmetalevenwhenthevoltageis changed, it is not always true that the chemical composition of the weld metalis the same as the chemical composition of the electrode used. Some neutral fluxes decompose in the heat of the arc andrelease oxygen, resulting in a lower carbon value in the weld metal than the carbon content of the electrode itself.Some neutral fluxes contain manganese silicate, which can decompose in the heat of the arc to add some manganese and silicon to the weld metal even though no metallic manganese or silicon was addedto these particular fluxes. Thesechangesinthe chemical composition of the weld metal are fairly consistent even when there are large changes in voltage. (3)Even when a neutral flux is used to maintain the weldmetal chemical composition througha rangeof welding voltages, weld properties such as strength level and impact properties can change because of changes in other welding parameters such as depth of fusion, heat input, and number ofpasses. 10.4.3 ActiveFluxes. Active fluxes are thosewhich contain smallamounts of manganese, silicon, orboth.

These deoxidizers are added to the flux toprovide improved resistance to porosity and weldcracking caused by contaminants onor in the base metal. The primary use for active fluxes is to make single-pass welds, especially on oxidized base metal. Notethefollowingconsiderationsconcerning active fluxes: (1) Since active fluxes do contain somedeoxidizers, the manganese, silicon, or both in the weld metal will vary with changes in arc voltage. An increase in manganese or silicon increases the strength of the weld metal in multiple-pass welds but may lower the impact properties. For this reason, voltage must be more tightlycontrolled when multiple-pass welding with active fluxes than when using neutral fluxes. (2) Some fluxes are more active than others. This means they offer more resistance to porosity due to base metal surface oxides in single-pass welds than a flux which is less active, but they maypose more problemsin multipass welding. 10.4.4AlloyFluxes. Alloy fluxes are those which can be used with a carbon-steel electrode to make alloy weld metal. The alloys for the weld metal are addedas ingredients in the flux. The primary use ofalloy fluxes is for welding low-alloy steels and for hard facing. See the latest edition of ANSVAWS A5.23, Specijication for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding, for a more complete discussion of alloy fluxes. 10.4.5 Wall Neutrality Number. The Wall Neutrality Number is a convenientrelative measure of flux neutrality. The WallNeutralityNumber addresses fluxes and electrodes for welding carbon steelwithregard to the weld-metalmanganeseand silicon content. It does not address alloy fluxes. For anelectrode-flux combination to be considered neutral, it should have a Wall Neutrality Numberof 40 or less. The lower the WallNeutrality Number, the more neutral is the flux. Determination of the Wall Neutrality Number (N) can be accomplished in accordance with the following guidelines: (1) A weld pad of the type required in the specification is welded with the electrode-flux combination being tested. Welding parametersare the same as those specifiedfor the weld testplate for the diameter electrode being used. (2) A second weld pad is welded using the same parameters, except that the arc voltage is increased by 8 volts. (3) The top surface of each of the weld pads is ground or machined smooth to clean metal. Samples sufficient for analysis are removed by machining. Weld metal is analyzed only from the top (fourth) layer of the weld

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pad. The samples are analyzed separately for silicon and manganese. (4) The Wall Neutrality Numberdepends on thechange in silicon, regardless of whether it increases or decreases, and on the change in manganese, regardless of whether it increases or decreases. The WallNeutrality Number is the absolute value (i.e., ignoring positive or negative signs) and is calculated as follows: N = 100 (IA%SiIA%MnI) where A% Si is the difference in silicon levels of the two pads and A% Mn is the corresponding difference in manganese levels. 10.4.6 RecrushedSlags. Theslagformedduring submerged arc welding may not have the same chemical composition as unused(virgin) flux. Its composition is affected by the composition of the original flux, by the base metal and electrode composition, and by the welding parameters. Although it is possible to recrush and reuse submerged arc welding slag as a welding flux, the recrushed slag, regardless of any addition of virgin flux to it, is a new, chemically different flux. It can beclassified, but must not be considered to be the same as the virgin flux. Such flux must be providedwith its own marking usingthe recrusher’s name and trade designation.

10.4.7 Choice of Electrodes. In choosing an electrode classification for submerged arc welding of carbon steel, the most important considerations are the manganese and silicon contents in the electrode, the effect of the flux on recovery of manganese and silicon in the weld metal, whether the weld is to be single-pass or multiple-pass, and the mechanical properties expected of the weld metal. A certain minimum weld-metal manganese content is necessary to avoid centerline cracking. This minimum depends upon restraint of the joint and upon the weld metal composition. In the event that centerline cracking is encountered, especially with a low-manganese electrode and neutral flux, a change to a higher-manganese electrode, a change toa more active flux, or both, may eliminate the problem. Certain fluxes, generally considered to be neutral, tend to remove carbon and manganese to a limited extent and to replace these elements withsilicon. With such fluxes, a silicon-killed electrode is often not necessary though it may be used. Other fluxes add no silicon and may therefore require the use of a silicon-killed electrode for proper wetting and freedom fromporosity. The flux manufacturer should be consulted for electrode recommendations suitable for a given flux. In welding single-pass fillet welds, especially on scaled base metal, it is important that the flux, electrode, or both, provide sufficient deoxidationto avoid unacceptable

porosity. Silicon is a more powerful deoxidizer than manganese. In such applications, use of a silicon-killed electrode orof an active flux, or both, may be essential. Again, manufacturer’s recommendations shouldbe consulted. The EM14K electrodes are alloyed with small amounts of titanium, although they are considered as carbon-steel electrodes. The titanium functions to improve strength andnotch toughness under certain conditions ofhigh heat-inputweldingor stress relief. Themanufacturer’s recommendations should be consulted. Electrodes of the EH12K classification are high Mn electrodes with the Mn and Si balanced to produce good impact properties on applications that require high deposition rates or multiple arc procedures,or both, in both the as-welded and postweld heat-treated conditions. The EH12K classification is a modification of the S3 classification found in the DIN 8557 (Deutsches Institut fur Normung) Specification. Composite electrodes generally are designed for a specific flux. The flux identification is required to be marked on the electrode package. Before using a composite electrode with a flux not indicated on the electrode package markings, the electrode producer should be contacted for recommendations. A composite electrode might be chosen for higher melting rate and lower depthof fusion at a given current level than wouldbe obtainedunder thesame conditions with a solid electrode.

10.4.8 Mechanical Propertiesof Submerged Arc Welds. The mechanical properties are determined from specimens prepared accordingto the procedure called for in the specification. That procedure minimizes dilution from the base metal and thereby more accurately reflects the properties of the weld metal from eachelectrode-flux combination. In use, theelectrodes and fluxes are handled separately, and either of them may be changed without changing the other. For this reason, a classification system with standardized test methods is necessary to relate the electrodes and fluxes to the properties of their weld metal. Chemical reactions betweenthemoltenportion of the electrode and the flux, and dilution by the base metal all affect the composition ofthe weld metal. Submerged arc welds are not always madewiththe multipass procedure required in the specification. They frequently are made in single a pass, at least within certain limits on the thickness of the base metal. When a high level of notch toughness is required, multipass weldsmay be necessary. The specific mechanical properties of a weld are afunction of its chemical composition, cooling rate, and postweld heat treatment. High amperage, single-pass welds have greater depth of fusion and, hence, greater dilution bythe base metalthan lower-current, multipass welds. Moreover, large, single-pass welds solidify and cool more

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11.2 Introduction. The purposeof this guide is to correslowly than the smaller individual beads of a multipass weld. Furthermore, the succeeding passes of a multipass late the electrode and flux classifications presentedin ANSUAWSA5.23-90with their intended applications. weld subject the weld metal of previous passes to a variReference to appropriate basemetal specifications is ety of temperature and cooling cycles that alter the metallurgical structure of different portions of those beads. For made whenever possible and when it would be helpful. this reason, the properties of a single-pass weld may be Such references are intended onlyas examples, rather somewhat different from those of a multipass weld made than complete listings of the base metals for which each electrode and flux is suitable. with the same electrode and flux. The weld metal properties in the specificationare determined either in the &-welded condition, or after a post11.3 Classification System weld heat treatment [one hour at 1150°F(621”C)],or both. Most of the weld metals are suitable for service in either 11.3.1 Classification of Electrodes. The system for condition, but the specification cannot cover all of the conidentifying the electrode classifications follows the standitions that such weld metals may encounter in fabrication dard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The and service. For this reason, the classifications require that letter “E’ at the beginning of each classification designathe weld metals be produced and tested under certainspetion stands for electrode. The remainder of the designacific conditionsencountered in practice. Procedures tion indicates the chemical compositionof the electrode; employed in practice may require voltage, amperage, type or, in the case of composite electrodes, of the undiluted of current, and travel speeds that are considerably different weld metal obtained with a particular flux. from those required in the specification. In addition, difAs examples,consider the following designations: ferencesencounteredinelectrodesize,electrode extenEL12, EM12K, EB3, EM3, and ECB3. sion, joint configuration, preheat, interpass temperatures, The prefix “ E ’ designates an electrode, as in other specand postweld heat treatment can have a significant effect ifications. For the EL12 and EM12K classifications, the ontheproperties of the joint. Extendedpostweldheat system given in ANSVAWS A5.17 is used, and the same treatment(conventionally 20 to 30 hoursforextremely chemical composition is required for these carbon steel thxk sections) may have a major influenceon the strength electrodes as for those classifications inANSUAWS and toughness of the weld metal. Both can be substantialA5.17. The EB3 and EM3 electrodes are solid electrodes ly reduced. The user needs to be aware of this and of the whose compositions are shown as electrode compositions. fact that the mechanical properties of carbon-steel weld The letter “C” in ECB3 indicates that the electrode is a metal produced withother procedures may differ from the composite electrode. Such electrodes are classified by the properties required by the specification. composition of the weld metal produced with a specific flux. The composition of the weld metal is specified for 10.4.9 Diffusible Hydrogen. Submerged arc welding composite electrodes because there is no standard method is normally a low-hydrogen welding process whencare is of analyzing the electrode itself. taken to maintain the flux ina dry condition. InsubThe addition of the letter “N” as a suffix to a classificamerged arc welding withcarbon steel electrodes and fluxtion indicates that the electrode is intended for certain es, weld metal or heat-affected-zone cracking associated very special welds in nuclear applications. These welds with diffusible hydrogen is generallynotaproblem. are found in thecore belt regionof the reactor vessel. This Exceptions may arise when joining high-carbon steels or regionis subject tointenseneutron radiation; and it is when using carbon steel electrodes to weld on low-alloy therefore necessary that the phosphorus, vanadium, and high-strength steels (e.g., for a joint of carbon steel to copper contents of this weld metal be limited in order to low-alloy steel). resist neutron radiation-induced embrittlement. It is also If an assessment of the diffusible hydrogen content is to necessary that the weld metal have a high shelf energy be made, the method of ANSUAWS A4.3-86, Standard level in order to withstandsome embrittlement, yet Proceduresfor Determination of the D$fusible Hydrogen remain serviceable over the years. These electrodes are Content of Martensitic, Bainitic, and Ferritic Steel Weld not required elsewhere; however,they could be usedanyMetal Produced by Arc Welding, is appropriate. where that weld metal with an exceptionally high shelf energy level is required. Coating of “ N ’ electrodes with copper or copper-bearing material is prohibited. 11. Guideto Classification of Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding 11.3.2 “G” Classification. The specification includes 11.1Provisions. ExcerptsfromANSUAWSA5.23-90, filler metals classified as EG or ECG. The “G’ indicates Specificationfor Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes andFluxes that the filler metalis of a“general” classification. Itis for Submerged Welding. Arc general all because not of the particular requirements

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specified for each of the other classifications are specified for this classification. The intent in establishing this classification is to provide a means by which filler metals that differ in some respect (chemical composition, for example) from all other classifications in ANSVAWS A5.23-90 still can be classified according to the specification. In the case of the example, if the chemical composition does not meet the composition specified for any of the classifications in the specification, the filler metal still can be included within the “ G ’ classification. The purpose is to allow a useful filler metal one that otherwise would haveto await a revision of the specification - to be classified immediately, under the existing specification. This means, then, that two filler metals - each bearing the same “ G ’ classification may be quite different in some respect (chemical composition, again, as an example). |||| || || || ||

11.3.3 Classification of Fluxes. Fluxes are classified onthebasis of the mechanical properties of theweld metal they produce with a certain classification of electrode, under the specific test conditions. As examples of flux classifications, consider the following designations: WPO-EL12-Al F8A6-ENi3-Ni3 FlOPZ-ECB3-B3 F9AZECM 1-M 1 The prefix “ F designates a flux. This is followed by one or twodigitsrepresentingtheminimumtensile strengthrequiredof the weldmetal in 10,000 psi (69 MPa). When the letter “ A follows the strength designator, it indicates that the weld metal was tested (andis classified) in the as-welded condition. When the letter “P’ follows the strength designator, it indicates that the weld metal was tested (andis classified) after postweld heat treatment called for in the specification. The digit that follows the “A” or “P” will be a number or the letter ‘7‘’. This digit refers to the impactstrength of the weldmetal. Specifically, it designates the temperature at (and above) whichtheweldmetalmeets or exceeds the required 20ft-lb (275) Charpy V-notch impact strength; or, if the letter “Z” is designated, it indicates thatnoimpact requirement is specified. These mechanical property designations are followed by the designation of the electrode used in classifying the flux. The suffix included after the first hyphen (EL12, ENi3, ECB3,or ECM1) refers to the electrode classificationwithwhichthefluxwill produce weldmetalthat meets the specified mechanical properties when tested as called for in the specification. The suffix after the second hyphen refers to theweldmetal composition without regard to whether the electrode was solid or composite. |||| || || ||||| | |||| | ---

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It should be noted that flux of any specific trade designation may have manyclassifications. The number is limited only by the number of different electrode classifications and the condition of heat treatment (as-welded and postweld heat-treated) with which the flux can meet the classification requirements. The marking of the flux package lists at least one - and may list all - classifications to which the flux conforms. Solid electrodes havingthe same classification are interchangeable when used with a specific flux; composite electrodes may not be. However, the specific usability (or operating) characteristics of various fluxes of the same classification may differ in one respect or another.

11.4 Welding Considerations 11.4.1 Typesof Fluxes. Submerged arc welding fluxes are granular, fusible mineral compounds of various proportions manufactured by any of several different methods. Inaddition, some fluxesmaycontainintimately mixed metallic ingredients to deoxidize the weld pool or add alloy elements, or both. Any flux is likely to produce weld metalof somewhat different composition than that of the electrode used with it due to chemical reactions in the arc and sometimes to the presence of metallic ingredients in the flux. A change in arc voltage during welding will change the quantity of flux interacting with a given quantity of electrode and may, therefore, change the composition of the weld metal. This latter change provides a means of describing fluxes as “neutral,” “active,”or “alloy.” 11.4.2NeutralFluxes. Neutral fluxes aredefined as those which will not produce any significant change in the weld metal manganese and siliconcontent as a result of a large change in the arc voltage and, thus, the arc length. The primary use for neutral fluxes is in multiple pass welding, especially when the base plate exceeds oneinch (25 mm) in thickness. The followingconsiderations concerning neutral fluxes should be noted: 11.4.2.1 Since neutral fluxes contain little or no deoxidizers, they rely on the electrode to provide deoxidation. Single-pass welds with insufficient deoxidation on heavily oxidized base metalmay be prone to porosityor longitudinal centerline cracking, or both. 11.4.2.2 While neutral fluxes do maintain the composition of the weld metal even when the voltage is changed, it is not always true that the compositionof the weld metal deposit is the same as the composition of the electrode used. Some neutral fluxes break down in theofheat the arc and release oxygen, resulting in a lower carbon value in the weld metal than the carbon content of the electrode itself.Someneutralfluxescontainmanganesesilicate, which can decompose in the heat of the arc to add some

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manganese and silicon to the weld metal even though no metallic manganese or silicon was added to these particular fluxes. These changes in composition from the electrode used to the weld metai obtained are fairly consistent even when there are large changesin voltage. 11.4.2.3 Even when a neutral flux is used to maintain the weld metal composition through a range of welding voltages,weldproperties,such as strengthleveland impact properties, can change because of changes in other welding parameters, such as depth of fusion, heat input, and number of passes. 11.4.2.4 While a flux may be neutral with respect to manganese and silicon, itmay not be neutral with respect - mostnotably,chromium. to activealloyelements Some, but not all, neutral fluxes tend to reduce the chromium content of the weld metal as compared to that of the electrode. An electrode of somewhathigherchromium content than the intended weld metal may be necessary in such cases. || || || |||| || || ||||| | |||| | ---

11.4.3 Active Fluxes. Active fluxes are those which contain small amounts of manganese, or silicon, or both. These deoxidizers are added to the flux to provide improved resistance to porosity and weld cracking caused by contaminants on, or in, the base metal. The primary use for active fluxes is to make single-pass welds, especially on oxidized plate. The following considerations concerning active fluxes should be noted: 11.4.3.1 Since active fluxesdo contain some deoxidizers, the manganese and silicon in the weld metal will vary with changes in arc voltage. An increase in manganeseor silicon increases the strength level of the weld metal, but may lower the impact properties. For this reason, voltage shall be more tightly controlled when multiple-pass welding with active fluxesthan when using neutral fluxes. 11.4.3.2 Some fluxes are more active than others. This means they offer more resistance to oxides in single-pass welds than a flux which is less active, but they may pose more problems in multipass welding. 11.4.4 Alloy Fluxes. Alloy fluxes are those which can be used with carbon-steel electrodes to make alloy weld metal. The alloys for the weld metal are added as ingredients in the flux. As with active fluxes, the recovery of manganese and silicon is affected significantly by arc voltage; so, with alloy fluxes, the recovery of alloy elements from the flux is affected significantly by the arc voltage. The manufacturer’s recommendations should be closely followed when using alloy fluxes if desired alloy weld metal compositions are to be obtained. 11.4.5 Wall Neutrality Number. The Wall Neutrality Number is a convenient relative measure of flux neutrali-

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ty. The Wall Neutrality Number addresses carbon-steel weld metals with regard to their manganese and silicon content. It does not address alloy fluxes. For an electrodeflux combination to be considered neutral, it should have a Wall Neutrality Number of 40 or less. The lower the Wall Neutrality Number, the more neutral is the flux. Determination of the Wall Neutrality Number (N) can be accomplishedinaccordance with the following guidelines:

11.4.5.1 A weld pad of the type required in the specification is welded with the electrode-flux combination being tested. Welding parameters are the same as those specified for the weld test plate for the diameter electrode being used. 11.4.5.2 A second weld pad is welded using the same parameters, except that the arc voltage is increased by 8 volts. 11.4.5.3 The top surface of each of the weld pads is ground or machined smooth to clean metal. Samples sufficientforanalysis are removed by machining.Weld metal is analyzed only from the top (fourth) layer of the weld pad. The samples are analyzed separately for silicon and manganese. 11.4.5.4 The Wall Neutrality Number depends on the total change in silicon, regardless of whether it increases or decreases, and the total change in manganese, regardless of whetheritincreases or decreases.TheWall Neutrality Number is the absolute value (ignoring positive or negative signs)and is calculatedas follows: N= 100 [/Asil+ /Mn/] Where ASi is the difference in silicon content of the two pads, and A M n is the corresponding difference in manganese content. 11.4.6 RecrushedSlags. The slag formed during submerged arc welding does not have the same chemical composition as unused (virgin) flux. Its composition is affected by the composition of the originalflux,the base metal plate and electrodecomposition, and the welding parameters. Although it is possible to recrush and reuse submerged arc welding slag as a welding flux, the recrushed slag, regardless of any addition of virgin flux to it, is a new, chemically different flux. It can be classified under the specification, but should not be considered to be the same as the virgin flux. Such flux should be provided with its own marking using the recrusher’s name and trade designation. 11.4.7 Choiceof Electrodes. In choosing an electrode classification for submerged arc welding of a low-alloy steel, the most important considerations are (1) the manganese, silicon, and alloy content in the electrode; (2) the effect of the flux on recovery of manganese, silicon, and alloy elements in the weld metal, whether the weld is to

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be single-pass or multiple-pass; and (3) the mechanical properties expected of the weld metal. A certain minimum manganese content is necessary in the weld metal to avoid longitudinal centerline cracking. This minimum depends upon restraint of the joint, upon welding procedure and resulting bead shape, and upon the weld metal composition. If longitudinal centerline cracking is encountered,especially with a low-manganeseelectrode and a neutral flux, then a change to a higher-manganese electrode, or a change to a more active flux, or both, may eliminate the problem. Certain fluxes, generally considered to beneutral, tend to remove carbon and manganese to a limited extent and to replace these elements with silicon. With suchfluxes, a silicon-killed electrode is often not necessary though it may be used. Other fluxes add no silicon and may therefore require the use of a silicon-killed electrode for proper wetting and freedom from porosity. The flux manufacturer should be consulted for electrode recommendations suitable for a given flux. In welding single-pass fillets, especially on base metal that has scale, it is important that the flux, electrode, or both, provide sufficient deoxidation toavoid unacceptable porosity. Silicon is a more powerfuldeoxidizer than manganese. In such applications, use of a silicon-killed electrode, or an active flux, or both, may be essential. Again, manufacturer’s recommendationsshould be consulted. Composite electrodes generally are designed for a specific flux. That flux identification is requiredto be marked on the electrode package. Before using a composite electrode with a flux not indicated on the electrode package markings, one should contact the electrode producer for recommendations. A composite electrode might be chosen for higher melting rate and less depth of fusion at a given current level than would beobtained under thesame conditions with a solid electrode.

11.4.8 Mechanical Propertiesof Submerged Arc Welds. The mechanical properties are determined from specimens prepared accordingto the procedure called for in the specification. That procedure minimizes dilution from the base metal and thereby more accurately reflects the properties of the weld metal from each electrode-flux combination. In use, the electrodes and fluxes are handled separately, and either of them may be changed without changing the other. For this reason, aclassification system with standardized test methods is necessary to relate the electrodes and fluxes to the properties of the weld metal they produce. Chemical reactions between the molten portion of the electrode and the flux, and Qlution by the base metal, all affect the composition of the weld metal. Submerged arc welds are not always madewiththe multipass procedure required in the specification. They frequently are made in a single pass, at least within certain

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limits on the thickness of the base metal. When a high level of notch toughness isrequired, multipass welds may be necessary. The specific mechanical properties of a weld are afunction of its chemical composition, coolingrate, and postweldheat treatment. High-amperage, single-pass welds have greater depth of fusion and hence greater dilution by the base metalthan lower-current, multipasswelds. Moreover, large, single-pass welds solidify and cool more slowly than the smaller individual beads of a multipass weld. Furthermore, the succeeding passes of a multipass weld subject the metal produced in previous passes to a variety of temperature and cooling cycles that alter the metallurgical structure of different portions of those beads. Forthis reason, the properties of asingle-pass weld may be somewhat different from those of amultipass weld made with the same electrode and flux. The weld metalproperties in the specification are determined in the as-weldedcondition, or after a postweld heat treatment, or both. Most of the weld metals are suitable for service in either condition, but thespecification cannot cover all of the conditions thatsuchweld metals may encounter in fabrication and service. For this reason, the classifications require that the weld metals be produced and tested under certain specific conditions encountered in practice. Procedures employed in practice may require voltage, amperage, type of current, and travel speeds that are considerably different from those required in the specification. In addition, differences encounteredin electrode size, electrode extension, joint configuration, preheat, interpass temperatures, and postweld heat treatment can have a significant effect on the properties of the joint. Extended postweld heat treatment (conventionally 20 to 30 hours for very thick sections) may have a major influence on the strength and toughnessof the weld metal. Both can be substantially reduced. The user needs to be aware of this and of the fact that the mechanical properties of lowalloy weld metal produced with other procedures may differ from the properties required by the specification.

11.4.9 Diffusible Hydrogen. Submerged arc welding normally is a low-hydrogen welding process whencare is taken to maintain the flux and electrode in adry condition. In submerged arc welding with low-alloy steel electrodes and fluxes, weldmetal or heat-affected zonecracking associated withdiffusible hydrogen tends to become more of a problemwithincreasingweld-metalstrength, increasing heat-affected zone hardness, increasing diffusible hydrogen content, decreasing preheat and interpass temperature, and decreasing time at or above the interpass temperature duringand after welding. This cracking usually is delayed some hours after cooling. It may appear as transverse weld cracks, longitudinal cen-

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terline cracks (especially in root beads), and toeor underbead cracks in the heat-affected zone. Since the available diffusible hydrogen level strongly influences the tendency towards hydrogen-induced cracking, it may be desirable to measure the diffusible hydrogen content resulting from a particular electrode-flux combination. Accordingly, the use of optional designators for diffusible hydrogen is introduced to indicate the maximum average value obtainedunder a clearly defined test condition in ANSYAWS A4.3, Standard Procedures for Determination of theDiffusible Hydrogen Content of Martensitic, Bainitic, and Ferritic Steel WeldMetal Produced by Arc Welding. The user of this information is cautioned thatactual fabrication conditions may result in different diffusible hydrogen values than those indicated by the designator. The useof a reference atmospheric condition during welding is necessitated because the arc always is imperfectly shielded. Moisturefrom the air, dstinct from that in the electrode or flux, can enter the arc and subsequently the weld pool, contributing to the resulting observed diffusible hydrogen, Thiseffect can be minimized by maintaining a suitable depth of flux cover [normally 1 to 1-1/2 in. (25 to 38 mm)] in front of the electrode during welding. Nevertheless, some air willmixwiththe flux cover and add its moisture to the other sources of diffusible hydrogen. It is possible for this extra diffusible hydrogen to significantly affect the outcome of a diffusible hydrogen test. For this reason, it is appropriate to specify a reference atmospheric condition. The reference atmospheric condition of 10 grains of moisture per pound (1.43 grams per kilogram) of dry air is equivalent to 10 percent relative humidity of 68°F (20°C). |||| || || || || |||| || || |||||

12.2 Introduction. The purpose of this guide is to correlate the electrode and flux classifications presentedin ANSYAWSA5.25-91withtheirintended applications. Reference to appropriate basemetal specifications is made whenever possible and when it would be helpful. Such references are intended only as examples rather than complete listings ofthematerials for which each filler metal is suitable.

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12.3 Classification System

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12. Guideto Classification of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electroslag Welding 12.1Provisions. Excerptfrom ANSYAWS A5.25-91, Spec$cation for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxesfor Electroslag Welding. A FLUX FOR ELEC7ROSAGWELDING.

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Figure 3 - Classification System for Carbonand Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electroslag Welding

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12.3.1 Classification of Electrodes. The system for identifying the electrode classifications follows the standard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The letter “E’ at the beginning of each classification designation stands for electrode. The remainder of the designation indicates the chemical composition of the electrode, or, in the case of composite metal cored electrodes, of the undiluted weld metal obtained with a particular flux. (See Figure 3.) The letter “ M ’ indicates that the solid electrode is of a medium manganese content, while the letter “H’ would indicate a comparatively highmanganese content. The oneor two digits following the manganesedesignator indicate the nominal carbon contentof the electrode. The letter “K’, which appears in some designations, indicates that the electrode is made from a heat of silicon-killed steel. The designation for a solid wire is followed by the suffix “EW’. Solid electrodes are classified only on the basis of their chemical composition. A composite electrode is indicated by the letters “W’after the “E’, along with a numerical suffix. The composition of a composite electrode is meaningless; the user is therefore referred to weld metal composition with a particular flux, rather than to electrode composition. A comparison of solid electrode classifications in ANSYAWS A5.25 andthoseof other specifications is shown in Table 2. 12.3.2 Classification of Fluxes. Fluxes are classified onthebasisofthemechanical properties of theweld metalmadewith a certain classification of electrode, under the specific test conditions called for in the specification. As examples of flux classifications, consider the following designations: FES60-EH14-EW FES72-EWT2 The prefix “FES” designates a flux for electroslag welding. This is followed by a single digit representing the minimum tensile strength required of the weld metal in IO O00 psi.

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STD*AWS UGFM-ENGL 1995 m 0784265 0514472 075 29

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The digit that follows the tension-strength requirement is a number or the letter “Z’. This digit refers to the impact strength of the weld metal. Specifically it designates the temperature at (and above) whichtheweld metal meets or exceeds the required 15 ft-lb (205) Charpy V-notch impact strength; or, if the letter “Z’ is designated, it indicates that no impact requirement is specified. These mechanical property designators are followed by the designation of the electrode used in classifying the flux. The suffix (EM12-EW, EHlOK-EW, EWT2, etc.) included after the first hyphen refers to theelectrode classification with which the flux will produce weld metal that meets the specified mechanical properties when tested as called for in the specification. It should be noted that flux of any specific trade designation may have many classifications. The number is limited only by the number of different electrode classifications withwhich the flux can meet the classification requirements. The flux marking lists at least one, and may list all, classifications to which the flux conforms. Solid electrodes have the same classification are inter changeable when used witha specific flux; composite metal cored electrodes may not be. However, the specific usability (or operating) characteristics of various fluxes of the same classification may differ in one respect or another.

12.3.3 “G” Classification. The specification includes filler metals classified as ES-G-EW or EWTG. The letter “G’ indicates that the filler metal is of a general classification. It is general because not all of the particular requirements specified for each of the other classifications are specified for this classification. The intent in establishing this classification is to provide a means by which filler metals that differ in some respect (chemical composition, for example) from all other classifications in ANSUAWS A5.25-91 still can be classified according to the specification. In the case of the example, if the chemical composition does not meet the composition specified Table 2 c o m p u h o n o ~ t l c ~ ~ s m d C h ” in Othor AWS SpocifiaUom

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for any of the classifications in the specification, the filler metal still can be included within the “G’classification. The purpose is to allow a useful filler metal - one that otherwise would have to await a revision of the specification -to be classified immediately, under the existing specification. This means, then, that two filler metals each bearing the same “G’ classification - may be quite different in some respect (chemical composition, again, as an example).

12.4 Definition and General Description 12.4.1 Electroslag welding is a process producing coalescence of metals with molten slag which melts the filler metal and the surfaces of the workpiece to be welded. The process is initiated by an arc which heats the slag. The arc is then extinguished by the conductive slag, which is kept molten by its resistance to electric current passing between the electrode and the workpiece. The weld pool is shielded by this slag, which covers the full cross-section of the joint as welding progresses. The joint is generally welded in a single pass. 12.4.2 Principles of Operation (Conventional Method) 12.4.2.1 Theprocessisinitiated by starting anarc beneath a layer of granular welding flux.As soon asa sufficiently thick layer of hot molten slag is formed, all arc action stops and current passes from the electrode to the workpiece through the conductive slag. Heat generated by the resistance to the current through the molten slag is sufficient to fuse the edges of the workpiece and melt the welding electrode. Since no arc exists, the welding action is quiet and spatter-free. The liquid metal coming from the filler metal and the fused base metal collects in a pool beneath the slag bath and slowly solidifies to form the weld. 12.4.2.2 Because of the necessity to contain the large volume of molten slag and weld metal produced in electroslag welding, the process is used for welding in the veror solid copper backing shoes tical position. Water-cooled are usually used on each side ofthe joint to retain the molten metal and slag pool and to act as a mold to cool and shape the weld faces. The copper backing shoes are normally moved upward on the plate surfaces as welding progresses. 12.4.2.3 Theentireelectroslagweldingassembly including electrode, copper backing shoes, wire-feeding mechanism, controls, and oscillator - generallymoves vertically during operation.The length of vertical travel is limited only by the design of the equipment used. 12.4.2.4 Because of the uniformheat distribution throughout the plate thickness during welding, electroslag welds are virtually free of axial or transverse distortion; however, the joint may contract. The weld interface con-

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13.1 Provisions. Excerpts from ANSVAWS A5.26-91, Specificationfor Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes 12.4.3.1 Theconsumableguidemethoduses a metal for Electrogas Welding) tube extending the full length of the weld joint to guide the electrode to the welding zone. The molds and all wire-feed13.2 Introduction. The purpose of this guide is to correing equipment remain stationary, with the electrode being late the electrode classifications presented in ANSVAWS the only moving part. The guide tube melts into the weld with their intended applications. Reference to A5.26-91 pool as the pool rises, supplying additional filler metal. appropriate base metal specifications is made whenever 12.4.3.2 A flux coating is sometimes provided on the possible and when it would be helpful. Such references are outside of the consumable guide to insulate the tube if it intended only as examples rather than complete listings of should contact the base metal or copper backing shoes. the base metals for which each filler metal is suitable. The coating also helps to replenish flux that solidifies on the surface of the copper backing shoes forming the weld face contour. The flux coating thus helps to maintain a level of molten slag adequate to provide resistance heating 13.3 Classification System and to protect the weldpool from atmospheric contamina13.3.1 The system for identifying the electrode classition. The manufacturer should be consulted for specific fications follows the standard pattern used in AWS filler recommendations regarding consumable guide tubes. metal specifications. The letter “EG’ at the beginning of 12.4.3.3 The effect of the consumable guide tube each classification designation shows that the electrode is generally is todilute the alloycontent of the weld metal. intended for use with the electrogas welding process. For this reason, weld metal strength and toughness The first digit following “EG’ represents the minimum should be determined. tensile strength required of the weld metal in units of 12.4.3.4 The specification requires the use of certain 1DOOO psi. The second digit (or the letter “Z’, when base metals for classification purposes. This does not sigimpact tests are not required) refers to the impact strength nify any restriction on the application of the process for of welds in accordance with the test assembly preparation joining other base metals; rather, it provides a means for section of the specification. obtainingreproducibleresults.Electroslagweldingis a The next letter, either “S” or “ T , indicates that the “high dilution” process, meaning that the base metal forms electrode is solid (S) or composite flux cored or metal a significant portion of the weld metal. The type of base cored (T). The designator (digits or letters) following the metal, especially given the wide varietyof available lowhyphen in the classification indicates the chemical comalloy structural steels, will influence the mechanical and position (of weld metal for the composite electrodes and other propertiesof the joint.Weld procedure qualification tests, as distinguished from filler metal classification tests, of the electrode itself for solid electrodes) and the type or should be used for assessing the propertiesof welds for a absence of shielding gas required. given application. 13.3.2 The specification includes filler metals classi12.4.3.5 Electroslag welding is a highdeposition process for thick plates. Since it usually is operated as a fied as EGXXT-G or EGXXS-G. The last “ G indicates single-passprocess,the weldmetaland heat-affected that the filler metal is of a “general” classification. It is zone are subject to no subsequent weld thermal cycles, general because not all of the particular requirements such as is common with arc welding of thick materials. specified for each of the other classifications are specified The weld metal is characterized by large unrefined denfor this classification. The intent in establishing this clasdrites. The relatively wide heat-affected zone is characsification is toprovide a means by which filler metals that terized by large grains. The as-welded mechanical propdiffer in some respect (chemical composition, for examerties therefore may be somewhat lower than that of the ANSVAWS ple) from all other classifications in base metal. The specification requires a minimum of 15 A5.26-91 still can be classified according to the specififi-lb (205) at the specified temperature, while mostAWS cation. In the case of the example, if the chemical compofiller metal specifications require 20 ft-lb (275). sition does not meet the composition specified for any of Considerable improvement in mechanical propertiescan be effected by a postweldheattreatment.Subcritical the classifications in the specification, the filler metal still

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13. Guideto Classification of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodesfor Electrogas Welding

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12.4.3Principles of Operation (Consumable Guide Method)

stress-relieving heat treatments are generally less effective for electroslag welding thanfor arc welding. For this reason, many code requirements require an austenitizing, or normalizing, postweld heat treatment.

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tour is a function of the welding voltage, current and slag pool depth. The weld metal usually consists of approximately 30 to 50 percent of base metal 12.4.2.5 The standard joint preparation for electroslag welding is a square groove in a butt joint. Joint preparations other than square grooves in buttjoints can be used.

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can be included withinthe “ G classification. The purpose is to allow a usefulfiller metal -one that otherwise would have to await a revision of the specification - to be classified immediately, under the existing specification. This means, then, that two filler metals, each bearing the same “ G classification, may be quite different in some respect (chemical composition, again, as an example).

Other applications use ceramic fusible insulators in the shape of washers affixed to the tubes. The manufacturer should beconsulted for specific recommendationsregarding consumable guidetubes. The effect of the consumable guide tubes is generally to dilute the alloy content of the weld metal. Consumable guidetubes are not classified; therefore, weldmetal strength and toughness should be tested.

13.4 Description and Intended Use of Electrodes 13.4.7 The specification requires the use of certain base metalsfor classification purposes. This is not to signify any restriction on the application of the process for joining other base metals; rather, it is to provide a means for obtaining reproducible results. Electrogas welding is a “high dilution” process, meaningthat the base metal forms a significant portion of the weld metal. The typeof base metal, especially the wide variety of available lowalloy structural steels, will influence the mechanical and other properties of the joint; and weld procedure qualification tests, as distinguished from filler metal classification tests, should be used for assessing the properties of welds for a given application.

13.4.1 Electrogas welding is an arc weldingprocess that uses solid electrodes with gas shielding, composite cored electrodes with gas shielding, or composite cored electrodes withoutgas shielding (i.e., self-shielded). Operating on direct current, the electrode deposits filler metal in the cavity formed by the water-cooled backing shoe(s) that bridges the groove between the joint members. The joint normally is welded in asingle pass, though with special fixturing multipass joints have been welded. 13.4.2 Flux cored electrodes used with the electrogas welding process are designed specifically for compatibility with the process. The flux produces a thin layer of slag between the weld metal and copper backing shoes withoutaccumulatingexcessive slag above the weld pool. The non-metallic content of the flux core is lower than that of conventional gas-shielded and self-shielded flux cored electrodes.

Part C:

Stainless Steel 14. Guideto Classification ofStainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

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13.4.3 Because of the large volume of moltenweld metal produced inelectrogas welding and the necessity to contain it, the process is limited essentially to welding in the vertical position; however, joints are readily welded in plate assemblies that are as much as 15” fromthe vertical, and in vertical plate assemblies where thejoint is as much as 15” from vertical.

14.1Provisions. Excerpts from ANSI/AWS A5.4-92, Specificationfor Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

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14.2Introduction. Thisguidehas beenprepared for prospective users of the covered stainless-steel welding electrodes presented in ANSVAWS A5.4-92 as an aid in determining the classification best suited for a particular application, with dueconsideration to the particular requirements for that application.

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13.4.4 The entire assembly, including electrode, copper backingshoes, wire-feeding mechanism, controls, and oscillator, generallymovesvertically during operation. When guide tubes areused, vertical movement of the equipment may not be required. The length of vertical travel is limited only by the design of the equipmentused.

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13.4.5 The standard joint geometry for electrogas welding is a simple square groove in a buttjoint. Joint geometries other than square grooves in buttjoints can be used. 13.4.6 Certain classifications can beusedwith consumableguide tubes. Theseguidetubes are generally AIS1 grades 1008 to 1020 carbon steel tubing. In some applications, the guide tubes are covered witha flux which provides a protective slag and insulates the tube should it contact the side wall or copper backing shoes.

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14.3 Classification System The system of classification is similar to that used in AWS filler metal specifications. The letter “E” at the beginning of each number indicates an electrode. The first three digits designate the classification as to its composition. (Occasionally, a number of digits other than three is used, and letters may follow the digits to indicate a specific composition.) The last two digits designate the classification as to usabilitywith respect to position of welding and type of current. The smaller sizes of EXXX(X)-15, EXXX(X)-16, or EXXX(X)-17 electrodes [up toand including5/32 in. (4.0 mm)] are used in all welding positions.

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14.4.3 The WRC Subcommittee also adopted the term Ferrite Number(FN) to be used inplace of percent ferrite, to clearly indicate that the measuring instrument was calibrated to the WRC procedure. The Ferrite Number, up to 10 FN, is to be considered equal to the percent ferrite term previously used. It represents a good average of commercial U.S. andworld practice on the percent ferrite. Through the use of standard calibration procedures, differences in readingsdue to instrument calibration are expected to be reduced to about +5 percent - or at the most, *lo percent - of the measured ferrite value. ~.

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Available from the Welding Research Council, 345 East 47th Street, New York, New York I O01 7

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14.5 Description and Intended of Use Filler Metals 14.5.1 E209. Thenominalcomposition(wt.%) of weld metal deposited from this electrode is 22 Cr, 11 Ni, 5.5 Mn, 2 Mo,and 0.20 N. Electrodes of this composition are most often used to weldAIS1 Type 209 (UNS S20910) basemetals. The alloy is a nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless steel exhibiting highstrengthwith good toughnessover a wide range of temperatures. Nitrogen alloying reduces the tendency for intergranular carbide precipitation in the weld area by inhibiting carbon diffusion and thereby increasing resistance to intergranular corrosion. Nitrogen alloying coupled with the molyb-

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14.4.8 Many electrode classifications in the E300 series - such as E310, E320, E320LR, E330, E383 and E385 - are fully austenitic. The E316 group can be made with little or no ferrite and generally is used in that form because it has bettercorrosion resistance in certain media. It also can be obtained in a higher ferrite form, usually over 4 FN. Because of chemistry limits covering these grades and various manufacturinglimits, most lots will be under 10 FN and are unlikely to exceed 15 FN commercially. E16-8-2 is controlled at a low ferrite level, generally under 5 FN; while E312, E2553, and E2209 are relatively high in ferrite, generally over 20 FN.

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14.4.7 Plate materials tend to be balanced chemically to have an inherently lower ferrite content than matching weld metals. Weld metal diluted with plate metalusually will be somewhat lower in ferrite than the undiluted weld metal, though this does vary depending on the amount of dilution and the composition of the base metal.

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14.4.6 Even larger variations may beencountered if the welding technique allows excessive nitrogen pickup, in which case the ferrite can be much lower than it should be. High nitrogen pickup can cause typical a 8 FN deposit to drop to O FN. A nitrogen pickup of 0.10 percent will typically decrease the FN by about eight.

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14.4.2 Ferrite can be measured on a relative scale by means of various magnetic instruments. However, work by the Subcommittee for Welding of Stainless Steel of the High Alloys Committee of the Welding Research Council (WRC) established that the lack of a standard calibration procedure resulted in a very wide spread of readings on a given specimen when measured by different laboratories. A specimen averaging 5.0 percent ferrite basedonthe data collected from all the laboratories was measured as low as 3.5 percent by some and as high as 8.0 percent by others. At an average of 10 percent, the spread was 7.0 to 16.0 percent. In order to substantially reduce this problem, the WRC Subcommittee publishedonJuly 1, 1972, Calibration Procedure for Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic StainlessSteel Weld Metal6 In 1974, the AWS extended this procedure andprepared AWS A4.2, Standard Procedure f o r Calibrating Magnetic Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic Steel Weld Metal. All instruments used to measurethe ferrite content ofAWS classified stainless electrode products are to be traceable to this AWS standard.

14.4.5 Even on undiluted pads, ferrite variations from pad to pad must be expected due to slight changes in welding and measuring variables. On a large group of pads from one heat or lot, and using a standard pad welding and preparation procedure, approximately 95 percent (or two sigma values) of the test results are expected to cluster around 8FN, k2.2 FN. If different pad welding and preparation procedures are used, then the variance will increase.

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14.4.1 Ferrite is known to be very beneficial in reducing the tendency for cracking orfissuring in weld metals; however, it is not essential. Millions of pounds of fully austenitic weld metal have been used for years and have provided satisfactory service performance. Generally, ferrite is helpful whenthe welds are restrained,the joints are large, and when cracks or fissures adversely affect service performance. Ferrite increases the weld strength level. Ferrite may have a detrimental effect on corrosion resistance in some environments.It also is generally regarded as detrimental to toughness in cryogenic service, and in high-temperature service where it can transform into the brittle sigma phase.

14.4.4 In the opinion of the WRC Subcommittee, ithas been impossible, to date, to accurately determine the true absolute ferrite content of weld metals.

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14.4 Ferrite in Weld Deposits

denum content providessuperior resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in aqueous chloride-containing media. Type E209 electrodes have sufficient total alloy content for use injoining dissimilar alloys, like mild steel and the stainless steels, and also for direct overlay on mild steel for corrosion applications.

14.5.2 E240. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this weld metal is 18 Cr, 5 Ni, 12 Mn, and 0.02 N. Electrodes of this composition aremost often used to weldAISI Type 240 and Type 241 basemetals. These alloysare nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless steels exhibiting high strength with good toughness over a wide range of temperatures; and, compared to the more conventional austenitic stainless steels like Type 304,they offer significant improvement in resistance to wearinparticle-tometal and metal-to-metal(galling) applications -a desirable characteristic. Nitrogen alloying reduces the tendency for intergranular carbide precipitation in the weldarea by inhibiting carbon diffusion and thereby increasing resistance to intergranular corrosion. Nitrogen alloying also improves resistance to pitting andcrevice corrosion in aqueous chloridecontaining media. In addition, weldments in alloys AISI 240 and AISI 241, when compared to Type 304, exhibit improved resistance to transgranular stress-corrosion cracking in hot, aqueous, chloride-containing media. The E240 electrodes have sufficient total alloy content for use in joining dissimilar alloys, like mild steel and the stainless steels, and also for direct overlay on mild steel for corrosion and wear applications. 14.5.3 E307. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this weld metal is 19 Cr, 9.8 Ni, and 4 Mn. Electrodes of this composition are used primarily for producing moderatestrength welds with good crack resistance between dissimilar steels - for instance, welding austenitic manganese steel to carbon steel forgings or castings. 14.5.4E308. The nominalcomposition(wt.%) of weld metal deposited from this electrode is 19 Cr, and 10 Ni. Electrodes of this composition are most often used to weld base metal of similar composition - such as AISI Types 301,302, 304, and 305. 14.5.5 E308H. These electrodes are the same as E308, except that the allowable carbon content has beenrestricted to the higher portion of the E308 range. Carbon content in the range of 0.04-0.08 provides higher tensile and creep strengths at elevated temperatures. These electrodes are used for welding Type 304H base metal. 14.5.6 E308L. The composition of the weld metal is the same as E308, except for the restricted carbon content.

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The 0.04 percent maximumcarbon contentof weld metal deposited by these electrodes reduces the possibility of intergranular carbide precipitation, and thereby increases the resistance to intergranular corrosion without the use of stabilizers such as columbium (niobium) or titanium. A carbon contentof 0.04 percent maximum has been shown to be adequatein weld metal, even though it is recognized that similar base metal specifications require a 0.03 percent limitation. This low-carbon alloy, however, is not as strong at elevated temperature as 304H or the columbiumstabilized alloys.

14.5.7E308Mo. These electrodes are the same as E308, except for the addition of molybdenum. E308Mo electrodes are recommended for welding ASTM CF8M stainless steel castings, as they match the base metal with regard to chromium, nickel, and molybdenum. They also may be used for welding wrought materials such as Type 316 stainless, whenincreased ferrite is desired beyond that attainable with E3 16electrodes. 14.5.8 E308MoL. These electrodes are recommended for welding ASTM CF3M stainless steel castings, as they match the base metal with regard to chromium, nickel, and molybdenum. E308MoL electrodes also may be used for welding wrought materials such as Type 316L stainless, when increased fenite is desired beyond that attainable with E316L electrodes. 14.5.9 E309. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this weld metal is 23.5 Cr, 13 Ni. Electrodes of this compositionarecommonlyusedforwelding similar alloys in wrought or cast form. They are used for welding dissimilar metals - such as joining Type 304 to carbon steel, welding the clad side of Type 304 clad steels, and applying stainless-steel sheet linings to carbon-steel shells. Occasionally, they are used to weld Type 304and similar basemetals where severecorrosionconditions exist requiring higher-alloy weld metal. 14.5.10 E309L. The compositionof this weld metal is the same as that deposited by E309 electrodes, except for the restricted carbon content. The 0.04 percent maximum carbon content of these weld deposits reduces the possibility of intergranular carbide precipitation, and thereby increases the resistance to intergranular corrosion without the use of stabilizers such as columbium (niobium) and titanium. However, this low-carbon alloy is not as strong at elevatedtemperatureas the columbium-stabilized alloys or high-carbon-content Type309 deposits. 14.5.11 E309Cb. The composition of this weld metal is the sameasType309,except for the addition of columbium(niobium) anda reduction in the carbon

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limit. The columbium (niobium) provides resistance to carbide precipitation, thus increasing intergranular corrosion resistance; and it also provides higher strength in elevated-temperature service. E309Cb electrodes also are used for welding Type 347 clad steels, or for the overlay of carbon steel.

14.5.12 E309Mo. The composition of this weld metal is the same as that deposited by E309 electrodes, except for the addition of molybdenum and a small reduction in the carbon limit, These electrodes are used for welding Type 316clad steels or for the overlay of carbon steels. 14.5.13 E309MoL. Thecomposition of this weld metal isthe same as that deposited by E309Mo electrodes, except for the restricted carbon content. The lower carbon content of the weld metal reduces the possibility of intergranular corrosion. 14.5.14E310. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this weld metal is 26.5 Cr, and 21 Ni. Electrodes of this composition are most often used to weld base metals of similar composition. 14.5.15 E310H. The compositionof this weld metal is the same as that deposited by E3 1O electrodes, except that carbon ranges from0.35 to 0.45 percent. These electrodes are used primarily for welding or repairing high-alloy, heat- and corrosion-resistant castings of the same general composition which are designated as Type HK by the Alloy Castings Institute. The alloy has high strength at temperatures over 1700°F(930°C). It is not recommended for high-sulfur atmospheres or where severe thermal shock is present. Long-time exposure to temperatures in the approximate rangeof 1400 to 1600°F (760to 870°C) may induce formation of sigma and secondary carbides, which may result in reducedcorrosion resistance, reduced ductility, or both. 14.5.16 E310Cb. The composition of this weld metal is the same as that deposited by E310 electrodes, except for the addition of columbium (niobium)and a reduction in carbon limit. These electrodes are used for the welding of heat-resistant castings, and Type 347 clad steels, or for the overlay of carbon steels. 14.5.17 E310Mo. The composition of this weld metal is the same as that deposited by E310 electrodes, except for the addition of molybdenum and a reduction in carbon limit. These electrodes are used for the weldingof heat-resistant castings and Type 3 16 clad steels, or for the overlay of carbon steels. --

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14.5.18E312. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this weld metal is 30 Cr and 9 Ni. These electrodes were originally designed to weld cast alloys of similar composition. They have been found to be valuable in welding dissimilar metals - especially if one of them is a stainless steel, highinnickel. This alloy gives a two-phase weld deposit with a substantial amount of ferrite in an austenitic matrix. Even with considerable dilution by austenite-forming elements, such nickel, as the microstructure remains two-phase and thus highly resistant to weldmetal cracks and fissures. Applications shouldbelimited to service temperature below 800°F (420°C) toavoid formation of secondary brittle phases. 14.5.19E316. The nominal composition(wt.%) of weldmetal depositedfrom this electrode is 18.5 Cr, 12.5 Ni, and 2.5 Mo. These electrodes are used for welding Type 316 and similar alloys. They have been used successfully in certain applications involving special base metals for high-temperature service. Thepresence of molybdenum provides creep resistance at elevated temperatures. Rapid corrosion of Type 316 weld metal may occur when the following three factors co-exist: (1) the presence of a continuous or semicontinuous network of femte in the weld metal microstructure, (2) a composition balance of the weld metal giving a chromium-to-molybdenum ratio of less than 8.2 to1, and (3) immersion of the weld metal in corrosive a medium. Attempts to classify the media in which accelerated corrosion will take place by attack on the femte phase have notbeen entirely successful. Stronglyoxidizing and mildly reducing environments have been present where a number of corrosion failures were investigated and documented. The literature should be consulted for latest recommendations.

14.5.20E316H. These electrodes are the sameas E316, except that the allowable carbon content has been restricted to the higher portion of the E3 16 range. Carbon content in the range of 0.04 to 0.08 provides higher tensile and creep strengths at elevated temperatures. These electrodes are used for welding 3 16H basemetal. 14.5.21 E316L. The composition is the same as E316, except for the restricted carbon content. The 0.04 percent maximum carboncontent ofweldmetal deposited by these electrodes reduces the possibility of intergranular carbide precipitation, and thereby increases the resistance to intergranular corrosion without the use of stabilizers such as columbium (niobium) or titanium. These electrodes are used principally for weldinglow-carbon, molybdenum-bearing austenitic alloys. Tests have shown

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that 0.04 percent carbon limit in the weld metalgives adequate protection against intergranular corrosion in most cases. However, this low-carbon alloy is not as strong at elevated temperatures as TypeE3 16H.

14.5.22 E317. The content of alloying elements, particularly molybdenum, in weld metal deposited by these electrodes is somewhat higher than that of E316 electrodes. These electrodes usually are used for welding alloysof similar composition, and they are utilized in severely corrosive environments (such as those containing halogens) where crevice and pitting corrosionare of concern. 14.5.23 E317L. The compositionof this weld metal is the same asthat deposited by E3 17 electrodes, except for the restricted carbon content. The 0.04 percent maximum carbon content of weldmetal deposited by these electrodes reducesthe possibility of intergranular carbide precipitation, and thereby increases the resistance to intergranular corrosion without the use of stabilizers such as columbium (niobium) ortitanium. However, this low-carbon alloy is not as strong at elevated temperatures as the columbium-stabilized alloys, or the standard Type 317 weld metal with its higher carbon content.

14.5.25E320. The nominal composition (wt.96)of weld metal deposited fromthis electrode is 20 Cr, 34 Ni, 2.5 Mo, and 3.5 Cu, with Cb(Nb) added to improveresistance tointergranular corrosion. These electrodes are used primarily to weld base metals of similar composition for applications requiring resistance to severe corrosion from a wide range of chemicals, including sulfuric and sulfurous acids and their salts. These electrodes can be used to weld both castings and wrought alloys of similar composition without postweld heat treatment. A modification of this grade without columbium (niobium) is available for repairing castings which do not contain columbium. Withthis modified composition, solution annealing is required after welding. 14.5.26 E320LR(Low Residuals). Weld metal deposited by E320LRelectrodes has the same basic composition as that deposited by E320 electrodes; however, the elements C, Si, P, and S are specified at lower maximum levels, and Cb(Nb) and Mn are controlled within narrower ranges. These changes reducethe weld metal fissuring

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145.27 E330. The nominal composition (wt.96)of weldmetal deposited from this electrode is 35 Ni and 15.5 Cr. These electrodes are commonly used where heatand scale-resisting properties above 1800°F (980'C) are required. However, high-sulfur environments may adversely affect performance at elevated temperature. Repairs of defects in alloy castings and the welding of castings and wroughtalloys of similar composition are îhe most common applications. 14.5.28 E330H. The compositionof this weld metalis the same as that deposited by E330 electrodes, except that carbon ranges from 0.35 to 0.45 percent. These electrodes are used primarily for the welding and repairing of highalloy, heat- and corrosion-resistant castings of the same general composition, which are designated HT by the Alloy Castings Institute. This composition canbe used to 2100°F (1 150°C)in oxidizing atmospheres and at 2000°F (1090°C) in reducing atmospheres. However, high-sulfur environments may adverselyaffect performance at elevated temperature.

14.5.24 E318. The composition of this weld metal is the same as that deposited by E3 16 electrodes, except for the addition of columbium (niobium). Columbium provides resistance to intergranular carbide precipitation and thus increases resistance to intergranular corrosion. These electrodes are used primarily for welding base metals of similar composition.

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(while maintainingthecorrosion resistance) frequently encountered in fully austenitic stainless steel weld metals. Consequently, welding practices typically used to deposit ferrite-containing austenitic stainless steelweldmetals can be used. Type 320LR weld metal has a lower minimum tensile strength than Type 320weld metal.

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14.5.29E347. Thenominalcomposition (wt.96) of this weld metal is 19.5 Cr and lONi with Cb (or Cb plus Ta)addedas a stabilizer. Either of these additions reduces the possibility of intergranular chromium-carbide precipitation and thus increases resistance to intergranular corrosion. These electrodes are usually used for welding chromium-nickel alloys of similar composition stabilized with either columbium(niobium)or titanium. Electrodes depositing titaniumas a stabilizing element are not commercially available, becausetitanium is not readily transferred across the arc in shielded metal arc welding. Although columbium is the stabilizing element usually specified in Type 347 alloys, it should be recognized that tantalum also is present. Tantalum and columbium are almost equally effective in stabilizing carbon and in providinghigh-temperature strength. AWS recognizes the usual commercial practice of reporting columbium as the sum of columbium plus tantalum. If dilution by the base metal produces a low ferrite or fully austenitic weld metal deposit, crack sensitivity of the weld may increase substantially. Some applications, especially thoseinvolving hightemperature service, are adversely affected if the ferrite content is too high. Consequently, a high ferrite content

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shouldnotbe specified unless tests proveit absolutely necessary.

Final postweld heat treatment should not exceed 1150°F (620°C). Higher temperatures may result in rehardening due to untempered martensite in the microstructure after cooling to room temperature.

to be

14.5.30E349. The nominal composition(wt.%) of weld metal deposited from this electrode is 19.5 Cr, 9 Ni, 1 Cb(Nb), 0.5 Mo, and 1.4 W. These electrodes are used for welding steels of similar composition, such as AIS1 Type 651 or 652. The combinationof columbium (niobium), molybdenum, and tungsten with chromium and nickel givesgood high-temperature rupture strength. The chemicalcomposition of the weldmetalresultsinan appreciable content of ferrite which increases the crack resistance of the weld metal.

14.5.35E430. The weldmetal deposited by these electrodes contains between15and18 Cr (wt.%). The composition is balanced by providing sufficient chromiumto give adequate corrosion resistance for theusual applications and yet retain sufficient ductility in the heattreated condition to meet the mechanical requirements of the specification. (Excessive chromiumwill result in lowered ductility.) Weldingwith E430 electrodes usually requires preheat and postheat. Optimum mechanical properties and corrosion resistance are obtained only when the weldment is heat treated followingthe welding operation.

14.5.31E383. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this weld metal is 28Cr, 3 1.5 Ni, 3.7 Mo, and1 Cu. These electrodes are used to weld base metal of a similar composition to itself and to other grades of stainless steel. Type E383 weld metal is recommended for sulfuric and phosphoric acid environments. The elements C, Si, P, and S are specified at low maximum levels to minimize weld metal hotcracking and fissuring (while maintaining the corrosion resistance) frequentlyencountered in fully austenitic stainless steel weld metals.

14.5.36E502. The nominal composition(wt.%) of this weld metal is 5 Cr and 0.5 Mo. These electrodes are used for welding base metal of similar composition, usually in the formof pipe or tubing. The alloy is an air-hardening material; therefore, when welding with these electrodes, preheat and postweld heattreatment are required. 14.5.37E505. The nominal composition(wt.%) of this weld metal is 9 Cr and 1 Mo. These electrodes are used for welding base metal of similar composition, usually in theform of pipe or tubing. The alloy is an air-hardening material; therefore, when welding with these electrodes, preheat and postweld heattreatment are required.

14.5.32E385. The nominal composition (wt.%) of weld metaldeposited fromthis electrode is 20.5Cr, 25 Ni, 5 Mo, and 1.5 Cu. Theseelectrodes are used primarily for welding of Type 904Lmaterials for the handling of sulfuric acid and many cliloride-containing media. E385 electrodes also can be used for joining Type 904L basemetal to other grades of stainless. The elements C, Si, P and S are specified at lower maximum levels to minimize weld metal hot cracking and fissuring (while maintaining corrosion resistance) frequently encountered in fully austenitic weld metals.

14.5.38E630. The nominal composition(wt.%) of these electrodes is 16.4 Cr, 4.7 Ni, and 3.6 Cu. These electrodes are designed primarily for welding ASTM A564, Type 630, and some other precipitation-hardening stainless steels. The weld metal is modifiedto prevent the formation of ferrite networks in the martensite microstructure, which could have a deleterious effect on mechanical properties. Depending on the application and weld size, the weld metal may be usedeither as-welded; welded and precipitationhardened; or welded,solutiontreatedand precipitation hardened.

14.5.33 E410. This 12Cr (wt.%) alloy is an air-hardening steel. Preheat and postheat treatments are required to achieve welds of adequate ductility for many engineering purposes.The most commonapplication of these electrodes is for welding alloys of similar compositions. They are also used for surfacing of carbon steels to resist corrosion, erosion, or abrasion.

14.5.39 E16-8-2. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this weld metal is 15.5Cr, 8.5 Ni, and 1.5 Mo.These electrodes are used primarily for welding stainless steel such as Types16-8-2, 316, and 347- for high-pressure, high-temperature piping systems.The weld deposit usually has a Ferrite Number no higher than 5 FN. The deposit also has good hot ductility properties, which offer relative freedom from weld or crater cracking even under highrestraint conditions. The weld netal is usable in either the as-welded or solution-treated condition. These electrodes depend on a very carefully balanced chemical composi-

14.5.34E410NiMo. These electrodes are used for weldingASTM CA6NM castings or similar materials; and also for light-gage Type 410,41OS, and 405 basemetals. Weld metal deposited by these electrodes are modified to contain less chromium and more nickel than weld metal deposited by E410 electrodes. The objective is to eliminate ferrite in the microstructure, as ferrite has a deleterious effect on mechanical properties of this alloy.

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14.6.2 Usability Designation -16. The covering for these electrodes generally contains readily ionizing elements, such as potassium, in order to stabilize the arc for welding with ac. Electrode sizes 5/32 in. (4.0 mm) and smaller may be used in all positionsof welding.

tion to develop their fullest properties. Corrosion tests indicate that Type 16-8-2 weld metal may have less corrosion resistance than Type 3 16 basemetal depending on the corrosive media. Where the weldment is exposed to severe corrosives, the surface layers should be deposited with a more corrosion-resistant weld metal.

14.6.3 Usability Designation -17. The covering of these electrodes is a modification of the -16 covering in that considerable silica replaces some of thetitania of the -16 covering. Since both the -16 and the -17 electrode coverings permit ac operation, both covering types were classified as - 16 in the past because there was noclassification alternative. However, the operational differences between the two types havebecome significant enough to warrant a separate classification. On horizontal fillet welds, electrodes with a -17 covering tend to produce more of a spray arc anda finer rippled weld-bead surface thando those with the-16 coverings. A slower-freezingslag of the - 17covering also permits improved handling characteristics when employinga drag technique. The bead shape on horizontalfillets is typically flat to concave with -17 covered electrodes, as compared to flat to slightlyconvexwith -16 coveredelectrodes. Whenmakingfilletweldsintheverticalpositionwith upward progression, the slower-freezing slag of the -17 covered electrodes requires a slight weave technique to produce the proper bead shape. For this reason, the minimum-leg-size fillet that can be made properly with a -17 covered electrode is larger than that for a - 16 coveredelectrode. While these electrodes are designed for all-position operation, electrode sizes 3/16 in. (4.8 mm) and larger are not recommended for vertical or overhead welding.

14.5.40E7Cr. The nominal composition(wt.%) of this weld metal is 7 Cr, and 0.5 Mo. These electrodes are used primarily in weldingbase metal of similar composition. The 7 Cr base metal usually is furnished as tubing, pipe, or casting. This alloy is an air-hardening material and requires the use of both preheat and postweld heat treatment for satisfactory welding and service. 14.5.41E2209. The nominal composition (wt.%)of this weldmetalis22.5Cr, 9.5 Ni, 3 Mo, and 0.15 N. Electrodes of this composition are used primarily to weld duplex stainless steels whichcontainapproximately 22-percent chromium. Weldmetal deposited by these electrodes has “duplex” microstructure consisting of an austenite-ferrite matrix. Weld metal deposited by E2209 electrodes combinesincreased tensile strength with improved resistance to pitting corrosive attack and to stress corrosion cracking. 14.5.42E2553. The nominal composition (wt.%)of 25.5Cr, 7.5Ni, 3.5 Mo, 2Cu, and 0.17N. These electrodes are usedprimarily to weld duplex stainless steels whichcontainapproximately 25-percent chromium. Weldmetal deposited by these electrodes has a “duplex” microstructure consisting of an austenite-femte matrix. Weld metal deposited by E2553 electrodescombinesincreased tensile strength with improved resistance to pitting corrosive attack and to stress corrosion cracking.

this weldmetalis

14.6.4 Usability Designation -25. This slag system is very similar in composition and operating characteristics to that of the -15 designation, and so that description also applies here. The electrode differs from the -15 type in that the core wire may beof a substantially different composition, suchas mild steel, that mayrequire a much higher welding current. The additional alloysnecessary to obtain the required analysis are contained in the covering which will be of greater diameter than the corresponding -15 type. These electrodes are recommended for welding only in the flat and horizontal positions.

14.6 Classification to as Usability Fivebasicusabilityclassificationsareprovided. The type of covering applied to a corewire to makea shielded metal arc welding electrode determines the usability characteristics of the electrode. The following discussion of covering types is based upon terminology commonly used by the industry; no attempt has been made to specifically define the composition of the different covering types.

14.6.5 Usability Designation-26.This slag system is very similar in composition and operating characteristics to that of the - 16 designation, and so that description also applies here. The electrode differs from the -16 type in that the core wire may beof a substantially different composition, such as mild steel, that may require a much higher welding current. The additional alloys necessary to obtain the required analysis are contained inthe covering, which will be of much larger diameter thanthe corre-

14.6.1 Usability Designation -15. The electrodes are usable with dcep (electrode positive) only. While use with alternating current is sometimes accomplished, they are not intended to qualify for use with this type of current. Electrode sizes 5/32 in. (4.0 mm) and smaller may be used in all positions of welding.

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sponding -16type. These electrodes are recommendedfor welding only inthe flat and horizontal positions.

particular application, withdue consideration to the requirements for that application.

15.3 Classification System

14.7 Special Tests

15.3.1 The chemical composition of the filler metal is identified by a series of numbers and, in some cases, chemicalsymbols; the letters “L”, “H’, and “LR’; or both. Chemical symbols are used to designate modifications of basic alloy types, e.g., ER308Mo. The letter “H” denotes carbon contentrestricted to the upper part of the range that is specified for the standard grade of the specific filler metal. The letter “L” denotes carbon contentin the lower part of the range that is specified for the corresponding standard gradeof filler metal. The letters “LR’ denote low residuals (see 15.6.30).

14.7.1 Fully austenitic stainless-steel weld metals are known to possess excellent toughness at cryogenic temperatures such as -320°F (-196°C). An example of this is the successful use ofE310 (whichdeposits fully austenitic weld metal) to join 9-percent-nickel steel for use in cryogenic service. Toensurefreedomfrom brittle failure, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requires weldments intended for cryogenic service to be qualified by Charpy V-notch testing. The criterion for acceptability is the attainment of a lateral expansion opposite the notch of not less than 15 mils (0.38 mm) for each of three specimens. In general, fully austenitic stainless steel weld metals such as Types3 l0,320,320LR, and 330 canbe expected tomeetthe 15 mils (0.38 mm) requirement at -320°F (-196°C).

15.3.2 The first two designators may be “ER’,for solid wires that may be usedas electrodes or rods; or they may be “EC”, for composite cored or stranded wires; or they may be “EQ’, for strip electrodes.

14.7.2 Austenitic stainless steel weld metals of lower alloy content than those noted above usually are not fully austenitic, butcontain some delta ferrite. It has been found that such weld metals require judicious compositional balances to meet the 15 mils (0.38 mm) lateral expansion criteria, even at moderately low temperatures such as -150°F (-100°C).

15.3.3 The three-digit number, such as 308 in ER308, designates the chemical compositionof the filler metal. 15.4 Preparation of Samples for Chemical Analysis 15.4.1 Solid Bare Electrodes and Rods. Preparation of a chemical analysis sample from solid, bare welding electrodes androds presents no technical difficulties. Such filler metal may be subdivided for analysis by any convenient method with all samples or chips representative of the lot of filler metal.

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14.7.3 Electrode classifications which can beusedif special attention is given to the weld deposit composition content to maximize toughness are E308L-XX, E309L-XX,andE316L-XX.Published studies of the effect of composition changesonweldmenttoughness properties for these types have shown the following: |||| || || || || |||| || || |||||

15.4.2 Composite Metal Cored or Stranded Electrodes.

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14.7.4 LimitedSMAWelectrodeweld-metaldata have indicated that welding in the vertical position, as compared to flat-position welding,doesnotreduce toughness properties, providinggood operator’s technique is employed. |

15.4.2.1 Gastungstenarcweldingwithargongas shielding may be used to melt a button (or slug) of sufficient size for analytical use.

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15. Guide to Classification of Bare Stainless Steel Welding Electrodes and Rods 15.1Provisions. Excerptsfrom ANSUAWS A5.9-93, Specijìcationfor Bare Stainless Steel Welding Electrodes and Rods. 15.2Introduction. Thisguide hasbeenprep,ared for prospective users of the bare stainless-steel welding electrodes and welding rods presented in ANSVAWS A5.9-93 as an aid in determiningthe classification best suited for a

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15.4.2.2 Gas metal arc welding with argon gas shielding also may be used to produce a hom*ogeneous deposit for analysis. In this case, the weld pad is similar to that used to prepare a sample of filler metal deposited by covered electrodes. 15.4.2.3 Bothprocessesmustbeutilizedinsucha manner that no dilution of the base metal or mold occurs to contaminate the fused sample. Copper molds often are used to minimize the effects of dilutionby the base metal or mold. 15.4.2.4 Special care must be exercised to minimize such dilution effects when testing low-carbon filler metals.

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erally regarded as detrimental to toughness in cryogenic service, andin high-temperature service where it can transform into the brittle sigma phase.

15.4.3 Preparation of the fused sampleby gas tungsten arc welding using argon shielding gas will transfer essentially all of the components throughthe arc. Some slight loss in carbon may occur, butsuch loss willneverbe greater than would be encountered in an actual welding operation, regardless of process (see 15.5.4.1). Nonmetallic ingredients, when present in the core, will form a slag on top of the deposit which must be removed and discarded.

15.5.1 Ferrite is known to be very beneficial in reducing the tendency for cracking or fissuring in weld metals; however, it is not essential. Millions of pounds of fully austenitic weld metal have been used for years and provided satisfactory service performance. Generally, ferrite is helpful when the welds are restrained, when the joints are large, and whencracks or fissures adversely affect service performance. Ferrite increases theweld strength level; however, it may have a detrimental effect on corrosion resistance in some environments.Ferrite also is genWelding Research Council, 345 East 47th Street, New York, Ny

I O 0 1 7.

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15.5.4 Thechemicalcomposition of agivenweld deposit can provide an approximately predictable Ferrite Number for the deposit. However, important changes in the chemical composition canoccur from wire to deposit, as described in 15.5.4.1 through 15.5.4.4.

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15.5 Ferrite in Weld Deposits

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15.5.3 The WRC Subcommittee also adopted the term Fenite Number (FN) to be used in place of percent ferrite, to clearly indicate that the measuring instrument was calibrated to the WRC procedure. The Ferrite Number, up to 10 FN, is to be considered equal to the “percent femte” term previouslyused. It represents agood average of commercial U.S. and world practice regarding the “percent ferrite.” Through the use of standardcalibration procedures, differences in readings dueto instrument calibration are expected to be reduced to about* 5 percent - or, at the most, i 1 0 percent - of the measured ferrite value.

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15.4.6 Assurancethatanundiluted sample isbeing obtained from the chosen size of pad at the selected distance above the base metal can be obtainedby analyzing chips removed from successively lower layers of the pad. Layers which are undiluted will have the same chemical composition. Therefore, the determination of identical compositions for two successive layers of deposited filler metal will provide evidencethat the last layer is undiluted. Layers diluted by mild steel base metal will be low in chromium and nickel. Particular attentionshouldbe given tocarbon whenanalyzing Type308L,308LSi, 308LM0, 3WL, 309LSi, 309LM0, 316L, 316LSi, 317L, 320LR, 383, 385, 46LM0, 2209, or 2553 weldmetal deposited using either solid or metal-cored electrodes or rods. Because of carbon pickup, the undiluted layers in a pad built on high-carbon base metal begin a considerable distance above the base.

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15.4.5 A sample made using the composite-type filler metal which has been fused in a copper mold should be undiluted, since there will be essentially no admixture with base metal.

15.5.4.1 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. This welding process involves the least changein the chemical composition from wire to deposit, and hence produces the smallest difference between the ferrite content calculated from the wire analysis and that measured on the deposit. There issome loss ofcarboningastungstenarcwelding about half of the carbon content above 0.02 percent. Thus, awire of 0.06 percentcarbontypically will producea deposit of 0.04 percent carbon. There is also some nitro-

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15.4.4 The sample of fused filler metal must be large enough to provide the amountofundilutedmaterial required by the chemist for analysis. No size or shape of deposited pads has been specified because these are immaterial if the deposit is truly undiluted.

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15.5.2 Ferrite can be measured on a relative scale by means of various magnetic instruments. However, work by the Subcommitteefor Welding ofStainless Steel of the High AlloysCommittee of the Welding Research Council (WRC, New York) established that the lack of a standard calibration procedure resulted in a very wide spread of readings on agiven specimen when measuredby different laboratories. A specimenaveraging 5.0 percent ferrite based on the data collected from all the laboratories was measured as low as 3.5 percent by some andas highas 8.0 percent by others. At an average of 10 percent, the spread was 7.0 to 16.0 percent. In order to substantially reduce this problem, the WRC Subcommittee published July 1,1972, Calibration Procedure for Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal.’ In 1974 the AWS extended this procedure and prepared AWS A4.2, Standard Proceduresfor Calibrating Magnetic Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic Steel WeldMetal. All instruments used to measure the ferrite content of AWSclassified stainless electrode products wereto be traceable to this AWS standard.

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Table 3 Variations of Alloying Elements and FN ~~

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Typical change from wire to deposit

Element

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Corresponding change in FN

Carbon

Varies: On “L” gndes usually a gain, + 0.01 to + 0.02 percent; on regular grades usually a loss,up to 0.02 percent.

“L”-1

Siwn

Always a gain:

Chromium

Varies: - 3.0 IO +I .O percent

Nickt4

Usuolly a J o b s : -0.3 to -1.0 percent

+I to +3

Manganese

Varies: -0.5 to M . 5 percent

-0.5 to M . 5

Molybdenum

Little change unleas a deliberate addition is made to the flux.

-

a losa unless a deliberate up addition: -0.2 to -0.5 percent.

to -1

to -2

-

Columbium Usuolly

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+ 0.3 to + 0.6 percent

+I to +2 -6 to +4

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15.5.7 In summary, the femte potential of a filler metal afforded by this chemical composition will, except for a few instances in submerged arc welding, be modified downward in the deposit due to changes in the chemical composition which are caused by the welding process and the technique used.

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15.5.6 In the 300 series filler metals, the compositions of the bare filler metal wires in general tend to cluster around the midpoints of the available chemical ranges. Thus, the potential ferrite for the 308, 308L, and 347 wires is approximately 10 F N ; for the 309 wire, approximately 12 FN; and, for the 316 and 316L wires, approximately 5 FN. Around these midpoints, the femte contents may be k7 FN or more, but the chemical compositions of these filler metals still will be within the chemical limits specified in the specification.

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15.5.5 Bare filler metalwire,unlike covered electrodes, cannot be adjusted for femte content by means of further alloy additions by the electrode producer, except through the use of flux in the submerged arc welding process. Thus, if specific FN ranges are desired, they must be obtained through wire chemistry selection. This is further complicated by the changes in the ferrite content from wire to deposit caused by the welding process and techniques, as previously discussed.

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gen pickup - a gain of 0.02 percent. The change in other elements is not significant in the undiluted weld metal. 15.5.4.2 Gas Metal Arc Welding. For this process, typical carbon losses are low - only about one-quarter those of the gas tungsten arc welding process. However, thetypicalnitrogenpickupismuchhigherthaningas tungsten arc welding, and it should be estimated at about 0.04 percent (equivalent to about 3 or 4 FN loss) unless specific measurements on welds for a particular application establish other values. Nitrogen pickup in this process is very dependent upon the welding technique and may go as high as 0.15 percent or more. This may result in little or no ferrite in the weld deposits of filler metals such as ER308 and ER309. Some slight oxidation plus volatilization losses may occur in manganese, silicon, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum contents. 15.5.4.3SubmergedArcWelding. Submerged arc welds show variable gains, losses of alloying elements, or both depending on the flux used. All fluxes produce somechangesinthechemicalcomposition when the electrode is melted and deposited as weld metal. Some fluxes deliberately add alloying elements suchas columbium (niobium) and molybdenum; others are very active in the sense that they deplete significant amounts ofcertainelementsthatarereadilyoxidized,suchas chromium. Other fluxes are less active and may contain small amountsof alloys to offset any losses, thereby producing a weld deposit witha chemical composition close to the compositionof the electrode.If the flux is active or alloyed, then changesin the welding conditions, particularly voltage,willresultinsignificantchanges inthe chemicalcomposition of thedeposit.Highervoltages produce greater flux/metal interactions and, in the caseof an alloy flux, greater alloy pickup. 15.5.4.4 When closecontrol of ferrite content is required, the effects of a particular fludelectrode combination should be evaluated before any production welding is undertaken due to the effects as shown in Table 3.

15.6 Description and Intended of Use Filler Metals 15.6.1 ER209. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 22 Cr, 11 Ni, 5.5 Mn, 2 Mo, and 0.20 N. Filler metals of this classification are most often usedto weld UNS S20910 base metal. This alloy is a nitrogen-strengthened, austenitic stainless steel exhibiting high strength and good toughness over a wide range of temperature. Weldments in the as-welded condition made using this filler metal are not subject to carbide precipitation. Nitrogen alloying reduces the tendency for carbon diffusion, thereby increasing resistance to intergranular corrosion. The ER209 filler metal has sufficient total alloy content for use in welding dissimilar alloys like mild steel and the stainless steels, and also for direct overlay on mild steel for corrosion applications when used with the gas metal arc welding process. The gas tungsten arc, plasma arc, and electron beam processes are not suggested for direct application of this filler metal on mild steel. 15.6.2ER218. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 17Cr, 8.5 Ni, 8 Mn, 4 Si, and 0.13 N. Filler metals of this classification are most often used to weld UNS S21800 base metals. This alloy is a nitro-

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gen-strengthened, austenitic stainless steel exhibiting high strength and good toughness over a wide range of temperature. Nitrogen alloying inthis basecomposition results in significant improvement of wear resistance in particle-to-metalandmetal-to-metal (galling) applications when compared to the more conventional austenitic stainless steels such as Type304. The ER218filler metal has sufficient total alloy content for use in welding dissimilar alloys like mild steel and the stainless steels, and also for direct overlayonmild steel for corrosionand wear applications whenusedwiththe gas metalarc process. The gas tungsten arc, plasma arc, and electron beam processes are not suggested for direct application of this filler metal on mild steel.

stress-corrosion cracking in hotaqueous chloride-containing media. The ER240 filler metal has sufficient total alloy content for use in joining dissimilar alloys like mild steel and thestainless steels and also for direct overlay on mild steel for corrosion and wear applications when used with the gas metal arcprocess. The gastungsten arc, plasma arc, andelectron beam processes are not suggested for direct application of this filler metal on mild steel.

15.6.5ER307. The nominal composition(wt.%) of this classification is 2 1 Cr, 9.5 Ni, 4 Mn, and 1 Mo. Filler metals of this classification are used primarily for moderate-strength weldswith good crack resistance between dissimilar steels such as austenitic manganese steel and carbon steel forgings or castings.

15.6.3ER219. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 20 Cr, 6 Ni, 9 Mn, and 0.20 N. Filler metals of this classification are most often used to weld UNS S21900 base metals. Thisalloy is a nitrogen-strengthened, austenitic stainless steel exhibiting high strength and good toughness over a wide range of temperatures. Weldments made using this filler metal are not subject to carbide precipitation in theas-welded condition. Nitrogen alloying reduces the tendency for intergranular carbide precipitation in the weld area by inhibiting carbon diffusion, thereby increasing resistance to intergranular corrosion. The ER219filler metal hassufficient total alloy content for use in joining dissimilar alloys like mild steel and the stainless steels, and also for direct overlay on mild steel for corrosive applications when used with the gas metal arc welding process. The gas tungsten arc, plasma arc, and electron beam processes are not suggested for direct application of this filler metal on mild steel.

15.6.6ER308. Thenominalcomposition(wt.%) of this classification is 2 1 Cr and 10 Ni. Commercial specifications for filler and base metals vary in the minimum alloy requirements; consequently, the names 18-8, 19-9, and 20-10 are often associated with filler metals of this classification. This classification is most often used to weld base metals of similar composition, in particular, Type 304. 15.6.7ER308H. This classification is the same as ER308, except that theallowable carbon content has been restricted to the higher portion of the 308 range. Carbon content in the range of 0.04-0.08 provideshigher strength at elevated temperatures. This filler metalisusedfor welding Type 304H base metal.

15.6.4 ER240. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is18 Cr, 5 Ni, 12 Mn,and 0.20 N. Filler metal of this classification is most often used to weld UNS S24000 and UNS S24100 base metals. These alloys are nitrogen-strengthened, austenitic stainless steels exhibiting high strength and good toughness over a wide range of temperatures; and, compared to the more conventional austenitic stainless steels such as Type 304, they offer significant improvement of wear resistance in particle-to-metal andmetal-to-metal (galling) applications - a valuable characteristic. Nitrogen alloying reduces the tendency toward intergranular carbide precipitation in the weld area by inhibiting carbon diffusion, thereby reducing the possibility for intergranular corrosion. Nitrogen alloying also improves resistance to pittingand crevice corrosionin aqueous chloride-containing media.In addition, weldmentsin Type240 exhibit improved resistance to transgranular

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15.6.8ER308L. This classification is the same as ER308, except for the carbon content. Low carbon (0.03 percent maximum) in this filler metal reduces the possibility of intergranular carbide precipitation. This increases the resistance to intergranular corrosion without the use of stabilizers such as columbium (niobium) or titanium. Strength of this low-carbon alloy, however, is less than that of the columbium-stabilized alloys or Type 308H at elevated temperatures. 15.6.9ER308LSi. This classification is the same as ER308L, except for thehighersilicon content. This improves the usability of the filler metal in the gas metal arc welding process (see 15.7.2). If the dilution by the base metal produces a low-femte or fully austenitic weld, the crack sensitivity of the weld is somewhat higher than that of a lower-silicon-content weld metal. 15.6.10 ER308Mo. This classification is the same as ER308, except for the addition of molybdenum. It is used for weldingASTM CF8M stainless steel castings and matches the base metal with regard to chromium, nickel,

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their corrosion resistance. The ER309Mo is used to achieve a single-layer overlay with a chemical composition similar to that of a 316 stainless steel. It also is used for the first layer of multilayer overlays with filler metals suchas ER316 or ER317 stainless steels. Withoutthe first layer of 309M0, elements such as chromium and molybdenum might be reduced to unacceptable levels in successive layers by dilution from the base metal. Other applications include the welding of molybdenum-containing stainless steel linings to carbon steel shells, the joining of carbon steel base metalswhich had been clad with a molybdenum-containing stainless steel, and the joining of dissimilar base metals such as carbon steel to Type 304 stainless steel.

and molybdenum contents. It may be used for welding wrought materials such as Type 316 (UNS31600) stainless when aferrite content in excess of thatattainable with the ER316 classification is desired.

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15.6.11ER308LMo. This classification is used for welding ASTM CF3M stainless steel castings and matches the base metal with regard to chromium, nickel, and molybdenum contents. It maybeused for welding wrought materials such as Type 316L stainless when a ferrite in excess of that attainable with ER3 16Lis desired. |||| || || || || |||| || || |||||

15.6.12ER308Si. This classification is the same as ER308,exceptfor the higher silicon content. This improves the usability of the filler metal in the gas metal arc welding processes (see 15.7.2). If the dilution by the base metal produces a low-ferrite or fully austenitic weld metal, the crack sensitivity of the weldis somewhat higher than that of a lower-silicon-content weld metal. | ||||

15.6.17 ER309LMo. This classification is the same as ER309Mo, except for the lower maximum carbon content (0.03%). Low carbon content in stainless steels reduces the possibility of chromium-carbide precipitation and thereby increases weld metal resistance to intergranular corrosion. The ER309LMo is used in the same type of applications as the ER309Mo, but is preferable in situations where excessive pickup of carbon from dilution by the base metal, or intergranular corrosion from carbide precipitation, or both, are factors to be considered in the selection of the filler metal. In multilayer overlays, the low carbon ER309LMousuallyisneeded for the first layer in order to achieve low carbon contents in successive layers with filler metals such as ER3 16L or ER317L.

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15.6.13ER309. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 24 Cr and 13 Ni. Filler metals of this classification are commonly used for welding similar alloysinwrought or cast form. Occasionally, they are used to weld Type 304 and similar basemetalswhere severe corrosion conditions exist requiring higher-alloy weld metal. They also are used in dissimilar-metal welds - for instance, joining Type 304 to carbon steel, welding the clad side of Type 304clad steels, or applyingstainless steel sheet linings to carbon steel shells.

15.6.18 ER309LSi. This classification is the same as ER309L, except for the higher silicon content. This improves the usability of the filler metal in the gas metal arc welding processes (see 15.7.2). If the dilution by the base metal produces a low-ferrite or fully austenitic weld, the crack sensitivity of the weld is somewhat higher than that of a lower-silicon-content weld metal.

15.6.14ER309L. This classification is the same as ER309, except for the carbon content. Low carbon (0.03 percent maximum) in this filler metal reduces the possibility of intergranular carbide precipitation. This increases the resistance to intergranular corrosion without the use of stabilizers such as columbium (niobium) or titanium. Strength of this low-carbon alloy, however, may not beas great at elevated temperatures as that of the columbiumstabilized alloys or ER309.

15.6.19 ER310. The nominal composition (wt.%)of

this classification is 26.5 Crand 21 Ni.Filler metal of this

15.6.15ER309Si. Thisclassificationisthesame as ER309,except for thehighersilicon content. This improves the usabilityof the filler metal in the gas metal arc welding processes (see 15.7.2). If the dilution by the base metal produces a low-ferrite or fully austenitic weld metal deposit, the crack sensitivity of the weld is somewhat higher than that of alower silicon content weld metal. 15.6.16 ER309Mo. This classification is the same as ER309, except for the addition of2.0 to 3.0 percent molybdenum to increase its pitting corrosion resistance in halide-containing environments. The primary application for this filler metal is surfacing of base metals to improve

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classification is most often used to weld base metals of similar composition.

15.6.20ER312. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 30Cr and 9Ni. Filler metal of this classification was originally designed to weld cast alloys of similar composition. It also has been found to be valuable in welding dissimilar metals such as carbon steel to stainless steel, particularly those grades high innickel. This alloy gives a two-phase weld deposit with substantial percentages of ferrite in an austenite matrix. Even with considerable dilution by austenite-forming elementssuch as nickel, the microstructure remains two-phase and thus highly resistant to weld metal cracks andfissures.

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15.6.21ER316. The nominal composition (wt.%)of

improves the usability of the filler metal in the gas metal arc welding process (see 15.7.2). If the dilution by the base metal produces a low-ferrite or fully austenitic weld, the crack sensitivity of the weld is somewhat higher than that of a lower-silicon-content weld metal.

this classification is 19 Cr, 12.5 Ni and2.5 Mo. This filler metal is used for welding Type 316 and similar alloys. It has been used successfully in certain applications involving special base metals for high-temperature service. The presence of molybdenum provides creepresistance at elevatedtemperatures andpitting resistance ina halide atmosphere. Rapid corrosion of ER3 16 weld metal may occur when the following three factors Co-exist:

15.6.26ER317. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 19.5 Cr, 14 Ni, and 3.5Mo - somewhat higher than ER316. It usually is used for welding alloys of similar composition. ER317 filler metal is utilized in severely corrosive environments where crevice and pitting corrosion are of concern.

(1) the presence of a continuous or semicontinuous network of ferrite in the weld metal microstructure, (2) a composition balance of the weld metal giving a chromium-to-molybdenum ratio of less than 8.2 to 1, and (3) immersionof the weld metal in corrosive a medium.

15.6.27ER317L. This classification isthe same as ER317, except for the carbon content. Low carbon (0.03 percent maximum) in this filler metal reduces the possibility of intergranular carbide precipitation. This increases the resistance to intergranular corrosion without the use of stabilizers such as columbium (niobium) or titanium. This low-carbon alloy, however, may not be as strong at elevated temperature as the columbium-stabilized alloys or Type317.

Attempts to classify the media in which accelerated corrosion will take place by attack on the ferrite phase have not been entirely successful. Strong oxidizing and mildly reducing environments havebeen present wherea number of corrosion failures were investigated and documented. The literature should be consulted for latest recommendations.

15.6.28ER318. Thiscompositionisidenticalto ER316, except for the addition of columbium (niobium). Columbium providesresistance to intergranular chromium-carbide precipitation, thus increasing resistance to intergranular corrosion. Filler metal of this classification is used primarily for weldingbasemetals of similar composition.

15.6.22ER316H. This filler metalis the sameas ER3 16, except that the allowable carbon content has been restricted to the higher portion of the 316 range. Carbon content in the range of 0.04 to 0.08 wt.% provides higher strength at elevated temperatures. This filler metal is used for welding Type 316H base metal.

15.6.29ER320. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 20 Cr, 34 Ni, 2.5 Mo, 3.5 Cu with Cb(Nb) added to provide resistance to intergranular corrosion. Filler metal of this classification is used primarily to weld base metalsof similar composition for applications requiring resistance to severe corrosion froma wide range of chemicals, including sulfuric and sulfurous acids and their salts. This filler metal can beused to weld both castings and wrought alloys of similar composition without postweld heat treatment. A modification of this classification without columbium (niobium) is available for repairing castings which do not contain columbium, but with this modified composition, solution annealing is required after welding.

15.6.23ER316L. This classification is the same as ER316, except for the carbon content. Low carbon (0.03 percent maximum) in this filler metal reduces the possibility of intergranular chromium-carbide precipitation, thereby increasing the resistance to intergranular corrosion without the use of stabilizers such as columbium (niobium) ortitanium. This filler metal is used primarily for welding low-carbon, molybdenum-bearing austenitic alloys. However, this low-carbon alloy is not as strong at elevated temperature as Type ER3 16H or thecolumbiumstabilized alloys. 15.6.24 ER316LSi. This classification is the same as ER316L, except for the higher silicon content. This improves the usability of the filler metal in the gas metal arc welding process (see 15.7.2). If the dilution by the base metal produces a low-ferrite or fully austenitic weld, the crack sensitivity is somewhat higher than that of a lower-silicon-content weld metal.

15.6.30 ER320LR (Low Residuals). This classification has the same basic composition as ER320; however, the elements C, Si, P, and S are specified at lower maximum levels, and the Cb (Nb)and Mn are controlled within narrower ranges. These changes reducethe weld-metal hot cracking and fissuring (while maintaining the corrosion resistance) frequently encountered in fully austenitic stainless steel weld metals. Consequently, welding prac-

15.6.25ER316Si. This classification is thesame as ER316,except for the higher silicon content. This

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tices typically used for austenitic stainless steel weld metals containing femte can be used inbare filler metal welding processes such as gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc. ER320LR filler metal has been used successfully in submerged arc overlaywelding, but it may be prone to cracking when used for joining base metal by the submerged arc process. ER320LR weld metal has a lower minimum tensile strength than ER320 weld metal.

15.6.31ER321. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 19.5Cr and 9.5Ni with titanium added. The titanium acts in the same way as columbium (niobium) in Type 347,reducing intergranular chromiumcarbide precipitation andthusincreasing resistance to intergranular corrosion. The filler metal of this classification is used for welding chromium-nickel stainless steel base metals of similar composition, usingan inert gas shielded process. It is not suitable for use with the submerged arc process, because only a small portion of the titanium will be recovered in the weld metal. 15.6.32ER330. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 35.5 Ni, 16 Cr. Filler metal of this typeiscommonlyusedwhereheat-and scale-resisting properties above 1800°F (980°C)are required, except in high-sulphur environments, as these environments may adversely affect elevatedtemperatureperformance. Repairs of defects in alloy castings and the welding of castings and wroughtalloys of similar composition are the most common applications. 15.6.33ER347. The nominalcomposition (wt.%) of this classification is 20 Cr and 10 Ni, with Cb(Nb) added as a stabilizer. The addition of Cb reduces the possibility of intergranular chromium-carbide precipitation, thereby increasing resistance to intergranular corrosion. The filler metal of this classification is usually used for welding chromium-nickel stainless steel base metals of similar composition stabilized with either Cb or Ti. Although Cb is the stabilizing element usually specified in Type 347 alloys, it should be recognized that tantalum (Ta) also is present. Ta and Cb are almost equally effective in stabilizing carbon and in providing high-temperaturestrength. If dilution by the base metal produces a low-ferrite or fully austenitic weld metal, the crack sensitivity of the weld may increase substantially. 15.6.34ER347Si. This classification isthe same as ER347,except for the higher silicon content. This improves the usability of the filler metal in the gas metal arc welding process (see 15.7.2). If the dilution by the base metal produces a low-ferrite or fully austenitic weld, the crack sensitivity of the weld is somewhat higher than that of a lower-silicon-content weld metal.

15.6.35ER383. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 27.5 Cr, 31.5 Ni, 3.7 Mo, and 1 Cu. Filler metal of this classification is used to weldUNS N08028 base metal to itself, or to other grades of stainless steel. ER383 filler metal is recommended for sulphuricand phosphoric-acid environments. The elements C, Si, P, and S are specified at low maximum levels to minimize weld-metal hot cracking and fissuring (while maintaining the corrosion resistance) frequently encountered in fully austenitic stainless-steel weld metals. 15.6.36ER385. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 20.5 Cr, 25 Ni, 4.7 Mo, and 1.5 Cu. ER385 filler metal is used primarily for welding of ASTM B625, B673, B674, and B677 (UNS N08904) materials for the handling of sulphuric acid and manychloride-containing media. ER385 filler metal also may be used to join Type 3 17L material whereimproved corrosionresistance in specific media is needed. ER385 filler metal may beused for joining UNS N08904 base metals to other grades of stainless steel. The elements C,S, P, and Si are specified at lower maximum levels to minimize weldmetal hot cracking, and fissuring (while maintaining corrosion resistance) frequently encountered in fully austenitic weld metals. 15.6.37 ER409. This 12Cr (wt.%) alloy differs from Type 410 material because it has aferritic microstructure. The titanium addition forms carbides to improve corrosion resistance, increase strength at high temperature, and promote the ferritic microstructure. ER409 filler metals may be used to join matching or dissimilar base metals. The greatest usage is for applications where thin stock is fabricated into exhaust system components. 15.6.38ER409Cb. This classification is the same as ER409 except that columbium (niobium) is used instead of titanium to achieve similar results. Oxidation losses across the arc generally are lower. Applications are the same as those of ER409 filler metals. 15.6.39 ER410. This 12Cr (wt.%) alloy is an air-hardening steel. Preheat and postheat treatments are required to achieve welds of adequate ductility for many engineering purposes. The most common application of filler metal of this type is for welding alloys of similar composition. It also is used for deposition of overlays on carbon steels to resist corrosion, erosion, or abrasion. 15.6.40 ER410NiMo. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 12 Cr, 4.5 Ni, and 0.55 Mo. It is designed primarily for welding ASTM CA6NM castings or similar material; and also for light-gage 410,41OS, and 405 base metals. Filler metal of this classification is

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15.6.46ER630. The nominalcomposition (wt.%) of this classification is 16.4 Cr, 4.7 Ni, and3.6 Cu. The composition is designed primarily for welding ASTM A564 Type 630 and some other precipitation-hardening stainless steels. The composition ismodified to prevent the formation of ferrite networks in the martensitic microstructure,whichhave a deleteriouseffect on mechanical properties. Depending on the application and weld size, the weld metal may be used either as-welded; welded and precipitation hardened; or welded, solution treated, and precipitation hardened.

15.6.44ER502. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 5 Cr and 0.50 Mo. It is used for welding material of similar composition, usually in the formof pipe or tubing. The alloy is an air-hardening material; therefore, when welding with this filler metal, preheating and postweld heat treatment are required. 15.6.45ER505. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 9Cr and 1 Mo. Filler metal of this classification is used for welding base metal of similar composition, usually in the form of pipe or tubing. The alloy is an air-hardening material, and therefore, when welding with this filler metal, preheating and postweld heat treatment are required.

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15.6.48 ERlklOH. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 19Cr and 10Ni. It is similar to ER308H, except that the chromium content is lower and there are additional limits on Mo, Nb, and Ti. This lower limit of Cr and additional limits on other Cr equivalent elements allows a lower ferrite range to be attained. A lower femte level in the weld metal decreases the chance of sigma embrittlement after long-term exposure at temperatures in excess of 1000°F (538°C). This filler metal should be used inconjunction with welding processes and other welding consumables which do not deplete or otherwise significantly change the amount of chromium in the weld metal. If used with submerged arc welding, a flux that neither removes nor adds chromium to the weld metal is highly recommended. This filler metal also has the higher carbon level required for improved creep properties in high-temperature service. The user is cautioned that actual weld application qualification testing is recommended in order to be sure that an acceptableweld-metalcarbon level is obtained. If corrosion or scaling is a concern, special testing should be included in application testing.

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15.6.43 ER446LMo. Formerly listed as ER26- 1, this classification has a nominalcomposition(wt.%) of 26 Cr and 1 Mo. It is used for welding base metalof the samecompositionwithinert-gas-shieldedwelding processes. Due to the high purity of both base metal and filler metal, cleaningof the parts before welding is especially important. Complete coverage by shielding gas during welding is extremely important to prevent contamination by oxygen and nitrogen. Nonconventional gas shielding methods (leading, trailing, and back shielding) often are employed.

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15.6.42ER430. This is a 16Cr (wt.%) alloy. The composition is balanced by providing sufficient chromium to give adequate corrosion resistance for theusual applications, andyetretain sufficient ductility inthe heat-treated condition. (Excessive chromium willresult in lower ductility.) Weldingwith filler metal of the ER430 classification usually requires preheating and postweld heat treatment. Optimum mechanical properties and corrosion resistance are obtained only whenthe weldment is heat treated following the welding operation.

15.6.47ER16-8-2. The nominal composition(wt.%) of this classification is 15.5 Cr, 8.5 Ni, and 1.5 Mo. Filler metal of this classification is used primarily for welding stainless steel such as Types 16-8-2, 316, and347 for high-pressure, high-temperaturepipingsystems.The weld deposit usually has Ferrite a Number no higher than 5 FN. The deposit also has good hot-ductility properties which offer greater freedom from weld- or crater-cracking even under restraint conditions. The weld metal is usable in either the as-welded conditionor solution-treated condition. This filler metal depends on a very carefully balancedchemicalcompositiontodevelop its fullest properties. Corrosion tests indicate that the 16-8-2 weld metal may have less corrosion resistance than Type 316base metal, depending on the corrosive media. Where the weldment is exposed to severe corrosives, the surface layers shouldbe deposited with a more corrosion-resistant filler metal.

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15.6.41 ER420. Thisclassification is similarto ER410, except for slightly higher chromium and carbon contents. ER420 is used for many surfacing operations requiring the corrosion resistance provided by 12 percent chromiumalongwithsomewhathigherhardness than weld metal deposited by ER410 electrodes. This increases wear resistance.

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modified to contain less chromium and more nickel to eliminate ferrite in the microstructure, as it has a deleterious effect on mechanical properties. Final postweld heat treatment should not exceed 1150°F (620°C),since higher temperatures may result in rehardening due to untemperedmartensitein the microstructure after cooling to room temperature.

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15.6.49 ER2209. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 22.5 Cr, 8.5 Ni, 3 Mo, and 0.15 N. Filler metal of this classification is used primarily to weld duplex stainless steels which contain approximately 22 percent chromium, such as U N S S3 1803. Deposits of this alloyhave“duplex” microstructures consisting ofan austenite-ferrite matrix. These stainless steels are characterized by high tensile strength, resistance to stress corrosion cracking, and improved resistance to pitting.

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15.6.50 ER2553. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 25.5 Cr, 5.5 Ni, 3.4 Mo, 2 Cu, and 0.2 N. Filler metal of this classification is used primarily to weld duplex stainless steels which contain approximately 25-percent chromium.Deposits of thisalloyhavea “duplex” microstructure consisting of an austenite-ferrite matrix. These stainless steels arecharacterized by high tensile strength, resistance to stress corrosion cracking, and improved resistance to pitting. |||| || || || || |||| || || ||||| | ||||

15.6.51 ER3556. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this classification is 3 1 Fe,20 Ni, 22 Cr, 18 Co, 3Mo, and 2.5 W (UNS R30556). Filler metal of this classification is used for welding 31 Fe, 20 Ni, 22 Cr, 18 Co, 3 Mo, 2.5 W (UNS R30556) base metal to itself, for joining steel to other nickel alloys, and for surfacing steel by the gas tungstenarc, gasmetal arc, andplasmaarcwelding processes. The filler metal is resistant to high-temperature corrosive environmentscontaining sulfur. Typical specifications for 3 1Fe, 20 Ni, 22 Cr, 18 Co,3 Mo, 2.5 W base metal are ASTMB435,B572,B619,B622,and B626, UNS number R30556. | ---

15.7 Usability 15.7.1 When welding stainless steels with the gas tungsten arc process, direct current electrode negative (dcen) is preferred. For base metal up to 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) thick, argon is the preferred shielding gas because there is less tendency to melt through these lighter thicknesses. For greater thicknesses, or for automatic welding, mixturesof helium and argonare recommended becauseof the greater penetration and better surface appearance. Argon gas for shielding also maybeusedandwillgivesatisfactory results in most cases, but a somewhat higher amperage will be required. For information on the effects of higher silicon, see 15.7.2 and the classification of interest. 15.7.2 When using the gas metal arc welding process, in which an electrodeis employed as thefiller metal, direct current electrode positive (dcep) is most commonly used. The shielding gas for spray transfer is usually argon, with or without minor additionsof oxygen. For short circuiting transfer, shielding gases composed of helium plus additions of oxygen and carbon dioxide often are used. The

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minimum thickness that can be welded is approximately 1/8 to 3/16 in. (3.2 to 4.8mm). However, thinner sections can be joined if a backing isused. The higher silicon levels improve the washing and wetting behaviorof the weld metal. For instance, for increases from 0.30 to 0.65 percent silicon, the improvementis pronounced; for increases from 0.65 to 1.0 percent silicon, further improvement is experienced but is less pronounced.

15.7.3 For submerged arc welding, direct current electrode positive (dcep) or alternating current (ac) may be used. Basic or neutral fluxes are generally recommended in order to minimize silicon pickup and the oxidation of chromium and other elements. When submerged arc welding with fluxes that are not basic or neutral, electrodes having asilicon content below the normal0.30 percent minimum may be desired. Such active fluxes may contribute some silicon to the weld metal. Inthis case, the higher silicon does not significantly improve the washing and wetting action of the weld metal. 15.7.4 The strip claddingprocess closely resembles conventional submerged arc welding, except that a thin, consumable strip electrode is substituted for the conventional wire. Thus, the equipment consists of conventional submerged arc units with modified contact tips and feed rolls. Normal power sources with a minimum output of 750amperes are used. If submerged arc equipment is available, then the same feeding motor, gear box, flux handling system, wire spool, and controls used to feed wire electrodes can be used for strip surfacing. The only difference inmost cases is a strip weldingheadand “bolt-on” adaptor plate. Strip surfacing is generally carried out using direct current supplied either from a generator or from a rectifier. Power sources with either constant voltage or drooping characteristics are used routinely. A constant-voltage powersource is preferable, however, generator or rectifier type can be connected in parallel to produce higher current for specific applications. The use of direct currentelectrode positive (dcep) yields somewhat better edge shapeand a more regular depositsurface.

16. Guideto Classification of Flux Cored CorrosionResisting Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Steel Electrodes 16.1Provisions. Excerpts from ANSYAWS A5.22-80, Specification for Flux Cored Corrosion-Resisting Chromium and Chromium Nickel SteelElectrodes 16.2Introduction. This guidehas beenprepared for prospective users of the flux cored chromiumand chromium-nickelsteelelectrodescovered by ANSYAWS

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A5.22-80, as an aid in determining the classification best suited for a particular application, with due consideration to the particular requirements for that application.

163 Method of Classification. The classification system follows as closely as possible the standard pattern usedinAWS filler metal specifications. The inherent nature of the productsbeing classified has, however, necessitated specific changes which more suitably classify the product. 16.3.1 An illustration of the method of classification is presented in Figure 4. -||||

16.3.2 Classification is onthe basis of the shielding medium to be used during weldingand the chemical analysis of weld deposits produced with the electrodes. The external shielding media recognized in the specification are carbon dioxideand argon-oxygen mixtures.

chemical composition and mechanical property requirements for his electrode. Electrodes classified for use with one or the other of the gases required by ANSYAWS A5.22-80 may be operable under different shielding conditions than those tested,but no guarantee of properties is implied beyond the specific values and conditions coveredby the specification.

16.3.4 The mechanicaltests measure strength and ductility, qualities that are often of lesser importance than the corrosion and heat-resisting properties. The tension and bend requirements,however,provideanassurance of freedom from flaws such as check cracks and serious dendritic segregation, which, if present, may cause failure in service. 16.4 Ferrite in Weld Deposits

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16.3.3 Additionalrecognizedmethods of shielding include self-shielding from the core materialwithno externally applied gas, as well as other methods not specified. The shielding designations are as follows: EXXT-1 designates an electrode using carbon dioxide shielding plus a flux system. EXXT-2 designates an electrode using a mixture of argon with 2 percent oxygen plus aflux system. EXXT-3designates an electrodeusingnoexternal shielding gas, wherein shielding is provided by the flux system contained inthe electrode core (i.e., self-shielding). EXXXT-G indicates an electrode havingunspecified method of shielding, with no requirementsbeing imposed except as agreed between purchaser and supplier. Each producerof an EXXXT-G electrode shall specify the | ---

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EXXXT-X

Figure 4 - Method of Classification for Flux Cored Corrosion-Resistant Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Steel Electrodes

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16.4.1 Ferrite is known to be very beneficial in reducing the tendency for cracking or fissuring in austenitic weldmetals;however, it is not essential. Millions of pounds of fully austenitic weld metal have been used for years without any problems. Generally, ferrite is of help when the welds are highly restrained and the joints are large. Ferrite increases the weld strength level. It has no significant detrimental effect oncorrosion resistance except in Types 316 and 316L, where it can be detrimental in some media. It generally is regarded as detrimental to toughness in cryogenic service and in high-temperature service, whereit can transform into the brittle sigma phase. 16.4.2 Ferrite can be measured on a relative scale by means of various magnetic instruments. However, work by the Advisory Subcommittee of the HighAlloys Committee of the WeldingResearch Council(WRC) established that the lack of a standard calibration procedure resulted in a verywide spreadof readings on a given specimenwhenmeasured by different laboratories. A specimen averaging 5.0 percent ferrite based on the data collected from all the laboratories was measured as low as 3.5 percent by some and as high as 8.0 percent by others. At an averageof 10.0 percent, the spread was 7.0 to 16.0 percent. In order to substantially reduce this problem, the WRC subcommittee has published CalibrationProcedure for Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal.8 AWS has extended this procedure and has prepared AWS A4.2, Standard Procedures for Calibrating Magnetic Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal. All instruments used to measure the fer_ _ _ Welding Research Council, 345 East 47th Street, New York, New York 10017

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16.5.1General. Thechemicalcomposition requirements of the EXXXT-1 and EXXXT-2 classifications are very similar. The requirements of the EXXXT-3 classifications differ fromthose ofthe previous two,because shielding with a flux system alone is not as effective as shielding with both aflux system and a separately applied external shielding gas. The EXXXT-3deposits, therefore, usually have a higher nitrogencontent than the EXXXT- 1 or EXXXT-2 deposits. This means that, in order to control the femte content of the weld metal, the chemical compositions of the EXXXT-3 deposits must have different Cr/Ni ratios fromthose of the EXXXT-1and EXXXT-2 deposits. 16.5.2 Chromium and Nickel Requirements 16.5.2.1 The EXXXT-1 and EXXXT-2 chromium and nickelrequirementsarepatternedafterthose of AWS A 5 4 Spec$cation for Corrosion-ResistingChromium and Chromium-Nickel Steel Covered WeEding Electrodes, since these flux-cored electrodes are similar to a covered

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16.4.6 The approximate ferrite content of welds may be calculated from the chemical compositionof the weld deposit. This normally is accomplished using one of two diagrams - the Schaeffler or the DeLong (1973 revision). The Schaeffler percent is equal to the WRC Ferrite Number.Schaefflerclaims a +4 percentagreement between calculated andmeasured,andDeLong claims *3 FN. The differences between measured and calculated ferrite are somewhat dependent upon the ferrite level of the deposit, increasing as the ferrite level increases. The agreement between the calculated and measured ferrite values is also strongly dependent upon the accuracy of the

16.5 Consideration of Chemical Requirements

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16.4.5 Plate metals tend to be balanced chemically to have an inherently lower ferrite content thanmatching weld metals - even when remelted by, for example, the gas tungsten arc. Weld metaldiluted with plate metal usually will be somewhat lowerin ferrite than the undiluted weldmetal,thoughthis does varydependingonthe amount of dilution and the composition of the base metal.

16.4.8 TheE307T-X,E308T-X,E308LT-X, E308MoLT-X, and E347T-X grades are normally ferrite controlled. When used with the recommended shielding gases and with reasonable and conventional welding currents and arc lengths, they produce weld metal with a typical ferrite level of 4 to 14 FN.

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16.4.4 Even on undiluted pads, ferrite variations from padtopadmustbe expected due to slight changes in weldingandmeasuring variables. On a large group of pads from oneheat or lot, and using a standard pad welding and preparation procedure, approximately 95 percent (or two sigma values) of the test results are expected to cluster around 8 FN, k2.2FN. If different welding and preparation procedures are used, then the variance will increase. Even larger variations may be encountered if the welding technique allows excessivenitrogen pickup, in which case the ferrite may be much lower than it shouldbe. High nitrogen pickup can cause a typical 8 FN deposit to drop to O FN. A nitrogen pickup of O. 10 percent will typically decrease the FN by about eight.

16.4.7 Thechemicalcomposition is set up to allow adequate latitude for the manufacturer to control the Ferrite Number of the undiluted deposit. With the EXXXT-1 classifications using carbon dioxide shielding, there is some minorloss of oxidizable elements and some pickup on carbon content. With the EXXXT-2 classifications using argon-oxygen shielding, there is some minor loss of oxidizable elements. With the EXXXT-3 classifications using no external shielding, there is some minor loss of oxidizable elements anda pickup of nitrogen, which may range from quite low to over 0.20 percent. Low welding currents coupled with long arc lengths(high arc voltages) should be avoided, because they result in excessive nitrogen pickup and excessive loss in the ferrite content of the weld.

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16.4.3 The WRC subcommittee also adopted the term “Ferrite Number” (FN) to beused instead of “percent ferrite,” to clearly indicate thatthemeasuring instrument was calibrated to the WRCprocedure.The Ferrite Number is to be considered equalto the “percent femte” termpreviouslyused.It represents a goodaverage of commercial U.S. and world practice regarding the percent ferrite. Through the use of the WRC calibration procedures, differences in readings due to instrument calibration are expected to be reduced to about *5 percent - or, at the most, 210percent - of the measured ferrite value. In the opinionofthe WRC subcommittee, it has been impossible, to date, to accurately determine thetrue absolute ferrite content of weld metals.

chemical analysis. Variations in the results of the chemical analyses encountered from laboratory to laboratory can have significant effects on the calculated ferrite value, changing it as much as 4 to 8 FN. For the EXXXT-3 classifications, the DeLong diagram is better because it corrects for the typically high nitrogen content of approximately 0.12 percent found in the deposits.

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rite content of AWS-classified stainless electrode products are to be traceable to this AWS standard.

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electrode thatuses both gas shielding (self-generated CO,) and flux shielding. The EXXXT-3 chromium requirement is patterned after the established chromium levels of AWS A5.9, Specification for Corrosion-ResistingChromium andChromium-NickelSteelWeldingRodsandBare Electrodes. The chromium levelsof AWS A5.9 are higher than those of AWS A5.4 because they initially were based on the core wires normally used for covered electrodes. It is desirable and logical to specify higher chromium levels in AWS A5.9 to compensate for the loss of chromium in submerged arc welding. This higher chromium also has been found convenient to compensate for nitrogen pickup in welding. The higher chromium and the increased nitrogen balance each other from afemte viewpoint and result in a weld femte level similarto that encountered in welds made with materials in AWS A5.4. 16.5.2.2 The EXXXT-3 nickel requirementis patterned after the established nickel levels of AWS A5.4 and AWS A5.9, which are identical. 16.5.2.3 It should be noted that the chromium level was forthe increased 0.5 percentoverthat ofAWSA5.9 E309T-3,E309LT-3.E316T-3.E316LT-3.andE317LT-31 classific&ons.This' wasdonetoprovideaminimum chromium range of 2.5 percent in these classificationsfor manufacturing reasons.

electrodes. The maximum level of 1.O percent is the specified maximum in the high-silicon category of AWS A5.9.

16.5.6MolybdenumRequirements. The molybdenum ranges for the undiluted weld metal of the applicable classifications were matched with the ranges for thecorrespondingclassifications in AWS A5.4or A5.9, as appropriate. 16.5.7ColumbiumRequirements. Theminimum columbium level of 8 X %C specified for the applicable classifications is consistent with AWS A5.4. The maximum level of 1.0 percent agrees with AWSA5.4and AWS A5.9. 16.6 Classification According to Composition 16.6.1E307T. The nominal composition (wt.%) of weld metal deposited from this electrode is 19Cr, 9Ni, Mo, and 4Mn- These electrodes are usedprimarily for moderate-strength welds with good crack resistance between dissimilar steels, such as welding austenitic manganese steel to carbon steel forgings or castings.

16.6.2E308T. The nominal composition (wt.%)of this filler metal is 19 Cr and 9 Ni. Electrodes of this classification are most often used to weld base metal of 16.5.3.1 The carbon levels of AWS A5.9 are specified similar composition such as AIS1 Types 301, 302, 304, for the E300T-X series, except for the low carbon varieties 305, and 308. of theEXXXT-1classification and for theE309T-1, E309T-2,andE309T-3classifications.Thelow-carbon varieties of the EXXXT-1 classifications cannot realisti16.6.3 E308LT. The composition of this weld metal is cally meet the 0.03 percent carbon maximum specified in identical to E308T, except for the carbon content. By AWS A5.9, due to carbon pickup from the CO, shielding. specifying low carbon in this alloy, it ispossible to obtain is therefore The 0.04 percent carbon maximum of A5.4 resistance to intergranular corrosion due to carbide prespecified. The carbonmaximum for theE309T-1, cipitation without the use of stabilizers such as columbiE309T-2, and E309T-3 classifications was reducedO. 10 to percent to be consistent with military specification require- um or titanium. This low-carbon alloy, however, is not as strong at elevated temperature as the columbium-stabiments for this classification. lized alloys. 16.5.3.2 For the E400T-X and ESOOT-X series, the carbon levels ofAWSA5.4are specified, since these fluxcored electrodes are patterned after the corresponding cov- 16.6.4 E308MoT. This electrode is similar to E308T, ered electrodes. except for the addition of molybdenum. It is recommended for weldmg CF8M9 stainless steel castings, as it matches the base metal with regard to chromium, nickel, and 16.5.4ManganeseRequirements. The manganese molybdenum. This electrode also may be usedfor welding requirements are patterned after AWS A5.4: 0.5 to 2.5 wrought metals such as 3 16stainless when ferrite content percent for ferrite-bearing E300T-X series, and 1.0 perbeyond that attainable with E3 16T electrodes is desired. cent maximum for most E4OOT-X series. 16.5.3 Carbon Requirements

16.5.5SiliconRequirements. Theflux cored electrades require higher silicon levels in the deposit for acceptable usability than do covered electrodes or bare ~~

CF8MandCF3M (ACl).

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are designations of the Alloy Casting Institute

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16.6.5E308MoLT. This electrode is recommended for welding CF3M9 stainless steel castings, as it matches the base metal with regard to chromium, nickel, and molybdenum. It also may be used for welding wrought metals such as 316L when fenite content beyond that attainable with E3 16LT electrodes is desired.

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16.6.6E309T. The nominalcomposition (wt.%) of weldmetaldepositedfrom this electrode is 25 Cr and 12 Ni. Electrodes of this classification are used commonly forwelding similar alloysinwrought or cast forms. Occasionally, they are usedto weld Type 304base metals where severe corrosion conditions exist that require higher-alloy-content weld metal. Theyalso are used in welding dissimilar metals-for instance, joining Type 304 to mild steel, welding the clad side of Type 304 clad steels, and applying stainless steel sheet liningsto carbon steel shells. 16.6.7 E309LT. The compositionof this weld metal is identical to E309 exceptfor the carbon content. By specifying low carbon in this alloy, it is possible to obtain resistance to intergranular corrosion due to carbide precipitation without the use of stabilizers such as columbium or titanium. This low carbon alloy, however, is not as strong atelevated temperature as the columbium-stabilized alloys. 16.6.8 E309CbLT. The nominal composition (wt.%) of weld metal deposited fromthis electrode is 25 Cr and 12Ni, with a low carbon content and columbium added as a stabilizer. These electrodes are used to overlay carbon and low-alloysteels and producea columbium-stabilized first layer on such overlays. 16.6.9E310T. The nominalcomposition(wt.%) of weldmetaldeposited from this electrode is 25 Cr and 20Ni. These electrodes most often are used to weld base metals of similar compositions. 16.6.10E312T. The nominalcomposition(wt.%) of weld metal deposited fromthis electrode is 29Cr and 9 Ni. These electrodes most often are used to weld dissimilarmetal compositions of which one component is high in nickel. This alloy gives a two-phase weld deposit with substantial amounts of ferrite in an austenitic matrix. Even with considerable dilution by austenite-forming elements, such as nickel, the microstructure remains two-phase and thus highly resistantto weld-metal cracks and fissures. 16.6.11E316T. The nominalcomposition(wt.%)of weld metal deposited from this electrode is 18 Cr, 12Ni, and 2Mo. Electrodes of this classification usuallyare used for welding similar alloys (i.e., about 2-percent molybdenum). These electrodes have been used successfully in applications involving special alloysfor high-temperature service. The presence of molybdenum provides increased creep resistance at elevated temperatures. 16.6.12 E316LT. The compositionof these electrodes is identical to E316T except for the carbon content. By specifying low carbon inthis alloy, it is possible to obtain resistance to intergranular corrosion due to carbide pre-

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cipitation without the use of stabilizers such as columbium or titanium. However, this low-carbon alloy is not as strong at elevated temperatures as the columbium-stabilized alloys.

16.6.13E317LT. Thecontent of alloying elements, particularlymolybdenum,inweldmetal deposited by these electrodes is somewhat higher than that ofE3 16LT. These electrodes usually are used for welding alloys of similar composition, andtheyusually are limited to severe corrosion applications involving sulfuric and sulfurous acids and their salts. 16.6.14E347T. The nominal composition (wt.%) of weld metal deposited from this electrode is 19Cr and 9Ni, with columbium added as a stabilizer. The alloy often is referred to as a stabilized Type 308 alloy, indicating that it is not normally subject to intergranular corrosion from carbideprecipitation. Electrodes of this classification usually are used for welding chromium-nickel base metals of similar composition stabilized either with columbium or titanium. Although columbium is the stabilizing element usually specified in 347alloys, it should be recognized that tantalum is also present, sometimes in amounts up to one-half of the total of columbium, plus tantalum. Tantalum and columbium are almost equallyeffective in stabilizing carbon and inproviding high-temperaturestrength. For these electrodes, the usual commercial practice is to report columbium asthe sum of the columbium plus tantalum. If dilution by the base metal produces a low-ferrite or fully austenitic weld metal deposit, the crack sensitivity of the weld may increase substantially. 16.6.15E409T. The nominalcomposition(wt.%)of weld metal deposited from this electrode is 11 Cr, with titanium added as a stabilizer. These electrodes most often are used to weld base metalsof similar composition. 16.6.16E410T. This 12Cr (wt.%) alloy is an airhardening steel and, therefore, requires preheat and postheat treatments in order to achieve welds of adequate ductility for most engineering purposes. The most common application of electrodes of this classification is for welding alloys of similar composition. They also are used for surfacing of carbon steels to resist corrosion, erosion, or abrasion, such as occur in valve seats and other valve parts. 16.6.17E410NiMoT. Thenominalcomposition (wt.%)ofweldmetal deposited from this electrode is 12 Cr, 4 Ni, and 0.5 Mo. These electrodes are most often used toweld CA6N"o castings or similar materials. They are modified to contain less chromium and more nickel in order to eliminate femte in the microstructure,

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since ferrite has a deleterious effect on mechanical properties. Postweld heat treatmentshould not exceed 1150°F (620"C),becausehighertemperatures may result in rehardeningduetountemperedmartensite in the microstructure after cooling to room temperature.

16.6.18 E410NiTiT. The nominal composition (wt.%) of weld metal deposited from this electrode is 11 Cr and 4 Ni, with titanium added asa stabilizer. These electrodes are most often used to weld base metals of similar composition or stabilized 12 percent chromium base metals such as Type 409. E430T.Weld metal deposited by these electrodesgenerally contains between 15 and 17 percent 16.6.19

chromium. The composition is balanced by providing sufficient chromium to give adequate corrosion resistance for the usual applications and yet retain sufficient ductility in the heat-treated condition. (Excessivechromium will result in lower ductility.) Welding with E430T electrodes usually requires preheating and a postheat treatment. Optimum mechanical properties and corrosion resistance are obtainedonly when the weldment is heat-treated following the welding operation.

16.6.20 E502T. Weld metal deposited by these electrodes contains 4 to 6 percent chromium and approximately 0.50 percent molybdenum. Electrodes of this classification are used for welding base metalof similar composition, usually in the form of a pipe or tube. This alloy is air-hardening; therefore, preheating and postweld heat treatment are strongly recommended. 16.6.21 E505T. Weld metal deposited by these electrodes contains 8.0 to 10.5 percent chromium and about 1.0 percent molybdenum. Electrodesof this classification are used for welding base metal of similar composition, usually in theform of a pipe or tube. The 505alloy is airhardening; therefore, preheating and postweld heat treatment are strongly recommended. Part D:

Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy 17.Guide to Classificationof Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding 17.1 Provisions. Excerptsfrom ANSUAWSA5.3-91, Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal are Welding l0CA6NM is a designationof the Alloy Casting Institute (ACI).

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17.2 Introduction. The purpose of this guide is to correlate the electrode classifications presented in ANSYAWS A5.3-91withtheirintendedapplications.Referenceto appropriate base metal specifications is made whenever possible and whenit would be helpful.Such references are intended only as examples rather thancomplete listings of the materials for which each filler metal is suitable. 17.3 Classification System. The system for identifying the electrode classifications follows the standard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The letter "E' at the beginning of each classification designation stands for electrode. The numerical portionof the designation in the specification conforms to the Aluminum Association registration for the composition of the core wire used in the electrode. 17.4 Welding Considerations 17.4.1 Weldingaluminum by the shieldedmetalarc process (SMAW) is a wellestablished practice. However, development of the gas shielded arc welding processes and the manyadvantages these processes offer has caused a shift away from the use of covered electrodes. This shift is expected to continue, and the use of SMAW for aluminum will dwindle. During SMAW, a flux covered electrode is held in thestandard electrode holder, and welding is accomplished using direct current, electrode positive (dcep). Moisture content of the electrode covering, and cleanliness of the electrode and base metal, are important factors to be considered whenweldingaluminumwith covered electrodes. Preheat usually is required to obtain good fusion and to improve soundness of theweld. Residual flux removal between passes is required to provideimproved arc stability andweld fusion. Complete removal of the residual flux after welding is necessary to avoid corrosive attack in service. 17.4.2 The presence of moisture inthe electrode covering is a major cause of weld porosity. Dirt, grease, or other contamination of the electrode can also contribute to porosity. The absorption of moisture by the covering can be quite rapid, and the covering candeteriorate after only a few hours of exposure to a humid atmosphere. For this reason, the electrodes shouldbe stored ina dry, clean location. Electrodes taken from previously opened packages or exposed to moisture should be "conditioned" by baking them at a sustained temperature of 350°F to 400°F (175°C to 205°C) for one hour before welding. After conditioning, they should be storedinaheated cabinet at 150°F to 200°F(66"to 94°C) until used. 17.4.3 The minimum base metal thickness recommended for shielded metal arc welding of aluminum is 1/8 in. (3.2mm). Forthicknesses less than1/4in.

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17.5.3 The E4043 classification contains approximately five percent silicon, which provides superior fluidity at welding temperatures; for this reason, it is preferred for general purpose welding. The E4043 classification produces weld metal with fair ductility and a minimum tensile strength of 14 O00 psi (97 m a ) . E4043 electrodes can be used to weld the 6XXX series aluminum alloys; the 5XXX series aluminum alloys (up to2.5 percent Mg content); aluminum-silicon casting alloys:andaluminum base metals 1100, 1350(EC),and 3003.

(6.4mm), noedgepreparationotherthan a relatively smooth, square cut is required. Material thicker than 1/4in. (6.4 mm) should be beveled to a single-V-groove with a 60- to 90-degree included angle. On very thick material, U-groovesmaybeused.Dependinguponbase-metal gauge, root-face thicknesses may range between 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) and 1/4 in. (6.4 mm). A root opening of 1/32 in. to 1/16 in. (0.8 to 1.6 mm) is desirablefor all groove welds.

17.4.4 Because of the high heat conductivity of aluminum, preheating to between 150°F and 400°F (120°C and 205°C) is nearly always necessary on thick material tomaintain the weldpool andobtainproper fusion. Preheating also will help to avoid porosity due to too rapid cooling of the weld pool atthe start of the weld. On complicated welds, preheatingis useful for avoiding distortion. Preheating may be performed with atorch using oxygen and acetylene or other suitable fuel gas, or with electrical resistance heating. Mechanical properties of 6XXX series aluminum-alloy weldments can be reduced significantly if thehigherpreheatingtemperatures [350”F(177°C) or higher] are applied.

17.5.4 Formany aluminum applications, corrosion resistance oftheweldisofprimeimportance. In such cases, it is advantageous to choose an electrode with a composition asclose as practical to that of the base metal. For this use,covered electrodes for base metalsother than 1100 and 3003 usually are not stocked and must be specially ordered. For applications wherecorrosion resistance is important, it may be advantageous to use one of the gas shielded arc welding processes for which a wider range of filler metal compositions is available. 18. Guide to Classification of Bare Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods

17.4.5 Shielded metal arc welds should beformed with a single pass whenever possible. However, where thicker plates require multiple passes, thorough cleaning between passes is essential for optimum results. After the completion of any welding, the weld and weldment should be thoroughly cleaned of residual flux. The major portion of the residual flux can beremoved by mechanical means such as a rotary wire brush,slag hammer, or peeninghammer - and the rest by steaming or hot-water rinsing. The test for complete removal of residual flux is to swab a solution of five-percent silver nitrate onto the weld areas. Foaming will occur if residual flux is present.

18.1Provisions. Excerpts from ANSUAWSA5.10-92. Specification for Bure Aluminum und Aluminurn Alloy Welding Electrodes und Rods 18.2Introduction. This guide is designed to correlate the filler metal classifications presented in ANSUAWS A5.10-92 with their intended applications. Reference to appropriate base-metal alloys is made whenever possible and when it would be helpful. Such references are intended as examples rather than complete listings of the mater i a l s for which each filler metal is suitable.

17.4.6 Interruption of the arc when shielded metal arc welding aluminum can cause the formation of a fused flux coating over the end of the electrode. Re-establishing a satisfactory arc is impossible unless this formation is removed.

18.3ClassificationSystem. Bothwelding electrodes and rods are classified on the basis of the chemical composition of the aluminum filler metal and a usability test. The AWS classifications used are based as follows: 18.3.1 The AluminumAssociationalloy designation nomenclature is used for the numerical portion to identify the alloy and thus its registered chemical composition.

17.5 Description and IntendedUse of Electrodes 17.5.1 Electrodes of the E1100 classification produce weld metal of high ductility, good electrical conductivity, and a minimum tensile strength of 12 O00 psi (82.7 Mpa). E l 100 electrodes are used to weld 1100, 1350(EC), and other commercially pure aluminum alloys.

18.3.2 A letter prefix designates usability of the filler metal. The letter system for identifying the filler metal classifications inthe specification follows thestandard pattern used inother AWS filler-metal specifications. The prefix “E” indicates the filler metal is suitable for use as an electrode, and the prefix “R’ indicates suitability as a welding rod. Since some of these filler metals are used as electrodes in gas metal arc welding, and as welding rods

17.5.2 Electrodes of the E3003 classification produce weldmetal of high ductilityand a minimum tensile strength of 14000 psi (96.5 MPa). E3003 electrodes are used to weld aluminum alloys 1100 and 3003.

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STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL L995 m 07842b505L449b

509

m 53

high, and the gas may not have time to escape before the molten metal solidifies.

in oxyfuel gas, gas tungsten arc, and plasma arc welding, both letters, “ER’, are used to indicate suitability as an electrode or a rod. In all cases, an electrode can be used either as an electrode or a welding rod, but the reverse is not necessarily true.

18.4.3 Welds can be made in all positions with the gas metal arc process. Edge preparation similar to that used for gas tungsten arc welding is satisfactory. Either argon, helium, or a mixture of these gases maybeused for shielding. Semiautomatic welding, in which the welding gun is moved by a welder, is difficult to control on metal thicknesses below 0.808 in. (2 mm) with constant amperage. The use of a pulsed power supply permits the welding of base metal as thin as 0.030 in. (0.8 mm). No upper limit on metal thickness has been established. Welds in plate up to 8 in. (200 mm) in thickness have been made. Automatic gas metal arc welding is suitable for all thicknesses welded, and particularly for thicknesses less than 1/8 in. (3.2 mm).

18.3.3 Minor changes in procedures used to manufacture aluminum filler metals can affect their surface quality and significantly affect the resultant weld soundness. Usability testing of the electrode is desirable on a periodic basis to assure that the product classified continues to meet the soundness requirement. The supplier should perform the usability tests of the specification on an annual basis, as a minimum, to assure that the specified soundness and operating characteristics criteria are maintained. ANSUAWS A5.01, Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines, should be used by a purchaser for definition of lot and frequency of testing references when purchasing aluminum filler metals.

18.4.4 Gasmetal arc welding(GMAW) is accomplished with direct current (electrode positive). Almost all drooping volt-amperage characteristic dc motor-generator sets and dc rectifier welding machines used for shielded metal arc welding with covered electrodes are suitable sources of power. Constant-voltage power supplies are also suitable. An electrode feeding mechanismisneeded,inwhich electrode speed can be adjusted between 50 and 500 ipm (21 and21 1 m d s ) . Electrode feeders possessing “touchstart” or “slow run-in” features, or both, are necessary when using a droopingvolt-amperage characteristic power supply, and they are desirable with constant-voltage power sources. Radiused-top and -bottom electrode feed rolls are preferred in bothmanualandmechanizedequipment. Stabilization of the arc with high-frequency current is not required.

18.4 Welding Considerations. The electrodes and rods described are primarily for use with the inert-gas arc welding processes. However, theymaybeusedwith other welding processes such as electron beam or oxyfuel gas welding. 18.4.1 The gasmetal arc process permits thesuccessful welding of aluminumalloys that are crack-sensitive when welded by oxyfuel gas or other manual welding processes. Possible reasons for this are described briefly here. Distortion is reduced to a minimumbecause the increase in temperature of the parts being welded is confined to a narrow zone. Because thealuminum alloys have high thermal conductivity, the reduction of distortion is greater than would be the case with ferrous base metals. Cracking of welds in thealuminum alloys is reducedif the cooling rate is high. The gasmetal arc process permits the weldingof alloys that have a wide melting range, which heretofore have been difficult to weld without cracking. 18.4.2 The high melting and solidification rate of the weld metal from the gas metal arc process can result in entrapped gas in the welds. Control of this factor should be understood in order to obtain good results. Gas in the welds can be caused by contaminating influences such as grease, hydrocarbon cleaning agents, or moisture on the electrode or on the base metal. Moist air leaking into the inert-gas lines may also cause this condition. Improper adjustment of electrode speed, welding current, or other machine variables may have a similar effect. The introduction of gas in the weld metal from anyof these causes can result in porosity; because the solidification rate is

18.4.5 Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) can be performed in all positions. Welding travel speed is reduced compared to GMA welding; however,this is beneficial in several aspects. The process ismore maneuverable for manuallyweldingsmall tubes or pipingthan GMAW; entrapment of gases is minimized to permit production of sound welds; short repair welds can be made more easily; and the reduced concentration of heat input allows weldingaluminumbasemetalsthinnerthan 0.020 in. (0.5 mm). Corner and edge joints in sheet gauges can be made more satisfactorily than by GMAW, due to the better control of the filler metal additions. 18.4.6 Gas tungstenarcwelding is most commonly performed with alternating-current power and argon-gas shielding. Helium additions to the extent of 25 to 50 percent of the mixture with argonare used to increase the rate

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STD-AUS UGFM-ENGL L995 m 07842b5 0514497 445 W 54

strengthis obtained withdcen GTA welds intheheat treatable aluminum alloys due to the reduced heat input compared to ac GTAW. Since noarc cleaning action occurs in the dcen arc, special attention must be given to minimize the oxide thicknessimmediatelybeforewelding,such as mechanical scraping or arc cleaning all base metal surfaces within the fusion zone.

of initial melting and the amount of melting in thick base metal. Pure tungsten or zirconia-tungsten electrodes are preferred for ac-power GTAW. The positive electrode polarity of alemating current provides an arc cleaning action to remove the surface oxide; however, thick aluminum oxides caused by weathering, thermal treatments, or anodic treatments need to be reduced by chemical or mechanical means prior to welding inorder to obtain uniform results and proper fusion. Sources of hydrogen, such as moisture on the base or filler metals or in the gas shielding and residual hydrocarbons on the base or filler metals, must be removed to avoid porosity in the welds.

18.5 Description and Intended of Use Aluminum Electrodes and Rods 18.5.1 The selection of the proper classification of filler metal depends primarily on the aluminum alloy used in the parts to be welded; and secondly on the welding process, the geometry of the joints, the resistance to corrosion required in service, and the finish or appearance desired on the welded part. For example, welded vessels for holdinghydrogenperoxide require special aluminum alloys - quite frequently a high-purity alloy -in order to have good resistance to corrosionor to prevent contamination of the product contained. In this case, the proper choice of filler metal is an alloy that has at least as high a purity as the base metal. Another example

18.4.7 Direct current power also can be used to GTA weld aluminum. dcep power can be used to weld sheet gauges. However, a 1/4in. (6.4 mm) diameter tungsten electrode is required to carry the 125 amperes needed to weld 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) thickness, so this polarity is seldom used. dcen poweris used with helium gas shielding, and a thoria-tungsten electrode is used for welding aluminumbase alloys. This negative electrode polarity provides a deep, narrow melting pattern, which is advantageous for repair of thick weldments or castings and for increased welding speeds in all thicknesses. Higher as-welded

Guide lo the Chdm of Fllkr Metal for @onoraPurpose l Welding A356.0, 356.0. 201.0 206.0 224.0

Base Metal

A357.0, 357.0. 513.0. 333.0. 319.0. 354.0. 355.0. 413.0. 443.0. 712.0 C3SS.O535.0

1060. 1070. 1080. 1350 ER4145 ER4145 3003 ER4145 1100.3003. Alc ER4145 ER414Y ER4145C 2014.2036 ER2319' 2219 ER4145C ER5356' ER5356" EK4043h.' ER4043" ER4043b 3004. Alc 3004 ER53561 ER5356" EK404.W' EH4043" ER5356' ER5356' ER4043b ER4043" 5005.5050 ER5356" ER53561 EK5356'J EK404.3" ERS356' - ER5356' ER4043' ER4043b 5052. 5652' 508 3 5086 5154. 5254' 5454 ER5554CJ ER53561 ER5356'f ER4043h ER5356' ER5356' ER4043' ER4043b 5456

-

-

J

6005.6061.6063, 6101.6151.6201. 6351.6951 6009.6010.6070

ER4145

511.0. 512.0. 513.0. 535.0 514.0.

7039, 514.0.

6W5. 6061. 7004. 7005. 710.0.

A444.0 ER5356C.d ER4043a.b ER4043P.b ER4145 ER4145b,' ER53561 EH4049

ER5356'."

-

ER4043 ERS356'

6063.6101. 6009 6010 6070 5456

ER5356L'.d ER4043a.b ER4043h.d ER5356" ER5356c,d ER4043a.b ER4043h -ER4145 ER4145 ER4043 ER4043'." ER4043'.b

6151. 6201. 6351,6951

5454

ER53564 ER4043b

ER4043h.d

-

-

ERS356'."

ER5356d

ERSI83"

-

ER5356L'" ER4043'

ER53564 ER53S6'

ER5356d ER5356'

-

ERS3565 ER53561

ER5356d EK5356" ERS356' ERS356'

-

ER5356c.J

ER5356d

ER5556d

-

ER5356"

ER5556*

ER4I4SbS

ER4145 ER4043a.b4 ER414Sb.'

7004,7005.7039. 710.0. 712.0

Sl!.O. 512.0.

I -ERS356d ER5356' ER4043bJ ER4043b I -ER5356' ' t-

ER4043b,'.8

ER5356'J ER5356'

EK53.56"ERSl8.3"ER5356"

ER4043'h

EK4043h.'8

EK4043d.ha ER4043 ER4043

ER4043'

J

356.0. A356.0. 357.0. A357.0. 4 13.0. ER4043b,h ER414SbS ER4145 443.0. A444.0 319.0. 333.0. ER4145h.'.h ER4145'355.0. 354.0. C3SS.O

201.0. 206.0. 224.0

ER231(r.h

(W&)

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ER4043h

STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL 1995

07811265 0514498 381 55

18.5.3 Filler metal in the form of straight lengths and coils without supportis used as welding rod with a number of welding processes. These include oxyfuel gas welding, plasma arc welding,and gas tungstenarcwelding. The filler metal usually is fed by hand, although mechanized welding in these processes may involve either manual ing of the weldingrod or use of a feeding mechanism.

Table 4 (Continued)

Base Meld 1 0 6 0 . 1070. 1080. 1350 1100. u)o3. Ale 3003 20 14.2036 2219 3004. Alc 3004 5 0 0 5 , 5050 5052,5652' 5083 5086 5 154. 5254'

5154 5254' ER5356C.d ER5356'd

-

ER4043 ER5356' EWS356' ER5356' ERS356d ER5356d ER5654L'

5086

5083

ERS356d ER5356"

ER5356d ER5356d

-

-

-

ER5356" ER5356d ER53S6d ER5356d ER5356d

-

ERJ356d ER5356d ER5356d ER5183d

5052 5652'

5005

50%

ER4043b.d ER1100b+ ER4043".d ER1100b.c ER4043b.d ER4145b.C ER4145 ER4043b ER4043Y,b ER4043.b ER5356CJ ER5356C.f ER5356C.' ER5356C.r ER5356C.d ER56W.r*'

-

3004 Alc. 3004

2219

ER4043b.d

ER4145"f

ER4145

ER4I4SC ER2319'

2014 2036 ER4145 ER4145 ER4145c

Iloo 3003 Alc. 3003

I O60 I070 IO80 1350

ERIIoob~C ERII8Bb+.hj ERllO0b.C

Notes: I. k r v i c e conditions such as immersion in fresh or salt water. exposureto specific chemkals. or a sustainedhifi temperature (over I5O'F (66'C)) may limit the choice of filter metals. Filler metals ERSI83. ER5356. ER5556. and ER5654 arc not recommended for sustained elevated temperature service.

2. Recommendations i n this tahte apply to gas shielded arc welding promws. For oxyfuclgas welding. only ER1 188. ER I 1 0 0 . ER4043. EH4047. and EH4145 filler metals are ordinarily used.

3. Where no Aller Inetal is listed. the base metal combination is not mommended for welding. a. EH4145 may be used for some applications. b. ER4047 may be used Cor some applications. c. ER4043 may he used lor some applications.

d. EH5183. ER5356. or ER5556 may be used. c. ER2319 may be used for some applications. It can supply high strength when the wcldment ir postweld solution heat treated and aged. f. ERS183. ER5356. ERS554. ERSS56.and ER5654 may be used. I n someewcs. they provide (I) improved color match aneranodizing treatment. ( 2 ) highest weld ductility. and (3) higher weld strength. ERSSS4 is suitablefor sustained elevated lempcraturc service. B. ER4643 will provide high slrength i n 112 in. ( I 2 mm) and thicker groove welds in 6 X X X base alloys when postweld solution heat treated and aged. h. Filler metal with the sameanalysisas the base metal issometimes used. The ldlowingwroughl filkr metals possess thesame chemical composition limitsascas1 Aller alloys: ER4009 and R4009 as RC355.0 ER4010 and R4010 as R-A356.0 and R401 I u R4357.0. i. Base metal alloys5254 and 5652 are used for h y d r w n peroxide service. ER5654 filler maal is used for welding both alloys lor Service temperatures below I SO'F (h6'CI. j. ER1 1 0 0 may be used ror some applications.

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18.5.6 Proper storage of welding rods and electrodes is essential to avoid contamination which may affect their performance. Packages of filler metal should not be left outdoors orinunheated buildings, because the greater variations in temperature and humidity increase the possibility of condensation to create hydrated surface oxides. Experiencehasdemonstrated that undesirable storage feed-conditions may adversely affect filler metal performance. Investigation of the effect of storage time on electrode

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18.5.5 The cleanliness and minimal surface oxidation of the filler metal are important with all welding processes. Oil or other organic materials, as well as a heavy oxide film on the rod, interfere with coalescenceof the weld and also are sources of porosity. Becauseof this, it is necessary to clean the welding rod andelectrode before packaging.

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18.5.2 Experiencehas shownthat certain classifications of filler metal are suitable for welding specific base metals and combinations of base metals. These are listed in Table 4. If it is desired to weld combinations other than those listed, they should be evaluated as to suitability for the purpose intended. The alloy combinations listed will be suitable for most environments,although someare preferable from one or more standpoints. Inthe absence of specific information, consultation with the material supplier is recommended.Additional information may be found inthealuminum chapter of Volume 4, Seventh Edition of the AWS Welding Handbook.

18.5.4 Spooled filler metal is used most commonly as electrode for the gas metal arc welding process. It also is used as filler rod when mechanized feeding systems are employed for gas tungsten arc welding, plasma-arc welding and other processes. Finite lengths of filler metal can be removed from the spools for use as high-quality, handfed filler rod with manual gas tungsten arc, plasma-arc or oxyfuel gas welding processes.

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is the foundry weldingof castings, where an alloy meeting the composition limits of the castings is, inmost cases, the best choice -as, for example, in therepair and fabrication of cast alloys; including 206.0, C355.0, A356.0, 357.0, and A357.0.

STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL 1995 56

performance indicates thatpackaged electrodes, stored under good conditions (dry places in heated buildings), are satisfactory after extended storage.

18.5.7 Contamination of filler metal from handling or storage may occur. In most cases, the contaminatinginfluences will dictate the cleaning method. The practice of giving the welding rod, if it has been exposed to the shop atmosphere for long periods of time, a rub with stainless steel wool just before welding is quite widely followed.

19.3.2 The chemical symbol Cu is used to identif electrodes as copper-base alloys, and an additional chemical symbol -such as Si in ECuSi, Sn in ECuSn, etc. -indicates the principal alloying element of each classification or group of similar classifications. Where more than one classification is included in a basic group, the individual classifications in the group are identified by letters (A, B, C, etc.) as inECuSn-A. Further subdividing is accomplished by using numerals (1, 2 etc.) after the last letter, such as the 2 in ECuAl-A2. 19.4 Description and Intended Use of Filler Metal

Part E:

19.4.1 Copper and copper-alloy covered electrodes generally operate with dcep, and the coverings often are hygroscopic.

Copper and Copper Alloy 19. Guide to Classification of Copper and Copper Alloy Arc Welding Electrodes

19.1Provisions. Excerpts from ANSVAWS A5.6-84R, Specificationfor Covered Copper and Copper Alloy Arc Welding Electrodes. 19.2Introduction. This guide has beenprepared for prospectiveusersofthe copper andcopper-alloy electrodes presentedinANSVAWS A5.6-84R as an aid in determining which classification of electrode is best suited for a particular application, with due consideration to the particular requirements for that application. Each of the basic classification groups is discussed in the parts of this guide that follow. Tests for hardness are included for reference in Table 5. 19.3 Method of Identification. The system for identifying the electrode classifications is as follows: 19.3.1 The letter “E” at the beginning of each number indicates a covered electrode.

Table S Hardness of copper and copper alloy w d d metal ~teduringc” AWS Classification Brinell Hardness ~

20 to 40

ECU

ECuSi

80 to 1 0 0 70 to 85 85 to 1 0 0 60 to 80 1 3 0 to 150 1 4 0 to 180 1 6 0 to 200 t60 to 200

ECuSn-A ECuSn-C ECuNi ECUAI-A2 ECUAI-B ECuNiAl ECuMnNiAl

Rockwell F

(500 kg load) (500 kg load) (500 kg load) (500 kg load) (3000 kg load) (3000 kg l o a d ) ( M o o kg l o a d )

(3000 kg l o a d )

Note: Hardness values as Listed above are average values for undiluted weldmetal. This table is included for information only.

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19.4.1.1 Thesuppliershould be consultedregarding (a) specificoperatingparametersandpositions,and (b) recommendedstorageconditionsandreconditioning temperatures. 19.4.1.2 The weld area shall be free from moisture and other contaminants. 19.4.2 ECU Classification (Copper Electrodes). ECU electrodes generally are manufactured from deoxidized copper wire (essentially pure copper with small amounts of deoxidizers added) and maybe used for shielded metal arc welding of deoxidized coppers, oxygen-free coppers, and tough-pitch [electrolytic) coppers. The electrodes also are used to repair or surface these base metals, as well as to surface steel and cast iron. Mechanically and metallurgically sound joints can best be made in deoxidized coppers. Reactions with hydrogen in oxygen-free copper, and the segregation of copper oxide intough-pitch copper may detract fromjoint efficiency. However, whenhighest quality is not required, ECU electrodes may be used successfully for cladrestoration on copper-clad vessels if dilution effects. precautions are takentominimize Preheats to 1000°F(540°C) may be required. 19.4.3 ECuSi Classification (Silicon Bronze). ECuSi electrodes contain approximately three percent silicon plus small percentages of manganese and tin. They are used primarily for welding copper-silicon alloys. ECuSi electrodes are used occasionally for the joining of copper, dissimilarmetals,andsomeiron-basemetals. Silicon-bronze weld metalseldom is usedto surface bearing surfaces, but often is used to surface areas subjected to corrosion. 19.4.4 ECuSn Classification (Phosphor Bronze). ECuSn electrodes are used to join phosphor bronzes of similar compositions. They are also useful for joining

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STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL L995

07842b5 0534500 8bT 9 57

19.4.6.5 ECuMnNiAlelectrodes are usedto join or repair cast or wroughtmanganese-nickel-aluminum bronzematerials.Theseweldmetalsexhibitexcellent resistance to corrosion, erosion and cavitation.

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brasses and, in some cases, for welding them to cast iron and carbon steel. ECuSn weld metals tend to flow sluggishly, requiring preheat and interpass temperatures of at least 400°F (205°C)on heavy sections. Postweld heat treatment may not be necessary; but it is desirable for maximum ductility, particularly if the weld metal is cold worked. |||| || || || || |||| || || |||||

20. Guide to Classification of Copper and Copper Alloy

Bare WeldingRods and Electrodes

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19.4.4.1 ECuSn-A electrodes are used primarily to join base metal of similar composition. They alsomay be used to weld copper if the resultant weld metal has adequate for the speelectrical conductivity and corrosion resistance cific application. 19.4.4.2 ECuSn-C electrodes have higher tin content, resulting in weld metals of higher hardness, tensile and yield strength than ECuSn-A weld metal.

20.1 Provisions. Excerpts from ANSYAWSA5.7-84, Specifications forCopper and Copper Alloy Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes. 20.2 Introduction. This guide has been prepared for

prospective users of the copper and copper-alloy filler metals presented inANSVAWS A5.7-84 as an aid in determining which classification of filler metal is best suited for a particular application, with due consideration to the particular requirements for that application.

19.4.5 ECuNi Classification (Copper-Nickel) Electrodes of the ECuNi classification are used for shielded metal arc welding of wrought or cast 70/30, 80/20, and 90/10 copper-nickel alloys to themselves or to each other. They also are used for welding the clad side of coppernickel clad steel. Preheating generally is not necessary.

20.3 Method of Classification

19.4.6 ECuAl Classification (Aluminum Bronze). 19.4.6.1 The copper-aluminum electrodes are used only in the flat position. For butt joints, a 90" single V-groove is recommended for plate thicknesses up to and including 7/16 in. (11 mm), and a modified U- or double V-groove is recommended for the heavier plate thicknesses. Preheat and interpass temperature shouldbe as follows:

(1) for iron-base materials, 200to 300°F (95 to 150°C); (2) for bronzes, 300 to400°F (150 to 21073; and (3) for brasses, 500 to 600°F (260 to 315°C). 19.4.6.2 ECuAl-A2 electrodes are used in joining aluminum bronzesof similar composition, high strength copper-zincalloys,siliconbronzes,manganesebronzes, some nickel alloys, many ferrous metals and alloys, and combinations of dissimilar metals. Theweld metal is also suitable for surfacing wear- and corrosion-resistant bearing surfaces. 19.4.6.3 ECuAI-B electrodes deposit weld metal having higher tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness with a correspondinglylowerductilitythanECuAl-A2weld metal.ECuAl-Belectrodesareused for repairingaluminum bronze and other copper alloy castings. ECuA1-B weldmetalalsoisused for high-strengthsurfacing of wear- and corrosion-resistant bearing surfaces. 19.4.6.4 ECuNiAl electrodes are used to join or repair

cast or wrought nickel-aluminum bronze materials. These weld metals also maybeused for applications requiring high resistance to corrosion, erosion, or cavitation in salt and brackish water.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

20.3.1 ANSYAWSA5.7-84 classifies the copper and copper-alloy filler metals usedmost extensively. The filler metals are arranged in five basic groups. The tensile properties, bend ductility, and soundness of welds produced using filler metals classified within the specification frequently are determined during procedure qualification. It should be noted that variables in the procedure (e.g., current, voltage, and welding speed), variables in shielding medium (e.g., the specific gas mixture or the flux), or variables in the composition of the base metal and the filler metal, will influence the results which may be obtained. When these variables are properly controlled, however, the filler metal shall give sound welds whose strengths (determined by all-weld-metal tension tests) will meet or exceed the minimums. Typical hardness properties are also included in Table 6.

Table 6 HudnonmdI#wY.r~o(copp.rmdcopp.raUoy*nMm@tal

Minimum

AWS

Chdiaticen

Brinell Hardness

tensile strength pi Z O O 0 u)OO0

MPa

N000 50000 55000

240

(Moo kg load)' (MOO kg load)'

MOO0 65000

414

(MOOkg load)' (Moo kg load)'

72000 75000

480 515

"

ERCu ERCuSi-A ERCuSn-A ERCuNi ERCuAI-AI ERCuAI-A2 ERCuAI-A3 ERCuNiAl ERCuMnNiAl

25 Rtxkwell F 80 to 1 0 0 (Mo kg load) 70 to 85 (Mo kg load) M) to 80 (Mo kg load) 80 to I IO (Mo kg load)

i 3 0 to I50 I 4 0 to 180 i60 to 200 1 6 0 to 200

172 345 345

380

450

NOTE Hardnas valuesu l i e d abow arc average valuea for an as-welded deposit made with the filler metal specified. Th¡¡Ubk k included for information only.

a. Gu tungtcn am proms only.

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m

STDmAWS UGFM-ENGL L995

0784265 05L450L 7Tb

m

58

20.3.2 Thesystem for identifying a filler metal classi20.4.3.2 WhengasmetalarcweldingwithERCuSi fication follows the standard pattern used in AWS filler fillermetals,itgenerallyisbesttokeeptheweldpool metal specifications. The letters “ER’ at the beginningofsmallandtheinterpasstemperaturebelow150°F(65°C) to minimizehotcracking.Theuse ofnarrowweldpasses a classification indicate that the bare filler metal may be reduces contraction stresses and also permits faster cooling used either as an electrode or as a welding rod. through the hot-short temperature range. 20.4.3.3 When gas tungsten arc welding with ERCuSi 20.3.3 The chemical symbolCu is used to identify the filler metals, best results are obtained by keeping the weld filler metals as copper-basealloys. The additional chemipool small. Preheatingis not required. Welding can be percal symbol (the Si in ERCuSi, the Sn in ERCuSn-A, etc.) formed in all positions, but the flat position is preferred. indicates the principal alloying element of each group. Where more than one classification is included in a basic group, the individual classifications in the group are identified by letters (A, B, C, etc.) as in ERCuSn-A. Further subdividing is accomplished using numerals (1, 2, etc.) after the last letter, such asthe 2 in ERCuAl-A2.

Part F:

Nickel and Nickel Alloy

20.4 Description and Intended of Use the Welding Rods and Electrodes

21.1 Provisions. Excerptsfrom ANSYAWSA5.11-90, Specifcation for NickelandNickelAlloyWelding Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding.

20.4.1 General Characteristics 20.4.1.1 Gastungstenarcweldingnormallyemploys dcen current. 20.4.1.2 Gas metal arc welding normally employs dcep current. 20.4.1.3 Shielding gas for use with either process normally is argon, helium, or a mixture of the two. Oxygenbearing gases normally are not recommended.

21.2 Introduction. The purpose of this guide is to correlate the electrode classifications presented in ANSYAWS A5.1 1-90 with their intended applications. Reference to appropriate base metal specifications is made whenever possible and whenit would be helpful. Such references are intended only as examples rather thancomplete listings of the base metals for which each filler metal is suitable.

20.4.2 ERCu (Copper Filler Metal). ERCu filler metals are made of deoxidized copper, but also may contain one or more of the following elements: phosphorus,silicon, tin, manganese, and silver. Phosphorus and silicon are added primarily as deoxidizers. The other elements contribute either to the ease of welding or to the properties of the final weldment. ERCu filler metals generally are used for the welding of deoxidized and electrolytic tough-pitch copper. Reactions with hydrogen in oxygenfree copper, as well as segregation of copper oxide in tough-pitch copper, may detract from joint efficiency. ERCu welding electrodes and rods may be used to weld these base metalswhen the highest quality is not required. Preheating is desirable on most work; but onthick base metal, it is essential.Preheat temperatures of 400to 1000°F (205 to 540°C) is desirable when welding base metal thicker than 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) if high-quality welds are to be obtained.

21.3 Classification System 21.3.1 The system for identifying the electrode classifications follows the standard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The letter “E’ at the beginning of each classification designation stands for electrode. 21.3.2 Since the electrodes are classified according to the chemical compositionof the weld metal they deposit, the chemical symbol“Ni” appears immediately following the “E’, as a means of identifying the electrodes as nickel-base alloys. The other symbols (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, and Co) in the designations are intended to group the electrodes according to their principal alloying elements. The individual designations are made up of these symbols and anumber at theendofthedesignation(ENiMo-1and ENiMo-3, for example). These numbersseparate one composition from another, within a group, and are not repeated within that group.

20.4.3 ERCuSi (Silicon Bronze) Filler Metal

20.4.3.1 ERCuSifillermetalsarecopper-basealloys containing approximately three percent silicon; they may also contain small percentagesof manganese, tin, or zinc. They are used for gas tungsten and gas metal arc welding of copper-silicon and copper-zinc base metals, to themselves and also to steel.

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21.Guide to Classification of Nickel and Nickel Alloy Welding Electrodesfor Shielded Metal Arc Welding

21.3.3 From anapplication point of view, the electrode classifications in ANSYAWS A5.11 have corresponding classifications inANSYAWS A5.14, Specification for

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Bare NickelandNickel Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods, for those cases in which there is a corresponding application for a bare electrode or rod (ER). Table 7 correlates the covered electrode classifications in this edition with those in the previous edition of the specification and the corresponding ER classification in ANSUAWS A5.14. It also lists the current designation for each classification as it is given in a prominent and pertinent military specification, when such a designation exists.

ple). This is accomplished with slowtravel-speed in order to deposit a thicker bead, and also to dissipate the energy of the arc against the molten weld metal or the nickel base-metal rather than the steel member.

21.4.3 Most of the electrodes in the specification are intended to be used with direct current, electrode positive (dcep). Some of the electrodes,however, are designed to operate on alternating current also. Electrodes of that type are so noted in the following discussion of each classification.

21.4 Welding Considerations 21.4.1 Beforewelding or heating any nickel-base alloy, the material must be clean. Oil, grease, paint, lubricants, marking pencils, temperature-indicating materials, threading compounds,and other such materials frequently contain sulfur, lead, or silver, which may cause cracking (embrittlement) of the base metal or the weld metal if present during welding or heating. 21.4.2 Electrodes of some of the classifications are used for dissimilar-metal welds. Whenmakingsuch welds, it is important to obtain as little dilution as possible from the dissimilar-metal member (steel, for examTable 7

-

c o m p u k o n o i ~

-C

=*

Cladkation m AS.11 Pram1

Cbifmuon..

EN¡-I ENiCu-7 ENiCrFc-l ENiCrFe-2 ENiCrFc-J ENiCrFc4 ENiMo-l ENiMo-3 ENiMo-7 ENiCrCoMo-l ENiCrMo-l ENiCrMo-2 ENiCrMo-3 ENiCrMn-l ENiCrMo-S ENiCrMo-6 ENiCrMo-7 ENiCrMo-9 ENiCrMo-IO ENiCrMo-l I EtiiCrMo-12

ENCI ENiCu-7 ENCrFc-l ENiCrFe-2 ENiCrFc-3 ENiCrFe4 ENiMo-l ENiMo-3 ENiMo-7 Nm c l w i f e d ENiCrMo-l ENiCrMo-? ENiCrMo-3 ENiCrMd ENiCrMn-5 ENiCrMcA ENiCrMo-7 ENiCrMo-9 Not ClassiCd Not C L w f r d

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in AJ.14

PTenOua

Not clwicrd

ERNi-I ERNiCu-7 "

ERNiCr-J

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ERNiMo-l ERNiMo-3 ERNiMo-7 ERNiCrCoMo-l ERNiCrMo-l ERNiCrMo-2 ERNiCrMo-3 ERNiCrMn-l

21.5 Description and Intended Use of Electrodes 21.5.1 ENi-1 Classification.Electrodes of this classification are used for welding wrought and cast forms of commercially purenickel to themselves and to steel (e.g., joining nickel to steel, or surfacing steel with nickel). Typical specifications for this nickel-base metal are ASTMB160, B161, B162, and B163 - allofwhich have UNSNumbers N02200orN02201.Electrodes 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) in diameter or less can be used in all positions. Larger electrodes are used only in the horizontal and flat positions. 21.5.2 ENiCu-7 Classification.Electrodes of this classification are used for weldingnickel-copper alloys to themselves and to steel, for welding the clad side of joints in steel clad with a nickel-copper alloy, and for surfacing steel with nickel-copper alloy weld metal. Typical specifications for thenickel-copper base metal are ASTM B127, B163, B164, and B165 - all of which have UNS Number N04400. Electrodes 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) in diameter or less can be used in all positions. Larger electrodes are used only in the flat and horizontal positions. The weld metal is suitable for service both in the as-welded condition and after an appropriate postweld heat treatment. Qualification tests should be conducted beforehand to make certain the necessary properties can be obtained after the particular heat treatment is employed.

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ERNiCrMo-7 ERNiCrMo-9 ERNiCrMo-IO ERNiCrMo-I 1

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21.5.3 ENiCrFe Classifications 21.5.3.1 ENiCrFe-l. Electrodes of this classification areusedforweldingnickel-chromium-ironalloys,for welding the clad side of joints in steel clad with a nickelchromium-iron alloy, and for surfacing steel with nickelchromium-iron weld metal. The electrodes may be used for applications at temperatures ranging from cryogenic to around 1800°F (980°C). However, for temperatures above 1500°F (82OoC), these electrodes do not exhibit optimum oxidation resistance and strength. The electrodes are also suitableforjoiningsteel to nickel-basealloys.Typical specifications for the nickel-chromium-iron base metal are

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B163, B166, B167, and B168 - all of which have UNS Number N06600. These electrodes also can be used for welding steel to other nickel-base alloys. Fewer fissures are permitted on the bend test for this weld metal than for weld metal of ENiCrFe-1andENiCrFe-2classifications.Electrodes 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) in diameter or less can be used in all positions. Larger electrodes are used only in the horizontal and flat positions.

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21.5.3.2ENiCrFe-2. Electrodesofthisclassification are used for welding nickel-chromium-iron alloys, 9-percent-nickel steel, and a variety of dissimilar-metal joints - all of which involve carbon steel, stainless steel, nickel, and nickel-base alloys. The base metals can be wrought or cast (welding grade), or both. The electrodes mdybe used for applications at temperatures ranging from cryogenic to around 1800°F (980°C). However, for temperatures above 1500°F (82OoC), ENiCrFe-2 does not exhibit optimum oxidation resistance and strength. Typical specificationsforthenickel-chromium-ironbasemetalare ASTM B163, B166, B167, and B168 -all of which have 21.5.5ENiCrCoMo-1Classification. Electrodes of UNSNumberN06600. Electrodes 1/8 in. (3.2mm) in are used for weldingtheENiCrCoMo-1classification diameter or less can be used in all positions. Larger elecnickel-chromium-cobalt-molybdenumalloys(UNS No. trodes are used only in the horizontal and flat positions. N06617) to themselvesandto steel, and for surfacing steel with nickel-chromium-cobalt-molybdenum weld 21.5.3.3ENiCrFe-3. Electrodesofthisclassification areusedforweldingnickel-chromium-ironalloys,for metal. The electrodes also are used for applications where welding the clad sideof joints in steel clad with a nickel- optimum strength and oxidationresistance is required chromium-iron alloy, and for surfacing steel with nickelabove 1500°F(820°C) up to 2100°F (1 15OoC),especially chromium-ironweldmetal,whencomparativelyhigh when welding on basemetalsofnickel-iron-chromium manganesecontentsarenotdetrimental.Theelectrode alloys. Electrodes 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) in diameter or less can may be used for applications at temperatures ranging from be used for welding in all positions. Larger electrodes are cryogenic to about 900°F (480°C). Typical specifications used for welding in the flat orhorizontal positions. forthenickel-chromium-ironbasemetalareASTM

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21.5.4.2 ENiMo-3. Electrodes of the ENiMo-3 classification are used for welding dissimilar-metal combinations of nickel-base and iron-base alloys. These electrodes normally are used only in theflat position. 21.5.4.3 ENiMo-7. Electrodes of the ENiMo-7 classificationhavecontrolledlowlevelsofcarbon,iron,and cobalt.Theyareusedforweldingnickel-molybdenum alloys, for welding the clad side of joints in steel clad with anickel-molybdenumalloy,andforweldingnickelmolybdenumalloystosteelandtoothernickel-base alloys. Typical specifications for the nickel-molybdenum base-metalsareASTMB333,B335,B619,B622,and B626 - all of which have UNS Number N10655. These electrodes normally are used only in the flat position.

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ASTM B163, B166, B167, and B168 - all of which have UNS NumberN06600. Electrodes 1/8 in. (3.2mm)in diameter or less can be used in all positions. Larger electrodes are used only in the horizontal and flat positions.

21.5.6 ENiCrMo Classifications

21.5.6.1 ENiCrMo-l. Electrodes of this classification areusedforweldingnickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys, for welding the clad side of joints in steel clad with anickel-chromium-molybdenumalloy,andforwelding nickel-chromium molybdenum alloy to steel and to other nickel-base alloys. Typical specifications for the nickelchromium-molybdenumbasemetalsareASTMB581, 21.5.3.4ENiCrFe-4. Electrodes of thisclassification B582, B619, and B622 - all of which have UNS Number are used for welding 9-percent-nickel steel. Typical speciN06007. These electrodes normally are used only in the flat position. ficationsforthe9-percent-nickelsteelbasemetalare ASTMA333,A334,A353,A522,andA553 - allof 21.5.6.2 ENiCrMo-2. Electrodes of this classification which have UNS Number K81340. The strength of the areused for weldingnickel-chromium-molybdenum weld metal is higher than that of the ENiCrFe-2 classificaalloys, for welding the clad side of joints in steel clad with tion. These are ac-dc electrodes, which makes them espeanickel-chromium-molybdenumalloy,andforwelding cially useful where acis desired to combat arc blow. nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloysto steel andto other nickel-base alloys. Typical specifications for the nickelchromium-molybdenumbasemetalsareASTMB435, 21.5.4 ENiMo Classifications B572, B619, B622, and B626 - all of which have UNS Number N06002. These electrodes normally are used only 21.5.4.1 ENiMo-l. Electrodes of the ENiMo-1 classiin the flat position. fication are used for welding nickel-molybdenum alloys, for welding the clad side of joints in steel clad with a nick- 21.5.6.3 ENiCrMo-3. Electrodes of this classification are used for welding nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys el-molybdenumalloy,andforweldingnickel-molybdenum alloys to steel and to other nickel-base alloys. Typical to themselves and to steel, and for surfacing steel with nickel-chromium-molybdenumweldmetal.Theseelectrodes specifications for the nickel-molybdenum base-metal are also can be used for welding nickel-base alloys to steel. The ASTMB333,B335,B619,B622,andB626 - allof electrodes are used in applications where the temperature whichhaveUNSNumberN10001.ENiMo-1electrodes rangesfromcryogenicto1800°F(980°C).Foroptimum normally are used only in the flat position.

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strength and oxidation resistance above 1500°F (820’C), the ENiCrCoMo-1 electrode should be used. Typicalspecifications for thenickel-chromium-molybdenum base metals are ASTM B443, B444, and B446- all of which have UNSNumber N06625 Electrodes 1/8in.(3.2mm) in diameter or less can beused in all positions. Larger electrodes are used only in the flat and horizontal positions. 21.5.6.4 ENiCrMo-4. Electrodes of this classification are used for welding low-carbon nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys, for welding the clad side of joints in steel cladwith a low-carbon nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy, and forweldinglow-carbonnickel-chromiummolybdenum alloys to steel and to other nickel-base alloys. Typical specifications for the nickel-chromium-molybdenum base metals are ASTM B574, B575, B619, B622, and B626 - all of which have UNS Number N10276. These electrodes normally are used only in theflat position. 21.5.6.5 ENiCrMo-5. Electrodes ofthis classification are usedforwelding joints in steelcladwith a nickelchromium-molybdenumalloy,andforjoiningnickelchromium-molybdenum alloys to steel or to other nickelbase alloys. Typical specifications for the nickel-chromium-molybdenum base metals are ASTM B334, B336, and B366 - all of which have UNS Number N10002. These electrodes normally areused only in the flat position. 21.5.6.6 ENiCrMo-6. Electrodes of this classification are used for welding 9-percent-nickel steel, but they can be used in other applications as well. Typical specifications for the 9-percent-nickel-steel base metal are ASTM A333, A335, A353, A522, and A553 - all of which have UNS Number K81340. These electrodes are ac-dc electrodes, which makes them especially useful for combating magnetic arc blow.Electrodes 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) in diameter or less can be used in all positions. Larger electrodes are used only in the flat and horizontal positions. 21.5.6.7 ENiCrMo-7. Electrodes of this classification are used for welding nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys, forwelding the clad side of joints in steel cladwith a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy, and forjoining nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys to steel and to other nickel-base alloys. Typical specifications for the nickelchromium-molybdenumbasemetalsare ASTM B574, B575, B619, B622, and B626 - all of which have UNS Number N06455.These electrodes normally are used only in the flat position. 21.5.6.8 ENiCrMo-9. Electrodes of this classification are used for welding nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys, forwelding the clad side ofjoints in steel clad with a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy,andforjoining nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys to steel and to other nickel-base alloys. Typical specifications for the nickelchromium-molybdenumbasemetalareASTMB581, B582, B619, B622, and B626 - all of which have UNS Number N06985. These electrodes normally are used only in the flat position. 21.5.6.9 ENiCrMo-10. Electrodes of this classification are used for welding nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys,

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for welding the clad side ofjoints in steel clad with a nickel-chromium-molybdenumalloy,andforjoiningnickelchromium-molybdenum alloysto steel and to other nickelbase alloys. Typical specifications for the nickel-chromium-molybdenumbasemetalsareASTMB574,B575, B619, B622, and B626- all of which have UNS Number N06022. Electrodes 118 in. (3.2 mm) in diameter or less can be used in all positions. Larger electrodes are used only in the flat position. 21.5.6.10ENiCrMo-11. Electrodes of this classification are used for welding nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys, for welding the clad side of joints in steel clad with a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy, and forjoining nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys to steel and to other nickel-base alloys. Typical specifications for the nickelchromium-molybdenumbasemetalare ASTM B581, B582, B619, B622, and B626 - all of which have UNS Number N06030. These electrodes normally are used only in the flat position. 21.5.6.11ENiCrMo-12. Electrodes of thisclassification are used for welding chromium-nickel-molybdenum austenitic stainless steels to themselves, to duplex (austenitic-ferritic)stainlesssteels, tonickel-chromiummolybdenum alloys, and to steel. The ENiCrMo-12 composition is balanced to provide corrosion-resistant welds for use at temperatures below the creep range of highly alloyedausteniticstainlesssteels.Typicalspecifications for the chromium-nickel-molybdenumstainless-steel base metals are A240, A167, A182, A249, A276, A312, A358, A473,andA479 - mostparticularly,thegradeUNS Electrodes S31254contained in thosespecifications. 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) in diameter or less can be used in all positions. Larger electrodes can be used only in the flat and horizontal positions.

22. Guide to Classificationof Nickel and Nickel Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods 22.1Provisions. Excerpts from ANSVAWSA5.14-89, Specifcation for Nickel and Nickel Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods. 22.2 Introduction. The purpose of this guide is to correlate the electrode androd classifications presented in ANSVAWS A5.14-89 with their intended applications, so that theycan be usedeffectively. Reference to appropriate base metal specifications is made whenever possible and when it would be helpful. Such references are intended only as examples rather than complete listings of the materials for which each filler metal is suitable. 22.3 Classification System 22.3.1 The system for classifying the filler metals follows the standard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The letters “ER’ at the beginning of each clas-

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sification designation stand for electrode and rod, indicating that the filler metal may be used ineither form.

22.3.2 Since filler metals are classified according to their chemicalcomposition, the chemical symbol Ni appears immediately following the "ER' as a means of identifying the filler metalsas nickel-base alloys. The other symbols (Cr, Cu, Fe, and Mo) in the designations are intended to group the filler metals according to their principal alloying elements. Individual designations are made up of these symbols and a number at the end of the designation (ERNiMo-1andERNiMo-2, for example). These numbers separate one composition from another within a group and are not repeated within that group. 22.3.3 From an application point of view, most of the filler metalclassificationsinANSVAWSA5.14havea corresponding classification in ANSI/AWS A5.11, Specification for Nickel and Nickel-AlloyWelding Electrodes for ShieldedMetal ArcWelding. Forthose cases in which there is a corresponding application for a bare electrode or rod (ER) and a covered electrode (E), Table 8 correlates the ER classification in the current edition with those in the previous edition and with the corresponding covered electrode (E) classification in ANSYAWS A5.1l. It also lists the current designation for each classification as it is given in a prominent and pertinent militaryspecification, when such a designationexists. 22.4 Welding Considerations 22.4.1 The filler metals canbe used with any of a variety of welding processes - including gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, submerged arc, and plasma arc welding. Submerged arc and plasma arc welding are quite specialized, and the supplier of filler metals should be consulted for recommendations concerning their use. General suggestions are given below for the other two processes. EN¡-

ally is argon, but mixtures of argon and helium can be used. Spray transfer normally is used for groove and fillet welds, but globular transfer may be preferred for surfacing. The lower current density associated with globular transfer provides less depth of fusion and lower dilution.

22.5 Descriptionand Intended Useof Electrodes and Rods. 22.5.1 ERN¡ Classification. Filler metalof the ERNi- 1 classificationisintended for weldingwroughtandcast forms of commercially pure nickel (ASTM B160, B161, B162,andB163; UNS NumbersN02200andN02201) with the gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, and plasma arc welding processes.The filler metal contains sufficient titanium to control weld-metal porosity with these processes. 22.5.2ERNiCuClassification. Filler metal of the ERNiCu-7 classification is used for welding nickel-copper alloys (ASTM B127, B163, B164, and B165; UNS Number N04400) with thegas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, submerged arc, and plasma arc welding processes. The filler metal contains sufficient titanium to control porosity with these processes. 22.5.3ERNiCrClassification. Fillermetal of the ERNiCr-3 classification is used for welding nickelchromium-iron alloys, for welding the clad side of joints in steel clad with a nickel-chromium-iron alloy, for surfacing steel with nickel-chromium-iron weld metal, and Table 8 Comparison of Cla#ificrtiont MiIbn C*o*cstion in ,451I

Present

Prevlou,

ClassiTimon

ClasshÏcat~on**

ENI-I ENiCu-7

I ENCu-i

22.4.2 Beforewelding or heating any nickel-base ENiCrFeENiCrFe-l ENiCrFc-2 ENiCrFc-2 alloy, the base metal must be clean. Oil, grease, paint, ENiCrFe-3 8N12 lubricants, marking pencils, temperature-indicating mateENiCrFc4 ENiCrFe4 ENiMo-l ENiMo-l rials, threading compounds and other such materials freENiMo-3 quently contain sulfur or lead which may cause cracking ENiMo-7 ENCKoMo-I (embrittlement) of the base metalor the weld metalif preENiCrMo-l sent during welding or heating. ENiCrMo-2 '

22.4.3 For gas tungsten arc welding, direct currentelectrode negative (dcen) is used. High-purity grades of either argon or helium (or a combination of the two) are used as a shielding gas. 22.4.4 For gas metal arc welding, direct current-elecmode positive (dcep) is employed. Theshielding gas usu-

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Cmapadm(. ChiTl in A5.14

4Nll

PN IO I

ERN¡-I ERNiCu-i

3Nl2

"

-

4NIA

ENCIFC-3 ENiMo-3 ENiMo-7 N a classfed ENiirMo-I

€NiCrMo-2 ENiCrMo-3 ENiCrMo-2 ENCrMn.4 ENiCrMo-4 €NiCrMo-5 ENiCrMo-S ENiCrMo-6 ENCrMo4 ENiCrMo-7 ENCrMo-7 ENiCrMo-9 ENiCrMo-9 ENiCrMo-IO N aC W d N aC i d i ENiCrMo-1 1 ENiCrMo-I2 C l d e d N a

)NIB 4NIW

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-

IN12

ERNiCr-3

-

ERNiMo-I ERNiMo-3 ERNiMo-7 ERNCrCoMo-l ERNiCrMo-I ERNiCrMo-2 ERNiCrMo-3 ERNiCrMu-d

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3NIC

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ERNiCrMo-7 ERNiCrMe-9 ERNiCrMdO ERNiCrMo-I I

"H.22200/3 *=AS.I 1-83

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for joining steel to nickel-base alloys. Typical specifications forthe nickel-chromium base metal are ASTM B163, B166, B167, and B168 - all of which have UNS Number N06600. The filler metal can be used with the gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, submerged arc and plasma arc welding processes. 22.5.4 ERNiCrFe Classifications 22.5.4.1ERNiCrFe-5. Fillermetal of this classification is used for welding nickel-chromium-iron alloys with the gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, submerged arc, and plasma arc processes. Typical specifications for the nickel-chromium-ironbasemetal are ASTMB163,B166, - all of whichhave UNS Number B167,andB168 N06600. The higher columbium content of the filler metal is intendedtominimizecrackingwherehighwelding stresses are encountered, as in thick base metal. 22.5.4.2ERNiCrFe-6. Fillermetalofthisclassification is used for cladding steel with nickel-chromium-iron weld metal and for joining steel to nickel-base alloys using the gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, submerged arc, and plasma arc welding processes. The filler metal is especially useful when welding with the gas shielded processes under conditions which might impair the effectiveness of the gas shielding. The weld metal will precipitation-hardenonheattreatment.Thedegree to whichithardens depends on the temperature and the time at temperature. For specific information concerning this, the supplier or the supplier’s technical literature shouldbe consulted.

22.5.6.3 ERNiio-3. Filler metal of this classification is used for welding nickel-molybdenum base metal to itself, to steel, and to other nickel-base alloys - and for cladding steel with nickel-molybdenum weld metal- using the gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, plasma arc, and submergedarc welding processes. For specific recommendations, thesup plier or the supplier’s technical literature should be consulted, particularly for submerged arc welding. 22.5.6.4 ERNiMo-7. Filler metal of this classification is used for weldingnickel-molybdenumbasemetal (ASTM B333 and B335; UNS Number N10665), and for cladding steel with nickel-molybdenum weld metal, using the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes.

22.5.7 ERNiCrMo Classifications

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22.5.7.1 ERNiCrMo-l. Filler metal of this classification is usedforweldingnickel-chromium-molybdenum base metal to itself, to steel, and to other nickel-base alloys - and for cladding steel withnickel-chromium-molybdenum weld metal - using the gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, and plasma arc welding processes. Typical specifications for the nickel-chromium-molybdenum base metal are ASTMB58,B581,B582 - all ofwhichhaveUNS Number N06007. 22.5.7.2 ERNiCrMo-2. Filler metal of this classification is usedforweldingnickel-chromium-molybdenum base metal to itself, to steel, and to other nickel-base alloys - and for cladding steel withnickel-chromium-molybdenum weld metal - using the gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, and plasma arc welding processes. Typical specifications for the nickel-chromium-molybdenum base metal are 22.5.5 ERNiieCr Classiications ASTM B366, B435, B567 and B572- all of which have UNS Number N06002. 22.5.5.1ERNiiFeCr-l. Filler metal of this classification is used for gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc welding 22.5.7.3 ERNiCrMo-3. Filler metal of this classificaof nickel-iron-chromium-molybdenum-copper alloy tion is used for welding nickel-chromium-molybdenum (ASTM B423, UNS N08825). to steel,andtoothernickel-base basemetaltoitself, alloys; for cladding steel withnickel-chromium-molybde22.5.5.2ERNiFeCr-2. Filler metal of this classificanum weld metal; and for welding the clad side of joints in of nickel-chromition is used for gas tungsten arc welding steelcladwithanickel-chromium-molybdenumalloy. um-columbium-molybdenumalloy(ASTMB637,AMS Theweldingprocessesusedaregastungstenarc,gas 5589, UNS N07718). The weld metal will precipitationmetal arc, submerged arc and plasma arc. Typical specifiharden on the heat treatment. cations for the nickel-chromium-molybdenum base metal are ASTM B443, B444, and B446 - all of which have 22.5.6 ERNiMo Classifications UNS Number N06625. 22.5.7.4 ERNiCrMo-4. Filler metal of this classifica22.5.6.1 ERNiFeCr-l. Filler metal of this classificafor weldingnickel-chromium-molybdenum tion is used for gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc welding tionisused base metal to itself, to steel, and to other nickel-base alloys of nickel-iron-chromium-molybdenum-copper alloy - and for cladding steel withnickel-chromium-molybde(ASTM B423; UNS N08825). num weld metal -using the gas tungsten arc and gas metal 22.5.6.2 ERNiMo-2. Filler metal of this classification arc processes. Typical specifications for the nickel-chromiisusedforweldingnickel-molybdenumbasemetalto um-molybdenum base metal are ASTM B574 and B575, itself, to steel, and to other nickel-base alloys - and for both of which have UNS Number N10276. claddingsteelwithnickel-molybdenumweldmetal 22.5.7.5 ERNiCrMo-7. Filler metal of this classificausing the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes. tion is used for welding nickel-chromium-molybdenum Typicalspecificationsforthenickel-molybdenumbase basemetaltoitself,tosteel,andtoothernickel-base metal are ASTM B366, B434, and B573 - all of which alloys - and for cladding steel with nickel-chromiumhave UNS Number N10003)

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molybdenum weld metal - using the gas tungsten arc, 23.2 Introduction. The purpose of this guide is to corregas metal arc, and plasma arc welding processes. Typical late the classifications presented in ANWAWS A5.15-90 specifications for the nickel-chromium-molybdenum base with their intended applications. Reference to appropriate metal are ASTMB574andB.575,bothofwhichhave base metal specifications is made whenever possible, and UNS Number N06455. when it would be helpful. Such references are intended 22.5.7.6 ERNiCrMo-S. Filler metalof this classificaonly as examples rather than complete listings of the base tionisused forwelding nickel-chromium-molybdenum metals for which each filler metal is suitable. base metal to itself, to steel, and to other nickel base alloys - and for cladding steel withnickel-chromium-molybde23.3 Classification System num weld metal - using the gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, and plasma arc welding processes. A typical specifi23.3.1 The system for identifying welding rod and cation for thenickel-chromium-molybdenum base metal is electrode classifications follows the standard pattern used ASTM B582, UNS Number N06975. in AWS filler metal specifications. The letter “E’ at the 22.5.7.7 ERNiCrMo-9. Filler metal of this classificaof each classification designation stands for beginning tionisusedforwelding nickel-chromium-molybdenum electrode, the letter “R” at the beginning of each classifibasemetaltoitself,tosteel,andtoothernickel-base cation designation stands for a welding rod, and the letters alloys - and for cladding steel with nickel-chromium“ER” at the beginning of each classification designation molybdenum base metal - using the gas tungsten arc, stand for a filler metal which is suitable for use as either gas metal arc, and plasma arc welding processes. A typicalspecification for the nickel-chromium-molybdenum an electrode or a rod. The next letters in the filler metal basemetalisASTMB582,whichhasUNSNumbers designation are based on the chemical composition of the N06007 and N06985. filler metal or undiluted weld metal. Thus, NiFe is a nickel-iron alloy, NiCu is a nickel-copper alloy, etc. Where 22.5.7.8 ERNiCrMo-10. Filler metal of this classification isused for welding nickel-chromium-molybdenum different compositional limits in filler metals of the same basemetalto itself, to steel, and toothernickel-base alloy family result in more than one classification, the alloys - and for cladding steel with nickel-chromiumindividual classifications are differentiated by the desigmolybdenum weld metal - using the gas tungsten arc, nators “A” or “B”. as in ENiCu-A and ENiCu-B. gas metal arc, and plasma arc welding processes. Typical specifications for the nickel-chromium-molybdenumbase 23.3.2 For flux cored electrodes, the designator “T” metal are ASTMB514andB575,bothofwhichhave indicates a tubular electrode. The number 3 indicates UNS Number N06022. that the electrode is used primarily without an external 22.5.7.9ERNiCrMo-11. Filler metal of this classifishielding gas. cation is used for welding nickel-chromium-molybdenum basemetaltoitself,tosteel,andtoothernickel-base 23.3.3 Most of the classifications within the specificaalloys - and for cladding steel with nickel-chromiumtion contain the usage designator “CI” after the hyphen, molybdenum weld metal - using the gas tungsten arc, which indicates that these filler metals are intended for gas metal arc, and plasma arc welding processes. A typicast iron applications. The usage designator is included to calspecificationforthe nickel-chromium-molybdenum basemetal is ASTMB582, whichhasUNSNumbers eliminate confusion with other filler metal classifications N06007. N06985 and N06030. from other specifications which are designed for alloys other than cast irons. The two exceptions, ENiCu-A and ENiCu-B, preceded the introduction of the usage designa22.5.8ERNiCrCoMoClassification. Filler metal of tor and have never had the “CI” added. the ERNiCrCoMo-1 classification is used for welding nickel-chromium-cobalt-molybdenum base material (UNS N06617), using the gas tungsten arc and gas metal 23.4 Welding Considerations arc welding processes. 23.4.1 Welding Considerations for Electrodes

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Part G:

removed be should skin23.4.1.1 casting The from the suit- other ormachining, chipping grinding, by area weld able means. When repairing casting defects, care should be 23.Guide to Classification of WeldingElectrodesand exercisedtoensureremoval ofany defective metalto Rods forIron Cast grease, dirt, before oil, metal welding. sound base all Also, or other foreign material should be eliminated by the use 23.1 Provisions. Excerpts from ANSIIAWS A5.15-90, of suitable solvents.If oil, grease,or solvents have impregSpecification for Welding Electrodes and Rods for natedthecasting,heatshould be appliedtotheareatobe Cast Iron. observed. longer no volatilization is untilwelded A tem-

Cast Iron

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perature of 750°F (400°C) generally is sufficient for this 23.4.1.8 Peening often is used to reduce stresses and operation. If the casting is too greasy, flash heating the decreasedistortion.Peeningshouldbeperformedwith welding surfacesto about 1000°F (540°C) shoulddrive off repeated, moderate blows using a round-nose or needle the grease in a gaseous state. toolwithsufficientforce to movethemetal,butnot enough to rupture it. Peening should be performed while 23.4.1.2 ForV-groovewelds,theedgesshouldbe the metal is still above 1000°F (540°C). Peening is not recbeveled to form a 60- to 80-degree groove angle. For very ommended for root beads or weld beads at the weld face. thick base metal, a U-groove weld with a 20- to 25-degree groove angle and a groove radius of at least 3/161/2 to in. 23.4.1.9 The possibility of cracking makes it generally (4.8 to 13 mm) should be used. advisable in welding any sizable casting to employ studs that fasten the weld to the unaffected base metal below the 23.4.1.3 Weldingcurrentsshouldbewithintherange weld interface. Studs are usually 114 to 518 in. (6.4 to 16 recommended by the supplier of the electrode,asand low as mm) in diameter, projecting 3/16to 114 in. (4.8 to 6.4 mm) possible, to facilitate smooth operation, goodbead contour, above the surface tobe welded, and screwed or pressed in and good fusion of the groove face. If welding is in other to a depth at least equal to their diameter. The cross-secthan the flat and horizontal positions, the recommended curtional area of the studs should be 25 to 35 percent of the rents should be reduced to some extent - particularly for area of the weld surface. vertical-position and overhead-position welding. 23.4.1.4 The electrode should be manipulated so that the width of the weld bead is no greater than three times 23.4.2 Welding Considerations for Rods Classified as the nominal diameter of the electrode being used. If a large cavity must be filled, then the sides may be surfaced RCI and RCI-A and the cavity gradually filled toward the center of the 23.4.2.1 The casting should be prepared as described repaired area. in 23.4.l. l. 23.4.1.5 Whencontinuousweldingisemployed,heat 23.4.2.2 Castings to be welded with a V-groove should input from the previous passes serves as moderate prehave the edges beveled to form a60- to 90-degree includheating, or as a meansof maintaining the preheat tempered angle. The groove should have a root face greater than ature. Use of preheating is not always necessary, but it is zero, to facilitate alignment of the joint members and to often used. In large castings, it may be desirable at times prevent melt-through. to use intermittent welding to provide a more even temperature distribution - keeping the casting warm to the 23.4.2.3 Next,thecastingshouldbepreheatedasa touch, but not permitting it to get too hot. whole, or locally in critical sections, if a closed or rigid construction is involved. Ideally, this involves preheating 23.4.1.6 Thehardnessoftheheat-affectedzone is a the entire casting to 800 to 1050°F(430 to 566"C), or in the function of the composition and cooling rate of the base case of alloy castings, as high as 1250°F (677°C). The premetal. An increase in the cooling rate for a given compoheating not only tends to equalize expansion and contracsition will increase the hardness of the heat-affected zone. tionstressesandensure the machinabilityofthefinal Thus, any steps takento retard the cooling rate- such as weld, but also enables the weld to be made more rapidly. preheating, or the useof insulating material combined with Such preheating preferably should be performed aincharpreheating - will be beneficial in lowering the hardness coal fireor a furnace. In the case of small castings, howevof the heat-affected zone. er, preheating may be accomplished using a welding torch. The hardness of the weld metal depends to a great extent upon the amount of dilution, and can be controlled within 23.4.2.4 A neutral oxyfuel gas flame is preferred for reasonable limits during welding. Single-layer weld metal welding cast iron. Some authorities, however, have recwhich has high dilution may have a hardness as high as ommended the occasional use of a reducing flame where 350 BrinellforENiFe-Ci,ENiFe-CI-A,and Est elecdecarburization is to be avoided. A flux is required, the purpose of which is to increase the fluidity of the iron-siltrodes; and around 2 IO Brinell for the ENI-CI, ENi-CI-A, icate slag that forms on the weld pool. and ENiCu-B weld metal. Moderatelythickweldbeads,wherethedilutionis 23.4.2.5 After the groove has beenbeveledand reduced by directing the arc onto the weld pool or onto the cleaned, and the casting preheated, the welding torch is later layers of multiple-layer welds, may give lower harddirected over an area extending 1 in. (25 mm) around the ness ranges. Typical ranges for mechanical properties of weld until the entire area is a dull red. Then the flame is undiluted filler metal are listed in Table9. directed at the bottomof the groove, keeping the tip of the 23.4.1.7 Preheating is especially helpful in over-comcone 1/8 to 1/4 in. (3.2 to 6.4 mm) from the metal, until a ing the differential mass effect encountered when welding weldpoolapproximately 1 in.(25mm)longhasbeen a thick base metal to a thinner one. When welding for pres- formed. The flame is then gradually moved from side to sure tightness, the use of preheat increases the resistance to side until the groove faces begin to melt into the weld pool. cracking at the weld interface. Also, judicious use of preThe flame is directed onto the rod, and filler metal is added heating when welding cast iron will permit the weld and to the weld pool. The thickness of each layer of weld metal surrounding area to cool at a more uniform rate. should not exceed 3/8 in.(9.5 mm).

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23.4.2.6 In the case of rigid structures requiring extensive machining, it is advisable to stress relieve at the preheat temperature after welding. In any case, the casting should be allowed to cool slowly by furnace cooling, or by covering or immersing it in an insulating material such as dry sand. 23.4.3 Welding Considerationsfor RCI-B Rods 23.4.3.1 Preparation of castings for welding is similar tothatcalledforin 23.4.2.1 and 23.4.2.2. Preheating should be uniform. 23.4.3.2 The application of RCI-B welding rods is the same as that describedfor the other RCI filler metals. The weld zone can withstand higher residual stresses without cracking. However, is it advisable to apply slow cooling to prevent stress cracks in the base metal. It is recommended that residual stress be reducedby preheating castings uniformly to 1600°F (870'C),andprovidingslowfumacecooling by covering or immersing it in an insulating material such as dry sand. After such treatment, the castings will withstand exposure to considerable thermal expansion and will permit heavy machining.

23.5.1 Cast Iron Welding Rods 233.1.1 (Cast Iron) Classification (1)Ordinary machinablegray-ironcastings mayvary from 20 to 40 ksi (140 to 280 MPa) tensile strength, and 150 to250 Brinell hardness. The useof a gray-iron welding rodfor oxyfuel gas welding can produce a machinable weld metal of the same color, composition and structure as the base metal. The weld, if properly made, may be as strong as the original casting. See Table 9.

(2)RCI welding rods are used for filling in or building up new or worn castings; and for general fabrication, salvage and repair. 23.5.1.2 RCI-A (Cast Iron) Classification (1)This cast-iron welding rod contains small amounts of molybdenum and nickel, which give it a slightly higher melting point than the ordinary cast-iron welding rod, RCI. The molten weld metal is more fluid, and welding can be performed more rapidly.

(2)The RCI-A welding rod (witha weld metal hardness of approximately 230 Brinell) may be used when an alloy

cast-iron is being welded, or when greater tensile strength and finer grain structure are desired. The weld metal generally is considered machinable.

23.5 Description and Intended Use of Electrodes and Rods for Welding Cast Iron.

23.5.1.3 RCI-B (Nodular Cast Iron) Classification. These nodular (ductile) cast-iron welding rods are capable of producing sound weld metal when used to weld higherstrengthgray-iron,malleable,andnodularironcastings with the oxyfuel gas process. Under optimum conditions, the welds produced have mechanical properties of 60 O00 psi (410 MPa) minimum ultimate tensile strength; 45 O00 psi (310 MPa)minimumyieldstrength; 5 to 15 percent elongation; and a maximum Brinell hardness 200. of These mechanical properties are due to the fact that most of the graphite content in the weld metal is in nodular form, which results in good ductility and machining properties for the weld. Color match to the base metal generallyis good.

The following are guidelines for the application of welding rods and welding electrodes in conjunction with various types of cast iron. These guidelines are general and are subject to modification based on the experience of the welder and information supplied by the filler metal manufacturer. Only rods employed in conjunction with an oxyfuel gas heat source, and electrodes intended for the SMAW, GMAW,or FCAW processes, are discussed. This limitation, defined in the scope, is not intended to deter a prospective user from considering other welding processes for which these filler metals might prove satisfactory.

Table 9 Typical Mechanical Properties of Undiluted W l d Metal Tensile Strengtb MP8

ksi

Electrode

um

ksi

MP8

Elongation % in 2 in.

-

-

-

138-172 RCI 20-25 RCI-A 241-276 35-40 70-75 552-621 80-90 RCI-B (As-welded) RCI-B (Annealed) 276-310 40-45 345-414 50-60 Est ENi-CI 276-448 40-65 135-218 38-60 3-6 3-6 EN¡-CI-A 262-414 38-60 276-448 40-65 ENiFe-CI6-1 296-434 43-63 400-579 58-84 ENiFe-CI-A 43-63400-57958-84 I8 165-2 4-12 ENiFeMn-CI 517-655 75-95 , 60-70 10.-18 ENiFeT3-CI 276-379 40-55 448-552 65-80 ERNiFeMn-C1 448-552 75-10065-80517-689

-

-

135-218

Ykld S m @ b offset

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483-517 -

3-5 5-15

-

Hdaar BHN

150-2IO 225-290 220-310 1 50-200 250-400

262-414 8

165-218

296434 165-210

414-483

150-165i2-20 15-35

165-210

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23.5.2 Nickel-Base Electrodes for SMAWof Cast Irons. Arc welding with nickel-base covered electrodes is widely employed for welding cast iron. Weld metal made with these electrodes, even without preheating, usually can be machined - although the heat-affected zone may not be machinable. Welding is fairly rapid when compared to processes such as oxyfuel gas welding. Although welding in the flat position only is required, some electrodes may be capable of use in other positions. Tensile properties are not specified for the nickel-base SMAW electrodes. The tensile and yield strengths may vary widely among manufacturers, as shown in Table 9. The filler metal supplier or manufacturer should be contacted for product recommendations.

increases the crack resistanceof the weld metal. The manganesealsoincreasesthetensilestrength and improves ductility, which provides properties closer to those of the higher-strengthgrades of nodularcast-ironbasemetals thancanbeachievedwiththeENiFe-CI.ENiFeMn-CI electrodesalsoareusedforsurfacingtoimprovewear resistance or provide buildup. 23.5.2.6 ENiCu-A and ENiCu-B(Nickel-Copper) Classification. These electrodes have been used in many of the same applications as the ENiFe-CI, ENiFe-CI-A, and ENiFeMn-CI electrodes. They are used to produce a weld with low depth of fusion, since high dilution by the base metal may cause weld cracking.

23.5.3 Est (Steel) Classification for SMAWof Cast Iron 23.5.2.1 ENi-CI (Nickel) Classification. This electrode can be used to join ordinary gray irons to themselves, 23.5.3.1 Thiscoveredelectrodeforallweldingposior to other ferrous and nonferrous materials, and to reclaim tions is designed specifically for the weldingof cast iron. or repair castings. Satisfactory welds can be produced on It has a low-melting-point covering; and it differs from the small and medium-size castings where the welding stressordinarymild-steelelectrodesincluded in ANSYAWS es are not overly severe, or where the phosphorus content A5.1, Specification for CarbonSteelElectrodes for of the iron is not high. Because of lower strength than the Shielded Metal Arc Welding. Weld metal from this elecENiFe-CIandlowerductilityof the weldmetal,these trode is not readily machinable. electrodes shouldbe used only in applications wheremm235.3.2 Since it is virtually impossible to prevent the ¡mum machinability of highly diluted filler metal is necesin theweldmetal formation of a hardzoneorlayer sary. Otherwise, the ENiFe-CI classification is preferred. because of dilution from the base metal, this type of elecThe ENi-CI classificationmay also be used on malleable trode is largely confined to the repair of small pits and or ductile iron. cracks, with some applicationin the repair of castings that 23.5.2.2 EN¡-CI-A (Nickel) Classification. EN¡-CI-A requirenopostweldmachining.Sincetheshrinkageof electrodes frequently are usedinterchangeablywith steel is greater than that of cast iron, high stresses develop ENi-CI electrodes. The coveringof EN¡-CI-A electrodes as the weld cools. Residual stresses may be severe enough contains more aluminum, to improve operating characto cause cracking. teristics such as slag coverage and flow ability. However, 23.5.3.3 Preheating is employed only when necessary to the aluminum becomes an alloy of the weld metal and prevent excessive stresses in other parts of the casting. Est may affect ductility. electrodes generally are used at low amperage to minimize 23.5.2.3 ENiFe-CI (Nickel-Iron) Classification. This the dilution effect in the fusion zone and consequent weldelectrode may be used for joiningor repair-welding workand base-metal cracking. The usual recommended amperpieces of various typesof cast iron, including nodular iron; ages are 60 to 95 amps for 3/32in. (2.4mm), 80 to 110 and for welding them to steel and some nonferrous base amps for 1/8 in. (3.2 mm), and 110 to 150 amps for 5/32 in. metals. Castings containing phosphorus levels higher than (4.0mm) electrodes using dcep (electrode positive) or ac. normal (approximately 0.20% phosphorus) are more readThe beads should be short and widely separated, to distribily welded using these electrodes than using an electrode ute the heat, and each bead should be peened lightly. The of the ENI-CI classification. Experience has shown that slag volume is low but very alkaline. Residual slag should satisfactoryweldscanbemadeonthickandhighly be removed completelyif the weld area is to be painted. restrained weldments, and on high-strength and engineering grades of cast iron. 23.5.4 Nickel-Base Filler Metal for GMAW of Cast 23.5.2.4 ENiFe-CI-A (Nickel-Iron) Classification. Iron. Only gas metal arc welding of classifications ENiFe-CI-A electrodes frequently are used interchangeERNiFeMn-CI and ERNi-CIare addressed by ANSUAWS ably with ENiFe-CI electrodes. The covering of A5.15-90.The requirements for rods for gas tungsten arc ENiFe-CI-A electrodes contains morealuminumto welding and other welding methods have not been includimproveoperatingcharacteristicssuchasslagcoverage ed. Since these filler metals couldbemanufacturedas andflowability.However,thealuminumbecomesan rods, they have been assigned the “ER’ designation. alloy of the weld metal and may affect ductility. 23.5.2.5 ENiFeMn-CI (Nickel-Iron-Manganese) 23.5.4.1 ERNiFeMn-CI (Nickel-Iron-Manganese) Classification. This electrode has a nominal addition of Classification. This solid continuous bare electrode can 12-percentmanganese tothenickel-ironsystem,which be used for the same applications as the ENiFeMn-CI covered SMAW electrode. The strength and ductility of this improvestheflowofthemoltenmetalandsomewhat --

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classificationmakes it suitableforweldingthehigherstrength gradesof nodular iron castings. 23.5.4.2 ERNI-CI (Nickel) Classification. This solid continuous bare electrode is composedof essentially pure nickel (99 percent) and contains no deoxidizers. The electrode is used to weld iron castings when weld metal with highly diluted filler metal isto be machined. 23.5.4.3ShieldingGases. Shieldinggasesshould be used as recommended by the manufacturer.

23.5.5 Nickel-Base Electrode for FCAW of Cast Iron. The ENiFeT3-CI (nickel-iron electrode) is a continuous flux-cored electrode that has been designed to operate without an external shielding gas. For this reason, it is commonly referred to as a self-shielded flux-cored electrode, but it also may be used with anexternal shielding gas if recommended by the manufacturer. The composition of this classification is similar to that ofan ENiFe-CI except for a higher manganese content. It can be used in thesame types of applications as the ENiFe-CI electrode. It is generally used for thick basemetal or where processes can be automated. This electrode contains 3 to 5 percent manganese to aid in resisting weldmetal hot cracking, and to improve strength and ductility of the weld metal. 23.5.6 In addition to the electrodes and rods classified in ANSUAWS A5.15-90, a number of copper-base welding rods frequently are used for braze-welding cast iron.

Table 10 Copper-Base Welding Electrodes and Rods from AWS Specifications Suitable for Welding Cast Irons T m Specification

Classifiention

Cast Filler Metals (OFW) RBCuZn-A RCuZn-B RCuZn-C RBCuZn-D

Naval brass Low fuming brass (Ni) AL7 Low fuming brass Nickel AS. brass

Phosphor bronze Copper-tin Copper-aluminum

23.6 Postweld Heat Treatment.Postweld heat treatment also maybeusedto improve themachinability of the heat-affected zone adjacent to the weld metal. Tempering beads sometimes are employedtoachieve the desired improvement. These beads, consisting entirely of filler metal and aprevious bead,are made in such a manner that the heat input tempers any martensite present froma previous bead.

Part H:

Titanium and Titanium Allov 24. Guide to Classification of Titanium and Titanium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods

24.1 Provisions. Excerpts from ANSUAWS A5.16-90, Specification for Titanium arid Titanium Alloy Welding Electrodes und Rods. 24.2 Introduction. The purposeof this guide is to correlate the filler metal classifications presented in ANSIIAWS A5.16-90 with their intended applications. Reference to appropriate basemetal specifications is made whenever possible and when it would be helpful. Such references are intended only as examples rather than complete listings of the materials for which each filler metal is suitable. 24.3 Classification System

A5.7 AL7 7

Covered Electrodes (SMAW)

ECuSn-A ECuSn-C ECuALA2

The lower temperatures associated with depositing these filler metals, and their generally low strength and high ductility, frequently offers advantages when welding cast iron. Copper-base welding electrodes and rods have been classified in other specifications and are listed in Table 10 for reference purposes.

A5.6 A5.6 A5.6

Note: ANSIIAWS A5.6. Specification for Covered Copper and Copper Allay Arc Welding Electrodes. ANSIIAWS A5.7. Specification for Copper and Copper Alloy Alloy Bare Welding Rods and Electrodcs.

24.3.1 The system for identifying the filler metal classifications follows the standard pattern used inAWS filler metal specifications. The letter “E’ at the beginning of each classification designation stands for electrode, and the letter “R” stands for welding rod. Since these filler metals are used as electrodes in gas metal arc welding and as rods in gas tungsten arc welding, both letters are used. 24.3.2 The chemical symbol, Ti, appears after “R’ as a means of identifying the filler metals as unalloyed titanium or a titanium-base alloy. The numeral provides a means of identifying different variations in the composition. The letters “ELI” designate titanium alloy filler metals with extra-low content of interstitial elements (carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen). --

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STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL L995 m 07842b5 05145L2 5 8 1 W 69

Table 11 Specification Cross Index* Filler Metal AWS Classification 1990

Military

ERTi-

Ti-2

Ti4

RTi-SAI-2.5Sn-I

I5

Aerospace

Materials Specification Specification (AMs)

1970 ~

ERTi-I ERTi-2 ERTi-3 ERTi4 ERTi-5 ERTI-SELI 4953ERTi-6 ERTMELI ERTi-7 ERTi-9 ERE-9ELI ERTi- I2 ERTi-

Bast Metal

~

~

(MIL)

ASTMIASME Grades

~~

I

495 I

MIL-R41558 MIL-R-81558 MIL-R41558 MIL-R41558

-

ERTi-6A14V MIL-R-81558 ERTi6A14V-I ERTi-SAI-2.5Sn

-

4954 4956

-

ERTM.2 Pd ERTi-3AI-23-1 ERTi4.8Ni0.3Mo

-

-

1558

I 2

3 4 5

-

6

MIL-R41558

-

-

7 9

-

-

MIL-R-8

12

-

ITa-1Mo 'Specifications arc not exact duplicates. information issupplied only for general comparison.

~

l1 American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, New York 10007.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

24.4.4 Titanium can be fusion welded successfully to zirconium, tantalum, niobium, and vanadium- although the weld metal will be stronger and less ductile than the parent metals. Titanium should not be fusion welded to other commonly welded metals - such as copper, iron,

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24.4.1 Titanium and titanium alloys can be welded by gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, plasma arc and electron beamwelding processes. Titanium is a reactive metal; and, at temperatures above 500°F (26OoC), it is sensitive to embrittlement by oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. Consequently, the metal must be protected from atmos-

24.4.3 Titanium weldingrodsshouldbe chemically clean and free of heavy oxide, absorbed moisture, grease, and dirt. The welding rod should be kept in the inert gas during welding;andthe oxide atthetip, formed upon cooling, should be removed beforereusing the rod.

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24.4 Welding Considerations

24.4.2 The titanium metal shouldbe chemically clean and free of thick oxide prior to welding, since contaminationfrom oxide, water, grease, or dirt will cause embrittlement.

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24.3.4 Table 11 provides acorrelation of the classifications in this revision with those in the previous (1970) revision, and with other specifications for titanium-alloy filler metals. The aerospace materials specifications, military specifications, and ASTWASME specifications listed are also widely used in industry. Table 11 presents a general correlation of the filler metals in these other specifications with those in ANSVAWS A5.16-90.

pheric contamination. This can be provided by shielding the metal with high-purity inert gas in air or ina chamber, or by a vacuum ofat least torr. Duringarcwelding, the titanium should beshielded from the atmosphere until it has cooled below about 800°F (430°C). Adequate protection by auxiliary inert-gas shielding can be provided when welding inair, but ventilation andexhaust at the arc should be carried out in such amanner that theprotective atmosphere (i.e., arc shielding and backing) arenot impaired. For critical applications, welding should be performed in a gas-tight chamber thoroughly purged of air and filled with high-purity inert gas.

--

24.3.3 Designations for individual alloys in this revision are different from those used in earlier documents. With the exception of ERTi-15, specific alloys now are identified by a number similar to the grade designation used in ASTMASMEll specifications for corresponding base metals. In the absence of a grade number in general usage for the Ti-6A1-2Cb-lTa-lMo alloy, the number 15 was assigned arbitrarily to designate this classification of filler metal. See Table 11 for cross reference with the earlier designations.

70

24.5.3 ERTi-SELI. This filler metal is a slightly purer version of ERTi-5 with ELI (extra-lowinterstitial) content - which, in practice, refers primarily to the oxygen content. With special processing, this alloy can develop high fracture toughness. Primary uses are in surgical implants, cryogenic vessels, and airframe components.

24.5.4 ERTi-6. This filler metal has good weldability, goodoxidation resistance, and stability and strength at elevated temperature. Typical uses include gas-turbine engine casings, aerospace structural members located near engines and wing leading edges, and chemical processing equipment that requires high elevated-temperature strength. 24.5.5 ERTi-6ELI. This filler metal is a slightly purer versionofERTi-6 electrodes and rods, withextra-low interstitial (ELI) content. They are used to fabricate pressure vessels for liquified gases and other high-pressure cryogenic vessels requiring better ductility and toughness with slightly lower strength. 24.5.6 ERTi-7. Welds made with electrodes and rods of this classification probably are the most corrosionresistant titanium welds used in industrial applications.

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24.5.9ERTi-12. Welds madewiththis filler metal offer improved resistance to corrosion - especially crevice corrosion in hot brines-and higher strength levels compared to similar welds made using ERTi-2 electrodes and rods. Uses inindustrial applications are similar to those of ERTi-2 electrodes and rods, but can beextended to less oxidizing conditions. 24.5.10ERTi-15. Welds madewithERTi-15 electrodes and rods have excellent resistance to salt-water corrosioncombinedwith good toughnessandmoderate strength. Typical uses include the fabrication ofsubmersible hulls, pressure vessels, etc. using base material of a matching composition. Part I:

Magnesium and Magnesium Allov 25. Guideto Classification of Magnesium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods 25.1Provisions. Excerpts from ANSVAWSA5.19-92, Specification for Magnesium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods. 25.2 Introduction. The purposeof this guide is to correlate the filler metal classifications presented in ANSYAWS A5.19-92 with their intended applications. Appropriatebase metal specifications are referred to whenever possible and when it would be helpful. Such references are intendedonly as examples rather than

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titanium alloy. Its high strength, ability to be heat treated, weldability, excellent fatigue strength, and hardness make this alloy excellent for industrial fans, pressure vessels, aircraft components, compressor blades, and automotive and jet engine parts.

24.5.8ERTi-9ELI. The reducedoxygen content of the ERTi-9ELI alloyresults in slightly lower strength and improved toughness in comparison with weld metal from ERTi-9 electrodes.

|| || ||

24.5.2 ERTi-5. This alloy is commonly referred to as “6-4” titanium, and it is probably the most widely used

24.5.7ERTi-9. These electrodes androds often are referred to as “half 6-4” because the major components are roughly half thatfound in ERTi-5. Theprimary use,to date, has been in welding hydraulic tubing andfittings for aircraft. Other industrial applications are being developed, particularly where its high strength and ability to maintain strength at elevated temperatures allowfor more efficient design of pressure vessels. Corrosion resistance, in most environments,appears to be similar to or slightly less than that of weld metal from ERTi-2 electrodes.

||

24.5.1 ERTi-1, ERTi-2, ERTi-3, and ERTi-4.These alloys commonly are referredto as commercially pure (C.P.) titanium with the level of impurities and mechanical properties increasing slightly from ERTi- 1 to ERTi-4. C.P. Grade 2 (equivalent to ERTi-2) is the most widely used titanium alloy for industrial applications because of its good balance of strength, formability, and weldability. Typical uses are in seawater and brackish-water heat exchanges,chemical processheat exchanges, pressure vessels and piping systems, pulp bleaching systems, air pollution control scrubbers, and electrochemical and chemical storage tanks. These gradesalso have some uses in the aerospace industry.

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24.5 Description and Intended of Use Titanium and Titanium Alloy Electrodes and Rods

Mechanical and physical properties are similar to those of ERTi-2. This alloy extends the use of titanium into mildly reducing media, to much higher chloride levels, or where the environment fluctuates between oxidizing and reducing.

--

nickel, and aluminum - since brittle titanium intermetallic alloys will fom, producing extremely brittle welds.

07842b5 0534534 354

complete listings of the base metalsfor which each filler metal is suitable.

m

71

25.4.3 The basic principles for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of magnesium alloys are the same as for other base metals. The higherfiller metal deposition rate of this process reduces the welding time, thereby reducing weld distortion and fabrication costs. Argon generally is used as a shielding gas; occasionally mixtures of argonand helium are used. PulsedGMAW and short circuit GMAW are both used for magnesium alloys. Higher welding current, to produce spraytransfer of the filler metal without pulsing, is also used. Globular transfer is not suitable.

25.3 ClassificationSystem 25.3.1 Welding electrodes and rods are classified according to their chemical composition. The alloys are designated by the same standard system used for base metals, which consists of a three-part combination of letters and numerals. The first part indicates the two principal alloying elements by their chemical symbols,arranged in order of decreasing percentage. The second part indicates the percentages of the two principal alloying elements in the same order as the chemical symbols. (The percentages are rounded to the nearest whole number.) The third part is a letter assigned to distinguish different alloys having the same percentages of the two principal alloying elements.

25.5 Description and Use of Magnesium Alloy Electrodes and Rods. 25.5.1 The weldability of mostmagnesium alloys is good when the proper filler metal is employed. A filler metal with a lower melting point and a wider freezing range than the base metal will provide good weldability andminimizeweld cracking. AZ61A or AZ92A filler metals may be used to weld base metals of similar composition and also ZK21A base metal. AZ61A filler metal generally is preferred for welding wrought base metals of thosealloysbecause of lower cracking tendency. However, welds made in cast Mg-Al-Zn and AMlOOA base metals with AZ92A filler metals show less crack sensitivity. The weld metal will respondto the precipitation heat treatment normally applied to repaired castings. AZlOlA filler metal also may be used to weld thosecast base metals. EZ33A filler metal is used to weld wrought andcast base metals designedfor elevated-temperatureservice;however, this filler metal should not be used for welding aluminum-bearing magnesium alloys because of severe weld cracking problems. When no other filler metal is available, most base metals may be welded withstrips cut from the base metal. --

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25.3.2 A letter prefix designates usability of the filler metal. The letter system for identifying the filler metal classifications follows the standard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The prefix “E’ indicates that the filler metal is suitable for use as an electrode, and the prefix “R’ indicates suitability as welding rod. Both letters (“ER”) are used to indicate suitability as an electrode or a rod, since some of these filler metals are used as electrodes in gas metal arc welding and as welding rods in oxyfuel gas, gas tungstenarc, and plasma arc welding. 25.4 Welding Considerations 25.4.1 Gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc welding are the most commonly used processes for welding magnesium alloys. Plasma arc welding also is suitable for magnesium alloys. Oxyfuel gas welding should be used only for temporaryrepairwork,when suitable arc welding equipment is not available. 25.4.2 Magnesium alloys are welded by the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process using techniques and equipment similar to those used for aluminum. Argon, helium, or mixtures of these gases are used for shielding. Alternating current (ac) is preferred for its combination of goodarccleaning action and goodjoint penetration, although direct current (dc) also is used. Direct current, electrode positive (dcep)provides excellent cleaning action, but it is limited to thm base metal. Sometimes, direct current, electrode negative(dcen) is used for mechanized welding with helium shielding gas in order to provide deep joint penetration. GTAW generally is recommended for the welding of magnesium alloy castings. Welding usually is limited to the repair of defects in clean castings.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

25.5.2 Additional information onfiller metals suitable for welding specific base metalsand combinations of base metals is given inTable 12. Cast base metals generally are welded with filler metal of the same or similar composition. When such filler metals are not available, the commercially available filler metals listed in the table may be used, but with the possibility of some disadvantage in weld properties. If it is desired to weld base-metal combinations other than those listed in Table 12, they should be evaluated as to suitability for the purpose intended. The base-metal combinations listed will be suitable for most environments, although someare preferable from one or more standpoints. In the absence of specific information, consultation with the filler metal or base metalsupplier is recommended. 25.5.3 Proper storage of welding rods and electrodes is essential to avoid contamination, which may affect their

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etal

STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL 3995

72

07842b5 0514535 290

m

25.5.4 The possibility of ignition when welding magne-

performance. Packages of filler metal should not be left outdoors or inunheatedbuildings,becausethe greater variations in temperature andhumidity increase the possioxides. bility for condensation to createhydrated Experiencehasdemonstrated that undesirable storage conditions may adversely affect filler-metal performance.

than 0.01 in. isvery siumalloysinthicknessesgreater remote. Magnesium alloy will not ignite inair until it is at fusion temperature; then, sustained burning will occur only if the ignition temperature is maintained. Inert gas shielding during welding prevents ignitionof the weld pool.

Table 12 Guide to the Choiceof Fiiler Metal for General Purpose Welding Base Metal AMlOOA AZlOA

AWlB AZ61A AZ63A

AZMA AZ8lA D 1 C

Az31c Base

=%?A

EK41A EZ33A

HIolA

Filler Metal+'

AMlOOA AZlOA

AZIA AZ63A

C

C

C

AZ8OA AZ81A

Az91C

A Z m EK41A EZ33A HK3lA

AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A

c c c c

AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A

HM2lA

AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A

c

AZ92A AZ92A

HM3lA

AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A

c

AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A EZ33A E u 3 A EZ33A

HZ32A

AZ92A -9%

AZ92A AZ92A

c

AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A u 3 3 A EZ33A EZ33A

KlA

AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A

c

Az92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A EZ33A EW3A u 3 3 A d d d C C C C AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A

LAl41A

d

d

EW3A

c

C

d

d

AZ92A

d

C

AZ92A AZ92A AZlOlA AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A EZ33A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A EZ33A U 3 3 A AZ92A A D 2 A AZ92A EZ33A EZ33A €Z33A

A Z m

AZ92A EZ33A EZ33A EZ33A

MG1

QUZA

d

ZElOA

d

d

d

EZ33A EZ33A EZ33A

AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A d

d

ZE41A

d

d

C

d

ZIUlA

C

C

C

C

C

C

d EZ33A EZ33A

EU3A

AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A

AW2A

d

C

d

C

C

C

C

ZK6OA ZK61A

{continued)

--

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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C

73

in determining the classification best suited for a particular application, with due consideration to the particular requirements for that application.

Magnesium fires usually occur with accumulations of grinding dust or machining chips. Accumulation of grinding dust on clothing should be avoided. Graphite-base or salt-base powders, recommended for extinguishing magnesium fires, should be conveniently located in the work area. If large amounts of fine powders are produced, they shouldbe collected inawaterwash-typedust collector designed for usewithmagnesium. Special precautions pertaining to the handling of wet magnesium fines must be followed.

26.3 Methodof Classification. The system of classification is similar to that used in filler metal specifications. The letter “ E ’ at the beginning of each designation indicates a welding electrode, and the letter “R” indicates a welding rod. Since these filler metals are used as welding electrodes in gas metal arc welding andas welding rods in gas tungsten arc welding, both letters are used. The chemical symbol, Zr, indicates that the filler metals have a zirconiumbase. The subsequentletters and numerals provide a means for identifying the nominal composition of the filler metal.

Part J:

Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy 26. Guideto Classification of Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods

26.4 Welding Considerations

26.1Provisions. ExcerptsfromANSVAWS A5.24-90, Specijîcation for Zirconium and ZirconiumAiioy Welding Electrodes and Rods.

26.4.1 Zirconium and zirconium alloys can be welded by gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, plasma arc, and electronbeamweldingprocesses. Zirconium isa reactive metal and is sensitive to embrittlement by oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen at temperatures above1100°F(590°C). Consequently, the metal should be protected from atmospheric contamination. This can be provided by shielding

26.2Introduction. Thisguidehas beenprepared for prospective users of the zirconium and zirconium-alloy filler metals presented in ANSVAWS A5.24-90 as an aid

Table 12 (continued) lkst Mcul

m62A PESlA HM21A HMJlA HZ32A

KlA

LA141A

pc6oA

MG1

QE22A ZElOA ZE4lA ZK2lA ZK6lA

Ffflcr Metal*’

Bue Metal -||||

HM21A HM31A HZ32A K1A

M1A

|| || || ||

EZ33A EZ33A EZ33A EZ33A EZ33A EZ33A EZ33A EZ33A EZ33A d d d EZ33A

|||| || || ||||| | ||||

A z m

AZ92A

QE22A

EZ33A

ZElOA

E4

EZ33A EZ33A EZ33A EZ33A

A Z m

EZ33A

Az92A

MG 1

|

ZE41A ZKZA

EZ33A

EX33A EZ33A EW3A

Az92A Az92A Az92A EW3A

U33A

EZ33A

---

Az92A AZ92A AZ92A AZ92A C

EZ33A

c

C

C

C

d d

C

d EZJ3A AZ61A AZ92A ~ 9 %

EZ33A AZ61A

I

I

C

C

AZ92A C

c

ZK61A Notes: P. When more than one filler metal is given, they are listed in order of pnfcrcncc. b. The letter prefix (ER or R), dcsigmting uubiiityof the filler mad, has been deleted,to nducc clutter in the table. c. Welding not recommended. d. No data available.

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EZ33A

~

S T D - A W S UGFM-ENGL

3995

~~

~

W Q7842b5 0534537 Ob3

m

74

26.4.3 Zirconium can be fusion-welded successfully to titanium, tantalum, columbium (niobium), and vanadium - although the weld metal will be stronger and less ductile than the base metals. Zirconium should not be fusion welded to other common structural alloys of copper, iron, nickel, and aluminum; since brittle zirconium intermetallic alloys are formed which produce extremely brittle welds. 26.5DescriptionandIntended Use of Electrodesand Rods 26.5.1 The E E r 2 classification is a“commercially pure” zirconium. It producesweldmetalhavinggood strength and ductility. The tensile strength should be at least 55 OO()psi (379 MPa). These electrodes and rods c m be used to weld all of the zirconium alloys. 26.5.2 TheERZr3 classification contains tin as an alloying element. Tin increases the strength of the weld metal, yet allows it to retain good ductility. The strength should be as least 60 ksi (410 MPa). These electrodes and rods are intended only for welding UNS R60704 zirconium alloy. Weld metal from E m 3 filler metal may not resist corrosion as well as that from E m 2 filler metal. 26.5.3 The ERZr4 classification contains columbium (niobium) as an alloying element. It produces weld metal of good ductility with a tensile strength of at least 80 ksi (550 MPa). These electrodes and rods are used only to weld UNS R60705zirconiumalloy.Weldmetal from ERZr4 filler metal may not resistcorrosion as well as that from ERZr2 filler metal.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

27.2Introduction. This guide has beenprepared for prospective users of the welding rods and electrodes presented in ANWAWS A5.13-80, as an aid in determining which classification of filler metal is best suited for a particular application, with due consideration to the particular requirements for that application. 27.3 Classifcation System 27.3.1 Thesystem for identifying weldingrodand electrode classifications follows the standard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The letter “E” at the beginning of each classification indicates an electrode, and letter “R’ indicates a welding rod. The letters “ER’ indicate a filler metal that may be used as either a bare electrode or a rod. The letters immediately after E, R, or ER are the chemical symbols for principal elements in the classification. Thus,CoCr is cobalt-chromium alloy, CuZn is a copper-zinc alloy, etc. Where more than one classification is included in a basic group, the individual classifications in the group are identified by letters (A, B, C, etc.) as in ECuSn-A.Furthersubdividing is accomusing plished numerals (1,2, etc.) after the last letter, such as the 2 in ECuAl-A2. 27.3.2 Some years ago, the committee designated surfacing filler metals as shown in Table 13. The COlTelatiOn between these old designations and the new classifications covered by the specification is indicated in Table 14. 27.4 We5 and EFeSHigh-speedSteel Filler Metals 27.4.1Applications. RFe5weldingrodsand EFeS electrodes have proved very popular for applications where hardness is required at service temperatures up to 1100” (595”C), and where good wear resistance and toughness also are required. These filler metals are essentially highspeed steels, modified slightly for welding applications. The three classifications are approximately interchangeable, except that Fe5-A and Fe5-B(with high carbon) are more suitable for cutting and machining (edge-holding) applications; EFe5-C (with lower carbon) is mostsuitable for hot working and for applications requiring toughness. Some typical surfacing applicationsare cutting tools, shear blades, reamers, forming dies, shearing dies, guides, ingot tongs, broaches andother similar tools.

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27.1Provisions. Excerptfrom ANSUAWSA5.13-80, Specification for Solid &$acing Welding Rods and Electrodes

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27. Guide to Classification of Surfacing WeldingRods and Electrodes

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Surfacing

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26.4.2 Thezirconiummetalshouldbechemically clean and free of heavy oxide prior to welding; since contamination from oxide, water, grease, and dirt will cause embrittlement. Zirconium welding rods also must be chemically clean and free of heavy oxide, absorbed moisture, grease, and dirt. The welding rod should be kept in the inert gas during welding; and the oxide at the tip, formed upon cooling, must be removed before reusing the rod.

Part K:

--

the metal with high-purity inert gas in air, in a chamber, or by a vacuum of 10-4 torr or lower. During arcwelding, the zirconium must be shielded from the atmosphere until it is cooled below about 1100°F (593°C).Adequate protection by auxiliary inert-gas shielding should be provided when welding in air; and, for critical applications, the welding should be performed in a gas-tight chamber thoroughlypurged of air and filled with high-purity inert gas.

~~

STD.AWS UGFM-ENGL 1995

m

~

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07842b5 0514518 TTT W 75

H i &

C. (0.61-1,50%C) 2. Lorrlbyaietlr

a. Lowclrban b. Mediumcarbon c. Hi~clrban d.cutiroatypar

3. Mediumdhyrresfr a. Mediumc8rbal b. Highcætma C.cllt-irocllyp#

4.

Msdiumhi&rlby

a. L m & b. Mediumarboa

Highcarboo d. Clrt-imayPer(l.S%Cmin) 5. High-rpssdresd B. AwcDicicltedr 1. ClImmi~mdcr-Ni C.

a. h e r b a a b. Higharbaa,lorvaicM c.Hi#h~.highniclpl

2. Hishmauavv c. Austdic-MtUIUIUyhert-(rcrtsd 1. H g h ic h m m o m i h 2. Higbrlbyima a. 1.7psemtclrboa b. 2.5 paccnt crrbm c. very high .uoy II.colbrltbuerlbyr A. taWrUoy

B. Hi&ruOy

m.carbides A.

B. Canpo&e

c. pbmler

IV.cagpabrae A. Cappa-ziac B. c4ppa-silican c. Ccppa-rluminum V. Niclcel bue A. Nidrcl-coppa

B. N"Cbl0mim

c. N"hromumi "myWolcnum

D. N " c h m i u m ~

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

27.4.5OxidationResistance. Deposits of the Fe5 filler metals, because of the high molybdenum content, will oxidize readily. A non-oxidizing, furnace-atmosphere salt bath or borax coating should be usedto prevent decarburization when heat treatments are required. 27.4.6 Corrosion Resistance. The Fe5 weld metal can withstand atmospheric corrosion, but it is not effective in providing resistance to liquid corrosion. 27.4.7Abrasion. The high-stress abrasion resistance of these filler metals -as-deposited, at roomtemperature - is much better than low-carbon steel. However, they are notconsideredhigh-abrasion resistance alloys. Resistance to deformation at elevated temperatures up to 1100°F (593°C)is their outstanding feature, and this may aid hot abrasion resistance. 27.4.8 Metal-to-Metal Wear and Mechanical Properties in Compression. Deposits of Fe5 filler metals are well suited for metal-to-metal wear, especially at elevated temperatures. They havealow coefficient of

Table 14

Surfecing filler metals (new classifications)

AWS classifr?tion

Old designation

Fe5 ........................... FeMn ......................... FeCr .......................... CoCr-A ........................ CoCr-C.. ......................

IA5 IB2 IC1 IIA

CuSi .......................... CuAl ......................... NiCr ..........................

IVB IVC VB

C a .........................

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b. Medim (0.20-0.60LkC)

27.4.4 Impact. The Fe5 filler metals as-deposited can withstand only medium impact without cracking. After tempering, the impact resistance is increased appreciably.

|

1. cubonrtwlr a. Low (O. 1% C MX)

| ||||

A.

|||| || || |||||

I. Fermur

|| || ||

(old designations)

IIB IVA

||

suriacingfiller metals

||||

Table 13

27.4.3 Hot Hardness. Hardness at elevated temperatures (i.e., hot hardness) is a very important property for weld deposits of these filler metals. Tungsten andmolybdenum are probably the most influential elements present in obtaining hot hardness. Due to the large size of these atoms and their low diffusion rates, the carbides do not coalesce but stay in very small particles. At temperatures up to 1100°F (595"C), the as-deposited Rockwell hardness of C 60 falls off very slowly to approximately C 47 (448 Brinell). At higher temperatures, it falls off more rapidly. At about 1200°F (650°C), the maximum Rockwell hardness is about C 30 (238 Brinell).

--

27.4.2 Hardness. The Rockwell hardness of the undiluted Re5 filler metals in the as-welded condition is in the range of C 55 to C 60. Where a machining operation is required, hardness may be reduced to approximately C 30 by an annealingtreatment.

76

27.4.12 Heat Treatment. A summary of heat-treating data follows: Preheat [300"F (150°C) minimum]. Preheat usually is used; although, in some instances, no preheating is required.

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27.4.13WeldingCharacteristics. The procedure for applying Fe5 filler metals is similar to that employed for other surfacing materials. The workmust be carefully cleaned of all foreign material prior to welding.All cracked or spalled metalshouldberemovedto ensure sound fusion of weld and base metals. Definite welding instructions dependuponthe specific job andwelding process to be employed. Preheating, although generally recommended, is not used in all surfacing applications; rather, it is dependent upon the shape, size, and composition of the part to be surfaced. Peening of each bead after deposition sometimes is employed to reduce stresses in the weldment.

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two classifications of 27.5.1 Applications. The EFeMn electrodes are substantially equivalent, except that the yield strength of EFeMn-B weld depositsis higher thanthat of EFeMn-A. For track work, the higher yield is considered an asset. The surfacing applications in which EFeMn electrodes aremost appropriate are those dealing withmetal-tometal wear and impact, where the work-hardening quality of the deposit becomes a major asset. Soft rock crushing operations - involving limestone or dolomite, for example - alsocan benefit fromsuch protection. Abrasion by angular quartz particles does not seem to be altered in laboratory tests by work-hardening manganese steel. Severe service with quartz abrasionisbest dealt with by using manganese steel as a tough base metal and surfacing with a martensitic iron. Under very high-stress conditions, such as those in a jawcrusher, experience may demonstrate thatallwear-resistantmetals except manganese steel are too brittle. Surface protection then becomes a matter of replacingwornmetalwithmore EFeMn filler metal, which is common. Railway frogs and

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27.5 EFeMn Austenitic Manganese Electrodes

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27.4.11Metallography. The Fe5 filler metals,when deposited, containhighly alloyed tetragonal martensite, highly alloyed retained austenite, and undissolved complexcarbides.Molybdenum has beenused to replace tungsten found in many other high-speed tool steels such as the 18-4-1 grade (18 percenttungsten, 4 percent chromium, and 1 percent vanadium). Molybdenum forms the same type of complex double carbide with iron and carbon as doestungsten. Since molybdenum isan element of smaller atomic weight than tungsten (approximately one-half), it will produce twiceas many atoms of alloying element in the steel as will tungsten when added in the same weight percentage. This appears to be a partial reason for the fact that l-percent molybdenum can besubstituted for approximately 2-percent tungsten. The carbon content of high-speed steel usually is fixed within narrow limits. Carbon as low as 0.5 percent will not permit maximum hardness becauseof the presence of appreciable amounts of ferrite. As the carbon increases, the quenchedhardness also increases because of the absence of ferrite, and because ofthe increased amount of carbon dissolvedin the austenite. Chromiumis present in this deposit at 3.0 to 5.0 percent; this appears to be the right percentage for the best compromise between hardness and toughness. In conjunction with the carbon content, chromium is mainly responsible for the great hardenability of this deposit.

Due to the highmolybdenum content of these filler metals, weld deposits aresusceptible to decarburization at high temperature. Consequently, inheat treatment and annealing, care must be used to prevent decarburization.

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27.4.10Identification. The Fe5 filler metals, in the hardened or as-deposited condition, are highly magnetic. When spark tested, they give off a very small, thin stream of sparks approximately 60 in. (1500 mm) long. Close to the grinding wheel, the spark is red; at the end, it is a straw color.

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27.4.9 Machinability. These filler metals, after deposition, often havetobeannealed for machining operations. For machinability, when thoroughly annealed, they are rated at 65 - as compared with a 1-percent-carbon tool steel, which has a rating of 100. Full hardness can be regained by heat-treating procedures discussedherein.

Annealing [1550 to 1650°F (845 to 9OO"C)l. This treatment is applicable onlywhen dictated bymachining requirements. Hardening [preheat, 1300 to1500°F (705 to 815°C); harden,2200 to 2250°F(1200 to123OoC), air or oil quench]. Hardening is necessary only if the part has been annealed for machining. Double Temper. First operation, 1025°F (550°C) then two hours air cool to room temperature; second operation, 1025°F (550"C), then two hours air cool to room temperature.

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friction, and the ability to take a high polish and retain their hardness at elevated temperatures. The compressive strength is verygood and will fall or rise with the tempering temperature used.

STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL L995

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07842h5 05L4520 h58 77

27.5.10Metallography. Thechiefconstituentof EFeMn weld deposits is austenite, the nonmagnetic form of iron that can holdconsiderable carbon insolid solution. Austenite that is nearly saturated with carbon is responsible for the properties of these filler metals. The austenite is not entirelystable. It willreject some of the carbon at intermediate temperatures or during deformation. This rejected carbon takes the formofmanganese-iron carbides that occur as fine particles; as films at grain boundaries; as flat, brittle plates; and as formationsin pearlite. Carbide precipitationinany of these forms leads toincreasedhardnessand brittleness. Deformation (work-hardening from pounding, etc.) raises hardness most effectively with the least loss in toughness. Carbide precipitation, caused by slow cooling from the completely austenitic range or byreheatingthetough structure, is undesirable. The normal tough structure of manganese steel is produced in manufactureby water-quenching from above 1800°F(980°C). Weld deposits depend on modified compositions to approximate this toughness after air-cooling from the welding temperature.

crossings also are reclaimed in this way. Extensive areas, as in crushers and power-shovel parts, usually are protected with a combination of weld deposits and filler bars, which are flats and rounds of manganese steel, welded in place. Such protection may be applied up 3toin. (76 mm) thick, which is near the upper thickness limit of common surface-protection methods.

27.5.2 Hardness. The normal hardness of these weld deposits is 170 to 230 BHN; but this is misleading, since they work-harden very readily to 450 to 550 BHN. 27.5.3 Hot Hardness. Reheating above 500 to 600°F (250 to 315°C) may cause serious embrittlement. Thus, hot hardness is not a property that can be exploited. 27.5.4. Impact. The EFeMn electrodes, as-deposited, usually are considered the outstanding engineeringmaterials for heavy-impact service. 27.5.5 Oxidation Resistance and Corrosion Resistance. The EFeMn weld metal issimilar to ordinary carbon steels in this respect and is not resistant to oxidation or corrosion.

27.5.11 EFeMn-A (Nickel-Manganese). Nickel additions to the standard grade of manganese steel produce no apparent changes in yield strength, but there is a distinct trend toward higherelongation. The quenching rate is perhaps less critical, but quenchingis still necessary to obtain the maximum toughness. A lower carbon content is much more effective in conferring toughness without quenching. Because added nickel seems to prevent the lower intrinsic toughness of the straight 12-percent-manganese low-carbon steels; an alloy of 0.50 to 0.90 percent carbon and about 3 to 5 percent nickel has become popular for welding electrodes. This alloyexhibitsgreaterresistance to embrittlementfrom reheating up to 800°F (425°C)than the standard grade.12

27.5.6Abrasion. Resistance to high-andlow-stress abrasion is moderate against hard abrasives like quartz, as shown by the following data: Wet Quartz Sand Abrasion Factor- 0.75 to 0.85 (compared toSAE 1020 steel as 1.W). Dry Quartz Sand Erosion Factor- 0.41 to 0.56 (compared to SAE 1020 steel as 1.00). The assumptionthat abrasion resistance increases with hardness has not beenconfirmed with carefully controlled testing using quartz as an abrasive. 27.5.7 Metal-to-Metal Wear and Mechanical Properties in Compression. Metal-to-metal wear resistance is frequently excellent. The yield strength in compression is low, but any compressive deformationrapidly raises it until plastic flow ceases. This behavioris an asset in battering, pounding, and bumping wear situations. 27.5.8Machinability. Machining is very difficult with ordinary tools and equipment; finished surfaces usually are ground. 27.5.9 Identification. Because of the unusual response to heating of the EFeMnweld metal, correct identification before welding is very important. A small magnet and a grinding wheel usually suffice; since a clean ground surface is substantially nonmagnetic, and grinding sparks are plentiful in contrast to the nonmagnetic stainless steels. 12ASM Hczndbook, 8th Ed. Vol 1.

27.5.12 EFeMn-B (Molybdenum-Manganese). The addition of molybdenum to manganese steel tends to raise its yield strength. Like nickel, molybdenum increases the toughness of the lower-carbon manganese steels and can be used interchangeablyto produce a satisfactory welding electrode. Either approximately 3 to 5 percent nickel or 1/2 to 1-1/2 percent molybdenum willstabilize the tensile strength of the low-carbon type near the standard level of 120,000 psi (827 MPa)after heat treatment. The associated elongation with 1/2 to 1-1/2 percent molybdenum is not so high, but it has a compensatinghigher yield strength. Deposits of EFeMn-B electrodes have given satisfactory performance insuch exacting applications as railway switches and frogs, where battered-down castings are rebuilt with molybdenum-manganese weld deposits.

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COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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27.5.13 Heat Treatment. Weld deposits usually are not heat-treated, since the filler metals are formulated to be “air-toughening.” However, sometimes it may be advisable to heat-treat a weldmentto restore the toughness of a manganese base embrittled by too much reheating. Water quenching after two hours at 1850°F (1010°C) is usually sufficient for this purpose. The weld deposit should be free of cracks if this is to be done; otherwise, oxidation of the cracks may cause considerable structural damage and cancel the benefits of the toughening heat treatment.

relieves thetensionthatwouldotherwisecausecracks. The peening, for which a machinist’s ball-peen hammer is suitable, should be performed promptly after deposition of one or even half an electrode. In no instance should a bead longer than9 in. (230 mm) be left without immediate peening.

27.5.14.6 The weld metal is weakest while hot. Sinceit is easiest to deform red at or yellow heats, and since crackingismostlikelytooccurabove 1500°F (815”C), it is advisable to peen the bead as quickly as practicable. 27.5.14.7 Thereisexperimentalevidencethatarc power, arc length, bead size, and melting rate are related to bead cracking. Unlessthe beads can be peened quickly and properly, arc power above 3.5 kw or melting rates above 12 in./min (5.1 W s ) should be avoided. In any case, a weaving bead that has a cross-sectional area greater than 0.18in.2 (116mm2)- for example 0.8 in. (20mm) wide by 0.2 in. (5 mm) high above the base; which may mean about 0.40 in. (10 mm) thick - is desirable. These conditions may not prevent underbead cracking, but they should minimize fissuringin the weld.

27.5.14 Welding Characteristics

27.5.14.1 If EFeMn filler metal is deposited on carbon or low-alloy steel, the transition zone may be too low in manganese; thus, it may develop a martensitic structure, which can permit spalling of the weld deposit because of brittleness.Suchuse ofan austeniticmanganesesteel overlayforabrasionresistance is generallynotrecommended, since an air-hardening steel or martensitic iron is usually more satisfactory. 27.5.14.2 Manganesesteelis so popular for battering 27.5.14.8 MuchuseofsurfacingwithEFeMnelecmetal-to-metal wear that it has seen considerable service as trodes is to buildup worn manganese steel parts.To avoid an overlay on carbon steels despite its tendency to develop embrittling this base metal,it should be kept below500°F an overlay martensite. For many years, it has been used as (260°C)within 2 in. (5 1 mm) from the weld by watercoolon large steel-mill coupling boxes, pinions, spindles, and ing, intermittent welding, or other procedures. other items working under heavy impact load. Cracking has beenobservedinsuchapplications;however,sincethe contactingfacesareenclosed,highlystressededgesare 27.6 RFeCr-A and EFeCr-AAustenitic High avoided. Also, perhaps because large surface areas are in Chromium Iron Filler Metals contact, the surface protection technique has been considered satisfactory. Four layers of the manganese-steel over27.6.1 Applications. The RFeCr-A welding rods and lay are recommended. EFeCr-A electrodes have proved very popular for facing 27.5.14.3 Not all users of this procedure maybe so foragricultural machinery parts. Arc weldingis used on heavy tunate in avoiding trouble from the brittle fusion zone. One materials and large areas; oxyfuel welding is used for thin way to avoid cracking is to “butter” the carbon steel with sections. Plowshares can be considered as a typical applia layer of austenitic stainless steel. This blends well with cation; because these filler metals flow well enough to procarbon or low-alloy steels and manganese steel without duce a thin edge deposit, and because the wear conditions forming brittle structures. The EFeMn filler metal may then be welded on top of thestainless steel deposit without in sandy soil are typically those of erosion or low-stress scratching abrasion. It is significant that the FeCr-A filler sacrificing the toughnessof austenite. metals become unsuitable in very rocky soil because of the 27.5.14.4 Bare EFeMn electrodes sometimes are used. associated impact. Industrial applications include co*ke Acceptable welds can be produced with sufficient power, chutes, steel mill guides, sandblasting equipment, brickand the high melting ratesare consideredan asset. Covered electrodes permit the use of lower power, are easier for an making machinery, etc. inexperienced welder to use, and minimize annoying short circuits in restricted space; but they generally have a lower 27.6.2 Hardness. The as-welded hardness for FeCr-A meltingrate.Directcurrent,electrodepositive(dcep)is filler metals when deposited by oxyfuel welding will vary preferred for both covered and bare electrodes. with carbon content. The average Rockwell hardness of 27.5.14.5 Whilemanganesesteelhashighductility 104 production-quality control tests was (36.1 with an when strained in one direction; the two- and three- dimenobserved range of C5 1 toC62, representing a range of 4.3 sional stresses that occur in weld deposits can, and freto 5.2 percent carbon. Macrohardness values, such as quently do, cause failure with no apparent ductility. The Rockwell or Brinell numbers, will increase slowly as carundesirableweld-beadtensilestressesthatdevelopon bon increases. Such figures reflect the greater proportion cooling can be changed to compressive stressby peening of the hard carbides in the softer matrix, but they do not the deposit. Such peening, preferably with a pneumatic reliably indicate abrasion resistance. hammer,flowstheoutersurface;andthedeformation

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COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL 1995

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420

m 79

sion increases, their performance declines. As deposited, FeCr-A is only mediocre under high-stress grinding abrasion, and it is usually not advantageous for such service.

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Since dilution is not expected in normal oxyfuel welding, the chief variable is carbon pickupper flame adjustment. With a 3xfeather-to-cone reducing flame, a pickup of 0.4 percentcarbon hasbeen observed if the welding rod is on the low side of the carbon range. On the high side of the carbon range, a neutral flame can slightly decarburize the deposit. The austenitic matrix canwork-harden somewhat under impact; however,since the consequent deformation leads to cracking, impact service is avoided.

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27.6.3 Hot Hardness. Hardness for FeCr-A filler metals falls slowly with increasing temperatures up to about 800 to 900°F (425 to 480°C); thereafter, it falls rapidly and also becomes strongly affected by creep. At 900°F (480°C), the instantaneous Rockwellhardnessis about C43, and three minutes under load willcause an apparent drop to near C37. At 1200°F (650"C), the instantaneous value may be no higher than C5, and the apparentloss due to creep in 3 minutes may beas much as 45 points on the C scale. However, the lossof hardness due to tempering is negligibleincomparisonwithmanymartensiticalloys, and the drop in hardness shown by hot testing is practically recovered upon coolingto ordinary temperatures. Very little is known about the resistance of these filler metals to thermal shock and thermal fatigue. 27.6.4 Impact. FeCr-Adepositsmaywithstandvery light impact without cracking, but cracks will form readily if blows produce plastic deformation. These filler metals seldom are used under conditions of medium impact, and they are generally considered unsuitable for heavy impact, where cracking is objectionable.Dynamiccompression stresses above 6 0 , O O O psi (413 MPa) should be avoided. 27.6.5 OxidationResistance.The highchromium content of FeCr-A filler metals confers excellent oxidation resistance up to 1800°F (980"C),and they can be considered for hot wear applications in which their hot plasticity is not objectionable. 27.6.6 Corrosion Resistance. The matrix chromium content of the deposited FeCr-A filler metals is comparatively low and, thus, not very effective in providing resistance to liquid corrosion. These deposits will rust in moist air and are not stainless, but they are more stable than ordinary iron and steel. 27.6.7 Abrasion. Resistance of FeCr-A filler metals to low-stress scratching abrasionis outstanding and is related to the volume of the hard carbides. Deposits of FeCr-A will wear about one-eighteenth as much as soft (SAE 1020) steel against rounded quartz sand grains and against sharp angular flint fragments. As stress the on abra-

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

27.6.8 Metal-to-MetalWear. Low-stressabrasion produces a good polish on FeCr-A filler metals, with a resulting low coefficient of friction. Where the polish is produced by metal-to-metalwear,performanceis also good. Resistance to galling is considered better for these filler metals thanfor ordinary hardenedsteel, because tempering from frictional heat is negligible. Austenite alone is prone to gall, and its presence may lead to unfavorable performance.Also,thehardcarbides can stand inrelief through wear of the austenite, and cancut or cause excessive wearuponamatingsurface. Therefore, metal-tometalserviceshould be approachedcautiously.Rolling mill guides have been foundto be appropriate applications. 27.6.9 Mechanical Properties in Compression. In compression, the depositedFeCr-A filler metals are expected to have a yield strength (0.1 percent offset) of between 80,000 and 140,000 psi (55 1 to 965 MPa) with an ultimate strength ranging from 150,000 to 180,000 psi (1034 to 1930 MPa). Theywill show about one-percent elastic deformation and tolerate from 0.5 to 3 percent additional plastic deformation before failure at the ultimate. Like othercast iron types, their tensile strength is low; therefore, tension should be avoided in designs for their use. 27.6.10 Machinability. The FeCr-A deposits are considered commercially unmachinable with cutting tools, and they are also very difficult to grind. For machine shop use, the recommendedgrindingwheels are aluminum-oxide abrasive with a 24-grit size, hard (Q) and medium space resinoid bond for off-hand high-speed work, and a slightly softer (P) vitrified bond for off-hand low-speed use. 27.6.11 Identification. When welding rods are mixed, the FeCr-A filler metals frequently can be identified by certain characteristics: (1) brittleness of the cast rod; (2)nonmagnetic behavior; (3) avery dull, lifeless spark thatisshortandproducedwith difficulty; andsometimes (4) the presence of fine needle-like Cr7C3crystals on a fracture section. A spot test for cobalt (see AS. 1 1, "CoCr Identification") will distinguish*t from the somewhat similar CoCr-C filler metals. The magneticpermeabilityis about 1.O3 with a magnetizingforce of 24 oersteds. 27.6.12 Metallography. Deposits of these filler metals consist of hard carbides of the chromium carbide (Cr,C3) type, dispersed in amatrix of austenite that is stable during slow cooling. The FeCr-A classification does

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07842b5 0534523 3b7

80

not apply to those high-chromium irons that are subject to pearlite formation, martensitic hardening, and other manifestations of austenite transformation. The Cr$, carbides have a diamond pyramid hardness (DPH)orVickerspyramidnumber(VPN) of approximately 2000. They are harder than quartz; thus, they confer resistance to scratchingabrasion by mostcommon materials. The austenite matrix is softer (about 450 DPH) and somewhat plastic. It can be eroded from around the carbides and may not give them competent support under conditions of high-stress abrasion. The austenite is rich in dissolved carbon as welded. Much of it separates out as spine-like crystalsof CqC, during cooling; although some crystallizes as smaller particles, and some remains in solid solution. The hard carbides are brittle andfracture readily. -||||

27.6.13HeatTreatment. The austenite in FeCr-A filler metals,which is stabilized partly by dissolved chromium and partly by manganese, does not transform by usual steel-hardening reactions. It can precipitate some carbon in dispersed form during aging heat treatments, but this hardening is minor and is negligible in practical surfacing operations. || || || || |||| || || ||||| | |||| | ---

27.6.14 Welding Characteristics. In oxyfuelgas welding with FeCr-A filler metals, flat-position welding with a 3x feather-to-cone reducing flame is recommended. The coefficient of thermal expansionis about 50 percent greater thanthat of carbonsteelsandirons. Contraction stresses are prone to crack the deposit; and, while these cracks may do no harm, they may be minimized by preheating and postheating techniques. The use of a flux may be helpful in dealing with dirt, scale, and other undesirable surface contamination; but on a clear, bright metal surface such as grinding produces, flux is ordinarily unnecessary. A good bond can be produced on all ironbase materials, providedthe base metalisnot damaged by the high-temperature conditions of welding and weld cooling.In arc welding, the procedure for applying FeCr-A filler metals is similar to that used for other surfacing electrodes.

27.7 RCoCr and ECoCr Cobalt-Base Filler Metals 27.7.1 Applications. The contact surfaces of exhaust valves in aircraft, truck, bus, and diesel engines are frequently surfaced withthe softer alloys. MuchCoCr-A filler metal is used for this purpose. Its success is attributed to its combination of heat, corrosion, and oxidation resistance. It also is used for valve trim in steam engines, on pump shafts, and on similar parts subject to corrosion and erosion. The higher-carbon filler metals - CoCr-B and CoCr-C - are used in applications wheregreater hardness and abrasion resistance are needed, but where impact resistance is not mandatory. 27.7.2 Hardness. The usual hardness ranges for CoCr filler metals are shown in Table 15. CoCr-A filler metal usually is employed as aprecise,oxyacetylene-welded overlaywith little ifany base metaldilution.When so deposited, it is likely to be near RockwellC42 in hardness. CoCr-C filler metal may be used for wear resistance in rougher service - where precision and quality are less important, but where hardness and carbide volume may be significant. Oxyfuel gas deposits are expected to be near Rockwell C55, which is comparable tothe hardness of the austenitic chromium irons (FeCr-A). Arc-welded deposits are much more variable. Some experience with these is shown in Table 16. Many surfacingalloys are softenedpermanently by heating to elevated temperatures. CoCr filler metals are an exception. Although they do exhibit lower hardness while hot, they return to approximately their original hardness upon cooling andcan be considered immuneto tempering. 27.7.3HotHardness. Elevated-temperature strength andhardness are outstanding properties of CoCr filler metals. They generally are considered superior to other surfacing alloys where these properties are required above 1200°F(650°C).In the range from1000 to 1200°F (540 to

~~

B G

Table 15

Usual hardof cobaltbase weld deposits( 7 O O F) (21"C)

~

2.28 I .83 431 2.12 2.95

H E

Oxyruel gas w e w

Spmpk

CoCr-C B G

tower vllucr c m be cxpccted in ringle layer depor¡&due to dilution

H

wich the base meul.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

~

~~

391

448

53 53 53

foruchof3w~tiolwoncrbof3I.vcrs

38to47 4Sto49 4 8 ~ 0 5 8 341047231047 Oto58

Arcweldtd a.

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389 4!W 509 41 48 43 32 328 399 444 47 368 455 489 44 51 381 433 528 42 46

465

~eofhudncss~from3wuponrbruchslmp*.3~

Hardness. Rockwell C CoCr-A C&-B

-~

41 40 49 41

E

BrinellhvQesa

1

2

ROCkW3lIClUdrSSS

3

3

1

2

35710440 44310557 39010640 331046 381050 48056 29710353 37310415 42910478 271035 381045 440% 32410384 41310483 45010514 411045 411053 S1056 35110443 32210514 465t0578 3 7 ~ 0 4354 m 5530 t o 5 S

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STD*AWS UGFM-ENGL 3995

650"C), their relative advantage is not always clear; and below 1000°F (54OoC), other classifications may be better. The hot hardness expectancy is shown in Table 17. Creep, which is plastic flow that occurs under sustained loading, is ordinarily a high-temperatureproblem. In weld deposits, it appears as a slow yielding; in hardness tests, it shows as an apparent lowering of hardness as the time period of a hardness indentation is increased.Evidence of this is shown in Table 18. At temperatures above 1000to 1200°F (540 to 650"C), weld deposits of these CoCr filler metals have greater resistance tocreepthan other commercially available surfacing alloys for which data are available. This distinction, and their hardness at 1200°F(650°C) and above, are the primary reasons fortheir selection for use in many applications. -|||| || || || || |||| || || |||||

27.7.4 Impact. Resistancetoflowunderimpact increases withcarboncontent in CoCr filler metals. CoCr-C weld deposits are quite brittle and crack readily when impact flow does occur. CoCr-A deposits, while more easily deformed, can withstand some plastic flow under compression before cracking. However, a tough martensitic steel is considered superior in bothflow resistance and toughness.

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27.7.5 Oxidation Resistance. The presence of more than 25 percent chromium in CoCr filler metals promotes the formation of a thin, tightly-adherent protective scale under oxidizing conditions. For deposits of these filler metals at temperatures up to 1800°F (980°C),this means a scaling rate below O. 10 in. (2.5 mm) per year in common oxidizing atmospheres. Scaling resistance to combustion products of intemal-combustion enginesis also generally adequate, even in the presence of lead compounds from "doped" fuels. 27.7.6CorrosionResistance. CoCr filler metals, as deposited, are recognized as "stainless" and are frequently useful where both abrasion and corrosion are involved. Theycanbe considered corrosion-resistant in the less severe media,in foods, and in air; and they even may have good resistance insome corrosives - such as nitric, ~.

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Table 17 Instantanew8hardness value8 "A

Rodwell C br saqk

Rmpanuc.

numbugiveo

c0cr-c RochllCbrSunpk numburn B O HJ E

B G H-rH-b E 650 29.6 33.3 26.529.841.043.735.741.2 46.1 850 455 24.3 26.8 21.5 28.5 36.6 41.0 31.9 38.0 40.6 1050 565 20.201.189.212.372.325.269.8 35.1 30.5 1200 650 15.199.176.241.285.289.294.239.207.9 1400 760 46.8'45.8' 44.7' 49.8'49.8'53.9'53.0'53.4'51.3' T

T 345

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

acetic, citric, formic, lactic, sulfuric, sulfurous, and trichloracetic acids. However,if an application that involves corrosion is underconsideration,generalstatementsabout corrosion should be confirmed by a field test, if possible. The field testshouldincludeallservice factors, since minor variables are sometimes decisive. Inany event, a recognized authority on corrosion should be consulted.

27.7.7 Abrasion. Carbon content hasmuch to do with the response of CoCr filler metals to abrasion. At 1.O-percent carbon (CoCr-A), the performance is inferior to that of carbon steel; at 2.5-percent carbon (CoCr-C),the resistance to high-stress grinding abrasion is good. Under the low-stress conditions of scratching abrasion, laboratory tests indicate that CoCr-C oxyfuel gaswelds may wear at one-twentieth the rate of carbon steel; while, for CoCr-A deposits, the rate is near one-fifth. There has been considerable field use of CoCr-C filler metal to withstand abrasion. Someof this experiencedates back to the time when the cobalt-base filler metals were practically the only surfacing materials available. It should be notedthatequivalentperformancecurrentlycanbe obtained with iron-base filler metals if heat and corrosion are unimportant service factors. 27.7.8 Metal-to-Metal Wear. The CoCr filler metals arewellsuited for metal-to-metalwearbecause of their ability to take a high polish and their low coefficient of friction. 27.7.9 Mechanical Properties in Compression. Some reported mechanical properties for CoCr filler metals appear in Table 19. 27.7.10Machinability. None of the deposits from CoCr filler metals are easily machinable, and the difficulties increase alongwithincreasedcarbon content. However, CoCr-A depositsare machined regularly, preferably with sintered carbide tools. With deposits of CoCr-C classification, grinding is the accepted method of finishing. 27.7.11 Identification. Filler metals of the three CoCr classifications usually may be distinguished by their relative hardness and brittleness. They are nonmagnetic and Table 18 Avsrage hardnesswith 1- and Minute holdingtimes COCr-A

CoCr-C

B r i d l turdnus for m p k number given

Brinell hudncss for umpk number given B G H E

Time undu

T

E

"F

"C

Iod I min

850 455

4min

850 455 650 4min I200 650 Imin

IMO

B

297 307 250 235

G

H-r

320 291 350 269 274 221 243 U7

H-b

E

381

319

426

394

304

409

250 304 363 220 278 363

268 234

326 2%

309 388 306 376

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429 422 328 298

STD=AWS UGFM-ENGL 3775 m 0784265 0534525 L3T m 82

27.7.12.3 Oxyacetyleneweldingmayincreasethecarbon content oftheCoCrfiller-metaldeposit,whilearc weldingtendstoreducecarbonandatthesametimedilute the CoCr deposit with elements from the base metal. These changes will be reflected in the structures.

thusmaybescreened from the magnetic iron-base alloys. Thespark testwill differentiate themfrom austenitic manganese steel, FeMn.However, the austenitic chromium irons, FeCr-A, are so similar to the CoCr-C classification that the following test or someother test may be necessary for differentiation. Identification Test, Clean 1-in. and 2-in. (25 mmand 5 1 mm) lengths of the filler metal and place in 250 mL, beakers. Cover with dilute HCI (one part concentrated HCI and one part water), and heat. In a few minutes, the following observed: be may Filler Metal

slow CoCr-A slow CoCr-B slow CoCr-C FeCr-A 1

Color of Solution

27.7.12.4 solid-solution matrix The CoCr of metalfiller has a hardness near C40 Rockwell. The Cr,C3-type carbides may be expected to show a Vickers microhardness between 1500 and 2000 VPN. However, despite the hard carbidecrystals, thegeneralhardness(asmeasuredby Rockwell or Brinell tests) seldom exceeds Rockwell C 60. or 600 softer supporting the BHN, because matrix. of

Dissolvine Action

27.7.13 Heat Treatment. The CoCr filler metals are not subject to hardening transformations like steel, and they have negligible response to heat treatment. Occasionally, stress-relief treatment of welds may be advisable to minimize cracking; usually, however, these welds go into service in the as-welded condition.

blue blue blue green

fast

27.7.12 Metallography 27.7.12.1 CoCr filler metals contain 25- to 33-percent chromium, which confers oxidation resistance; and 3.0 to 14 percent tungsten, which promotes elevated temperature strength. The cobalt base gives corrosion resistance and providesastablesolid-solutionmatrix.Carbonis an important element that contributes strength and, in combination with chromium, forms hard carbides that may provide abrasion resistance. Different levels ofcarbonand tungsten are responsible for the distinctive properties of the three classifications.

27.7.14 Welding Characteristics. For oxyacetylene weldingwith CoCr filler metal,a 3X feather-to-cone reducing flame is recommended. Preheating the cleaned surface with a neutral flame upto 800°F (425°C) is advisable for heavy sections. For shielded metal arc welding, direct current, electrode positive (dcep) is usedwitha short arc. For a1/4-in. (6.4 mm) diameter electrode, a current of approximately 190to 200A is recommended. All deposits should be cooled slowlyto prevent cracking.

27.7.12.2 Thesolid-solutionmatrix of CoCrweld deposits is harder than the austenite of the iron-carbon sys27.8 Copper-Base Alloy Filler Metals tem and the chromium-nickel-iron stainless steels. In the 27.8.1 Applications. Thecopper-base alloy filler matrix, complex carbides appear that increase the overall metals are used to deposit overlays and inlays for bearhardness and brittleness.In CoCr-A deposits, thesemay be small and well dispersed. In deposits of CoCr-C, character- ing, corrosion resistant, and wear resistant surfaces. istic spines and pseudohexagonal crystals, comparable to ERCuAl-A2 filler metal and ECuAl-A2 electrodes are the Cr,C, carbides of the high-chromium irons (FeCr-A), used for surfacing bearing surfaces between the hardness are plentiful. They appear similar to the various fine carranges of 130 to 190 BHN as well as corrosion-resistant bides, all of which have in commona complex, eutectifersurfaces. TheERCuAl-A3,RCuAl-C,ECuAl-B, and rous structure. The complexity of such structures increases ECuA1-C filler metals are used primarily for the surfac- as wellas elewith the increasing percentages of carbon ments, such as iron, which mingle due to base-metal fusion.ing of bearing surfaces requiring the higherhardness range of 140 to 290 BHN. Classifications RCuAl-C, RCuAl-D, RCuAl-E, Table 19 ECuA1-C, ECuA1-D, and ECuAl-E are used to surface CompressbnpropMtiesofcast cobalt.bascalloys bearing and wear-resistant surfaces requiring the higher CoCr-A Cdr-C hardness range of 230 to 390 BHN - surfaces such as Yield strength (0.1 m ~ o f f s e t )k.si 641076 8Sto Il0 gears, cams sheaves, wear plates, dies, etc. Ultimnc compresim strengh. ksi IS0IO 230 2.50 to 270 Plastic &(anUrion. p r a n t 5to8 It02 The RCuSi-A and ECuSi filler metals are used primarBrincll h u d n e s s 350 to 420 480 to 550 ily for the surfacing of corrosion-resistant surfaces. a.Crurrlvcruclnsludcd~vcldmeuld.uucnanuLb*. Generally, the copper-silicon deposits are notrecomSI eqUlWhCr mended for bearing service. km MR k s i MR ksi MR The copper-tin (CuSn) filler .metals are used primarily 64 441 586 230 1586 8S for surfacing bearing surfaces where the lower hardness of 524 I10 758 u0 1724 76 IS0 1034 270 I861 these alloys is required. They are used also for surfacing ”

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corrosionresistantsurfaces and, occasionally, for wear resistant applications. Many of the filler metals classified by the specification also can be used for joining like and dissimilar metals (see AWSA5.6-84, Specification for Copper and Copper Alloy Covered Electrodes, and AWS A5.7-77, Specificationfor Copper and Copper Alloy Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes) as well as forcasting repairs.

goodimpact properties. The CuSn filler metals, asdeposited, have low impact values due to the coarse grain structure and the lower strength inherent in these alloys. The CuZn-E deposits have very low impact values.

27.8.2 Hardness. Deposit hardness will vary with the welding process used and the manner in which the metal deposited. For example,deposits made with the gas metal arc or gas tungsten arc process will be higher in hardness than deposits made with the oxyfuel gas or shielded metal arc process.This is because lower lossesof aluminum, tin, silicon, and zinc are encountered in the remelting process due to the better shielding from oxidation. In oxyfuel gas welding, excessive “puddling” of the molten weld metal will cause excessivelosses of the hardening elements, producing deposits of lower hardness than those specified. See Table 20for hardness ranges of these alloys. 27.8.3HotHardness. Thecopper-base alloy filler metals are not recommended for use at elevated temperatures; because the mechanical properties, especially hardness, will tend to decrease consistently as the temperature increases above 400’F (205°C). 27.8.4Impact. The impact resistance of CuAl-A2 deposits will be the highest of the copper-base alloy classifications. As the aluminum content increases, impact resistance decreases markedly. CuSi weld deposits have

ERrcuAI.Az EcLlA&A2 E”A3

GTAW, GMAW SMAW GTAW, GMAW SMAW GTAW SMAW GTAW SMAW GTAW SMAW 80-100 SMAW 80-100 O W ,GMAW, GTAW 70-85 GRAW, GMAW 70-85 SMAW

1MlU)

ECuACB

115140 140-180 140-180

ERcuALc

m290 180220 310-3U)

230-270 35@390 280-320

85100 SMAW 90-110 GTAW 13omin

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27.8.5OxidationResistance. Deposits of the CuAl filler metals form a protective oxide coating upon exposure to the atmosphere. Oxidationresistance of the CuSi deposit is fair, while that of CuSn filler metals is comparable to that of pure copper. is 27.8.6CorrosionResistance. The copper-base alloy filler metals are used rather extensively to surface areas subjected to corrosion from various acids, mild alkalies, and salt water. The only exception is filler metal of the CuZn-Eclassification.Thefillermetalsproducing deposits of higher hardness - that is, 120 to 200 BHN (3000kg load)-may be usedto surface areas subjected to corrosive action as well as erosion from liquid flow.Such applications include condenser heads and turbine runners.

27.8.7 Abrasion. Noneof the copper-base alloy deposits are recommended for use where severe abrasion is encountered in service. 27.8.8 Metal-to-Metal Wear. The CuAl filler metals producing deposits of highest hardness - that is, from 130 to approximately 390 BHN (3000 kg load) - are used to overlay surfaces subjected to excessive wear from metal-to-metal contact. Such applications include gears, cams,sheaves, wear plates, dies, etc. For example, CuA1-E filler metals are used to surface dies, both male and female, for drawing and forming stainless and carbon steels and aluminum. All of the copper-base alloy filler metals classified by ANWAWS A5.13-80 are used to deposit overlays and inlays for bearing surfaces, with the exception of the CuSi filler metals. Silicon bronzes are considered poor bearing alloys. Copper-base alloy filler metals selected for a bearing surface should produce a deposit with a Brinell hardthe matness thatis 50 to 75 hardnessvalues below that of ing metalor alloy. Thus, the equipment will beengineered so that the bearing will wear in preference to the mating part. Slight porosity in the deposit is sometimes acceptable for bearing service. In fact, CuZn-E, which is aleaded bronze, was designed to produce a porous deposit in order to retain oil, primarily for additional lubrication purposes in the overlay of locomotive journalboxes. 27.8.9 Mechanical Properties in Compression. Deposits of the CuAl filler metals have high elastic limits and ultimate strengths in compression - ranging from 25,000 to 65,000 psi (172 to 448 MPa) and 120,000 to 171,000 psi (827 to 1174 MPa), respectively. The elastic limit of CuSi deposits is around 22,000 psi (152 MPa)

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84

with an ultimate strength in compression of 60,000 psi (414 MPa). The CuSn deposits will have an elastic limit of 11,000 psi (76 MPa),and an ultimate strength of 32,000 psi (221 MPa). The mechanical properties of the leaded bronzes, CuZn-E, are verylowin compression, with an elastic limit of about 5000 psi (34 MPa) and an ultimate strength of 20,000 psi (138 MPa).

27.8.10 Machinability. All of these copper-base alloy deposits can be machined if a machined surface is required. 27.8.11Identification. All of the copper-base alloy deposits are nonmagnetic and non-sparking inthe general sense of the word. In fact, so-called “non-sparking” tools are produced from someof the hard CuA1 alloys listed in the specification.

27.8.16 Electrodes. In shielded metal arc or gas metal arc welding, base-metalpickup can be held toa minimum only throughthe use of a fast, wide weave-bead technique in depositing the initial layer. Generally, the initial layer should be made by weaving passes in widths four to six times the core-wire diameter. Subsequent layers may be appliedinany manner. The deposit shouldbe at least 3/16in. (4.8 mm)in thickness in order to develop the hardness specified. Generally, a deposit thicknessof 1/4in. (6.4 mm) is most desirable, built up with a minimum of three layers.On large sections, a preheatof 300°F (150°C)should beused, and interpass temperatures should not exceed 600°F(315°C).

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27.8.12Metallography. The CuSi alloys are composed of alpha (single-phase) structures containing rather fine-grained deposits. The 5 to 8 percentphosphor bronzes, CuSn, have an alpha structure similar to alpha brass; but asthe tin content increases, delta particles form. Unlike the CuSi alloys, deposits of CuSn filler metals will have acoarse, dendritic grain structure unless precautions are taken during welding to refine the grain through hot peening or subsequentheat treatment, or both. Deposits of CuAl-A2 filler metalsarecomposedof light-colored alpha crystals in a darker-colored beta matrix. As the aluminum content increases, greater amounts of light-blue gamma particles will appear in the darker beta matrix. CuAl alloys may be etched with either ferric chloride or ferric nitrate etchants. Deposits of the lead-tin alloy, RCuSn-E, will have an alphastructure with grey particles of free lead unevenly distributed throughout.

the surface on the first layer. Excessive dilution from the base plate will produce hard spots in the deposit that are difficult to machine.

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27.8.13 Heat Treatment. Ordinarily, no heat treatment is needed in surfacing with copper-base alloy filer metals. 27.8.14Welding Characteristics. Whensurfacing iron-base metals or alloys with copper-base alloy filler metals, a minimum amount of dilution from thebase metal is desired. 27.8.15WeldingRods. Generally, a preheatisnot necessary unless the part is exceptionally large; in this case, a 200°F (95°C)preheat may be desirable to facilitate the smooth flow of the weld metal. At no time should the preheat temperature be above 400°F (205°C) when applying the first layer. On subsequent layers, an interpass temperature of approximately 200°F to 600°F (93 to 315°C) will simplify deposition of the weld metal. Generally, deposit thickness of 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) is most desirable, built up with a minimumofthreelayers.If welding rods are used with the oxyacetylene, carbon arc, or gas tungsten arc process, dilution from the base plate can be controlled easily by proper precoating (tinning) of

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

27.9RNiCr and ENiCr Nickel-Chromium-Boron Filler Metals 27.9.1 Application. For the RNiCr welding rods and ENiCr electrodes, chemical composition as specified in ANSUAWS A5.13-80does not determine the physical properties as clearly as it does for the other filler metals classified therein. Theoverlappingcompositionranges represent current commercial practices. Deposit hardness increases from NiCr-A to NiCr-C, but machinability and toughness decrease. Selection is generally basedupon consideration of these factors. Deposits of the NiCr filler metals have good metal-tometal wear resistance, low-stress scratch-abrasion resistance, corrosion resistance, and retention of hardness at elevated temperatures. Applications include seal rings, cement pump screws, valves, screw conveyors, and cams. 27.9.2 Hardness. The hardnessof arc and oxyfuel-gas weld deposits is shownin Table 21. Deposits ofNiCr filler metals work-harden to a greater degree when considerable iron dilution is present (one-layer arc weld) than

Table 21

Hardnessof weld deposits kwdd deposit hardnus deposit of covered and hardness, bare dmode. Oxyfud gas wdd

AWS

Number

Qassifìeation oflayers N1CI-A

NiCr-B Ni Cr-C

1

2 1 2 1

2

Rockwd C

Rockwell C

35 to 40 35 to 40

24 to 29 30 to 35 30 to 35 40 to 45

45 to 50 45 to 50 56 to 62 56 to 62

35 to 45 49 to 56

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when there is less iron dilution (two-layerarcweld). These filler metals normally are not used for their workhardening properties, since this usually would imply more impact resistance than they possess.

27.9.3 Hot Hardness. The Rockwell C hardnessreadings shown in Table22wereobtainedusing single specimens of arc and oxyfuel-gas weld deposits, tested consecutivelyat three temperatureswithoutprevious heat treatment.

in compression for deposits of the NiCr-C filler metal; they are as follows: Modulus of elasticity psi (MPa) . . . . 32,000,000 (200,608) Elasticlimit,psi(MPa) . . . . . . . . . . .42,000 (290) Yield strength, psi (MPa) (0.01 percent offset). . . . . . . . . . . 92,000 (634) (0.10 percent offset).. . . . . . . . . . 150,000 (1034) (0.20 percent offset). . . . . . . . . . . 210,000 (1448) All tests wererunon duplicate specimens and the results are averaged.

27.9.10 Coefficient of Expansion. The average coefficients of expansion [inches per inch per"F (mm per mm per "C)] for deposits of these filler metals are as follows: NiCr-A . . . . . . . . . .0.00000856 (0.00000476) NiCr-B . . . . . . . . . .O.OOOOO84 1 (0.00000467) NiCr-C . . . . . . . . . .0.00OO0814 (0.00000452)

27.9.4Impact. Deposits of NiCr filler metal will withstand light impact fairly well. However, if the impact blows produce plastic deformation, cracks are certain to appear in the NiCr-C weld metal and less likely to appear in the NiCr-A and NiCr-B deposits. 27.9.5 Oxidation Resistance. NiCr deposits are oxidation resistant up to 1800°F (980°C) because of their high nickel and chromium contents. However, incipient fusion may occur near this temperature, and use of these filler metals above 1750°F (955°C) is not recommended.

27.9.11 Machinability. Deposits of NiCr filler metals may be machined with tungsten-carbide tools by using slow speeds, light feeds, and heavy tool shanks. Deeper cuts and faster speedscan be obtained on the softer deposits than on the NiCr-C deposits. NiCr filler metals also may be finished by grinding, using a soft-to-medium vitrified-silicon-carbide wheel.Theycanbeground to between 2.2 and 4.4 pin. (0.052 and O. 113 pm) AA surface finish.13 An aluminum-oxide orresin-bonded wheel has a tendency to load when grinding NiCr.

27.9.6 Corrosion Resistance. Deposits of NiCr filler metal are completely resistant to atmospheric, steam, salt water, and salt-spray corrosion. They are also resistant to the milder acids and many common corrosive chemicals. However, ifan application that involves corrosion is under consideration, general statements about corrosion should be confirmed by a field test, if possible. The field test should include all service factors, since minor variables are sometimes decisive. In any event, a recognized authority on corrosion should be consulted. 27.9.7Abrasion. Thehigh-carbon classification of this group, NiCr-C, has excellent resistance to low-stress scratching abrasionandis particularly valuablewhere such abrasionis combined withcorrosion. Abrasion resistance is expected to decrease with decreasing carbon content. These filler metals are not recommended for highstress grinding abrasion. 27.9.8 Metal-to-MetalWear. NiCrdepositshave excellent metal-to-metalwear resistance and acquire a high polish under wearing conditions. They are particularly resistant to galling. These properties are best demonstrated in the NiCr-C alloy. 27.9.9 Mechanical Properties in Compression. Information on these properties is not available. However, data have been reported on some of the properties

27.9.12 Identification. NiCr deposits are nonmagnetic, having a permeability of 1.005with a magnetizing force of 500 oersteds. When spark tested, they give off a short, dull, red spark without bursting. They have a higher fluidity and lower melting point than the cobalt-base filler metals, CoCr. 27.9.13 Metallography. Themicrostructure of deposits oftheNiCr filler metals consists of six-sided

~

Loading AWS interval. adcation ndn

NiCrA

O I 2 3 O 1

2 3 O

~~

I3ANSI standard 846.1 requires r m s surface Jnish to be expressed as the arirhmaric average ( A A ) , which is equal to I . I I rms.

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I NiCr45452' 3

~~~

Rockwdl C hardness of arc wdd

Rockwell C hardness d oxyfud g u wdd

depoat

dcpoait

600°F 800°F I W F 6 W F 8 0 V F I O W F (315" C) (430" C ) (54V C) (315"C ) (430" C) (540" C) 33 29 30 29 34 24 30 28 26 32 33 21 25 32 30 28 20 33 29 za 19 33 24 31 42 45 41 39 33 46 44 39 41 38 29 46 43 38 41 38 28 45 42 37 40 37 45 26 49 46 39 S5 52 48 51 42 49 45 33 54 48 51 41 32 54 48 50 40 31 54

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07842b5 0514529 885

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86

crystals of chromium carbides and globular white islands of chromium borides in a complex nickel eutectic (low melting) matrix. In many cases, no etchant is needed due to the character of the constituents. Polishing leaves the hard constituents standing out in relief to about the same degree as a mild etch. To accentuate the degree of relief, cold concentrated HCl or a mixture of 20-percent cold concentrated HC1 and 80-percent glacial acetic acid may be used. The chromium borides have a hardness of approximately 4000 VPN. In general, the chromium carbides and chromium borides are larger in oxyfuel gas weld deposits than in arc weld deposits. This probably is related to differences in cooling rates between the two welding processes. 27.9.14 Heat Treatment. In order to prevent cracks when applying the NiCr filler metals to hardenable iron and steel alloys, preheat and postheat treatments should be used. All hardenable alloys should be preheated to 600 to 800°F(315 to 425°C). Water- and oil-hardening alloys should be slow-cooled by placing them in an insulating medium or a furnace immediately after welding. Airhardening steel should be isothermally annealed immediately after welding.

of a rippled surface and craters. Because of their low melting point and the brazing techniques used, these filler metals maybe oxyfuel-gas welded more rapidly and easily than most surfacing alloys. 27.9.15.3 The NiCr filler metalsmay be applied to cast iron, steel, copper, and nickel-base alloys. For surfacing of high-chromiumsteels,thefluiditycanbeimproved by using aslightlyreducingflamewithafeatherapproximately the length of the inner cone. If checking of the deposit occurs, preheating of the workpiece and slow cooling in anoven or insulating material will minimize this condition, and may eliminate checking entirely. 27.9.15.4 These filler metals may be applied to lowand medium-carbon steels and to austenitic stainless steels with no tendency for the base metal to crack. With highcarbon steels and alloy steels, a preheat and postheat generally are necessary to prevent cracking of the base metal. 27.9.15.5 When arc welding, the surface to be welded should be free from rust, dirt, oil, scale, and all foreign matter. The NiCr electrodes may be bare or covered. For best results, the electrode shouldbe used with dc reverse polarity. The following current ranges are recommended: Electrode diameter, in (mm) Current. A 130 to 180 3/16 (4.8) 180 to 240 114 (6.4) 27.9.15.6 The minimum possible current setting should be used to prevent undue penetration. Preheating or postheating depends upon the type of alloy being welded and should be sufficient to prevent cracking at the fusion zone. Arc weld deposits are slightly softer and less wear-resistantthanoxyfuelgaswelddepositsduetodilution. Hardness and wear resistance are increased by building up with two layersinstead of one.Thebareelectrodearc deposit of these alloys will be much sounder than the average bare electrode application, due to their high boron content, with resultant self-fluxing properties. 27.9.15.7 These alloys, when in powder form, can be deposited by sprayingtoformamechanicallybonded overlay(i.e.,metallizing)andthenfusedto a smooth, denseoverlaywiththesamemetallurgicalbondasthat obtained with welding rod deposits. Fused overlays up to 0.060 in. (1.5mm) in thickness are practical on surfaces of almost any contour.

27.9.15 Welding Characteristics

27.9.15.1 The NiCr-B filler metal has a broad solidification range. This property, together with its low melting point,contributestoitslessertendencyto warpweldments. If it is desired to hot-form some special shape of the deposit to minimize grinding, the weldmentmay be heated -preferably usingan oxyacetylene torch-to 1800 to 1975°F(980 to l080"C),which is within the solidification range of these alloys. The deposit should not be held at this temperature, because it will start to flow. However, while in this broad range,it may be readily formed usinga suitable dieand pressing by hand.It alsomay be shaped by scraping with afile or bar steel. Square edges on the weld may be formed in this manner. The deposit will hold its contour after this forming and regain its original hardness upon cooling to room temperature. 27.9.15.2 For best results during oxyfuel gas welding, the piece to be welded should be free from oil, rust, scale, or other foreign matter. If the piece is to be undercut for surfacing, comers should be rounded. A neutral oxyfuel 28. Guide to Classification of Composite Surfacing flame is recommended for theNiCr-C filler metal; and Welding Rods and Electrodes reducingflamesarerecommendedforthesoftertypes, NiCr-AandNiCr-B. This givesproperfluiditytothe 28.1 Provisions. Excerpts from ANSYAWSA5.21-80, deposit. No flux is necessary for most applications, and it Specification for Composite Surfacing WeldingRods is not necessary to "sweat" the surface of the base metal. and Electrodes. These filler metals shouldbe applied when the surface of the base metal is at a red heat. Large sections require 28.2Introduction. This guide has been prepared for bulk preheat to 600°F (315°C). The applicationis similar prospective users of the welding rods and electrodes preto brazing. The deposit will spread evenly and quietly over sented in ANSVAWS A5.21-80 as an aid in determining the heated portionof the base metal. The deposit should be which classification of filler metal is best suited for a parsmooth and should not have the normal weld appearance

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ticular application, with due consideration to the particular requirements for that application.

ting tools, shear blades, reamers, forming dies, shearing dies, guides, ingot tongs, broaches, and other similar tools.

28.3 Classification System

28.4.2 Hardness. The Rockwell hardness of the undiluted Fe5 filler metals in theas-welded conditionis in the range of C 55 to C 60. Where a machining operation is required, hardness may be reduced to approximately C 30 by an annealing treatment.

28.4.1Applications. RFe5weldingrodsandEFe5 electrodes haveproved very popular for applications where hardness is required at service temperatures up to 1100°F (59573, and where good wear resistance and toughness are also required. These filler metals are essentially high-speed steels, modified slightly for welding applications. The three classifications are approximately interchangeable, except that Fe5-A and Fe5-B (with highcarbon) are more suitable for cutting and machining (i.e., edge-holding) applications; whereas EFe5-C (with lower carbon)is most suitable for hot working and for applications requiring toughness. Typical surfacing applications include cut-

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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28.4.7Abrasion. The high-stress abrasion resistance of these filler metals, as-deposited and at room temperature, is muchbetter than that of low-carbon steel; however,they are notconsideredhigh-abrasion-resistance alloys. Resistance to deformation elevated at temperatures up to 1100°F (595°C)is their outstanding feature, and this may aid hot abrasion resistance.

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28.4.6 CorrosionResistance. TheFe5 weld metal can withstand atmospheric corrosion, but it is not effective in providing resistance to liquid corrosion.

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28.4 R F & and EFe5High-speedSteel Filler Metals

28.4.5 OxidationResistance. Deposits of the Fe5 filler metals, because of the high molybdenum content, will oxidize readily. When heat treatments are required, a non-oxidizing furnaceatmosphere, salt bath, or borax coating should be used to prevent decarburization.

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28.3.4 ANWAWS A5.21-80 classifies composite surfacing filler metals. Surfacing welding rods and electrodes made from wrought core-wire are covered in AWS A5.13-80, Specification for Solid Sugacing Welding Rods and Electrodes.

28.4.4 Impact. The Fe5 filler metals as-deposited can withstand only medium impact without cracking. After tempering, the impact resistance is increased appreciably.

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28.3.3 For the tungsten-carbide classifications, the WC immediately after the “E’ or “R’ indicates that the filler metal consists of a mild steel tube filled with granules of fused tungsten-carbide. The numerals following the WC indicate themesh size limits for thetungsten-carbide granules. The numeral preceding the slash indicates the sieve size for the “pass” screen, and the numeral following the slash indicates the sieve size for the “hold” screen. Where only onesieve size is shown, this indicates the size of the screen through which the granules must pass.

28.4.3 Hot Hardness. Hardness at elevated temperatures (i.e., hot hardness) is a very important property of weld deposits of these filler metals. Tungsten and molybdenum are probably the most influential elements present in obtaining this property. Due to the large size of these atoms and their low diffusion rates, the carbides do not coalesce, but stay in verysmall particles. At temperatures up to 1100°F (595”C), the as-deposited Rockwell hardness of C 60 falls off very slowly to approximately C 47 (448 Brinell). At higher temperatures, it falls off more rapidly. At about 1200°F (650°C). the maximum Rockwell hardness if about C 30 (283Brinell).

28.4.8 Metal-to-Metal Wear and Mechanical

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28.3.2 For the high-speed steels, austenitic manganese steels, and austenitic high-chromium irons, the letters immediately after the “ E or “R’ are the chemical symbols for the principal elements in the classification. Thus FeMn is an iron-manganese steel, and FeCr is an ironchromium alloy, etc. Where more than oneclassification is included in a basic group, the individual classifications in the group are identified by letters (A, B, etc.) as in EFeMn-A. Furthersubdividing is accomplishedusing numerals (1, 2, etc.) after the last letter.

Properties in Compression. Deposits of Fe5 filler met-

als are well suited for metal-to-metal wear, especially at elevated temperatures. They have a low coefficient of friction andtheability toacquire a high polishwhile retaining their hardness at elevated temperatures. The compressive strength isverygood and will fall or rise with the tempering temperatureused.

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28.3.1 Thesystem for identifying weldingrodand electrode classifications follows the standard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The letter “ E at the beginning of each classification indicates an electrode, and the letter “R” indicates a welding rod.

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28.4.12 Heat Treatment. A summary of heat-treating data follows: Preheat [300"F (150°C) minimum]. Preheat usually is used; although, insome instances, no preheating is required. Annealing [1550 to 1650°F (845to 900"C)l. This treatment is applicable onlywhen dictated by machining requirements. Hardening [preheat, 1300 to 1500°F (705 to 815°C); harden,2200 to 2250°F(1200 to 1230"C), air or oil quench]. Hardening is necessary onlyif the part has been annealed for machining.

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28.5.1 Applications. The two classifications of EFeMn electrodes are substantially equivalent, except that the yield strength of EFeMn-B welddeposits is higher than that of EFeMn-A. For track work, thehigher yield is considered an asset. The surfacing applications in which EFeMn electrodes are most appropriate are thosedealingwithmetal-tometal wear and impact, where the work-hardening quality of the deposit becomes a major asset. Soft rock crushing operations involving limestone or dolomite, for example, also can benefit from such protection. Abrasion by angular quartz particles does not seem to be altered in laboratory tests by work-hardening manganese steel. Severe service with quartz abrasion is best dealt with by using manganese steel as a tough base metal, andsurfacing with a martensitic iron. Under very high stress conditions, like those in a jaw crusher, experience may demonstrate that all wear-resistant metals except manganese steel are too brittle. Surface protection thenbecomes a matterof replacingwornmetalwithmoreEFeMn filler metal, which is common. Railway frogs and crossings also are reclaimed in this way.Extensive areas, as in crushers and power-shovel parts, usually are protected with a combination of weld deposits and filler bars, which are flats and rounds of manganese steel, welded in place. Such protection may be applied upto perhaps 3 in. (76 mm) thick, and represents the approximate upper thickness limit of common surface-protection methods.

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28.5 EFeMn Austenitic Manganese Steel Electrodes

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28.4.11Metallography. The Fe5 filler metals,when deposited, contain highly alloyed tetragonal martensite, highly alloyed retained austenite, and undissolved complex carbides. Molybdenumhas beenused to replace tungsten found in many other high-speed tool steels such as the 18-4-1 grade(18-percent tungsten, 4-percent chromium, and l-percent vanadium). Molybdenum forms the same type of complex double-carbide with iron and carbon as does tungsten. Since molybdenum is an element of smaller atomic weight than tungsten (approximately one-half), it will produce twiceas many atoms ofalloying element in the steel as will tungsten when added in the same weight percentage. This appears to be a partial reason for the fact that l-percent molybdenum can besubstituted for approximately 2-percent tungsten. The carbon contentof high-speed steel usually is fixed within narrow limits. Carbon as low as 0.5 percent will not permit maximum hardness because of the presence of appreciable amounts of ferrite. As the carbon increases, the quenched hardness increases because of the increased amount of carbon dissolved in the austenite. Chromium is present in thisdeposit at 3.0 to 5.0 percent, which appears to be the right percentage for thebest compromise between hardness and toughness. In conjunction with the carbon content, chromium is mainly responsible for the great hardenability of this deposit.

28.4.13WeldingCharacteristics. The procedure for applying Fe5 filler metals is similar to that employed for othersurfacingmaterials.Theworkmustbecarefully cleaned of allforeignmaterialprior to welding.All cracked or spalledmetalshouldberemoved to ensure sound fusion of weld and base metals. Definite welding instructions depend upon the specific job and welding process to be employed. Preheating, although generally recommended, is not used in all surfacing applications; rather, it is dependent upon the shape, size, and composition of the part to be surfaced. Peening of each bead after deposition is sometimes employed to reduce stresses in the weldment.

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28.4.10Identification. The Fe5 filler metals, inthe hardened or as-deposited condition, are highly magnetic. ,Whenspark tested, they give off a very small, thin stream of sparks approximately 60 in. (1500 mm) long. Close to the grinding wheel, the spark is red; at the end, it is a straw color.

Double Temper. First operation, 1025°F (550°C) then two hours air cool to room temperature; second operation, 1025°F (550°C), then two hours air cool to room temperature. Due to thehighmolybdenum content of these filler metals, weld deposits are susceptible to decarburization at high temperature; consequently, inheat treatment and annealing, care must be used toprevent decarburization.

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28.4.9 Machinability. These filler metals, after deposition, often havetobeannealed for machiningoperations. They are rated at 65 for machinability when thoroughly annealed - as compared to a 1-percent-carbon tool steel, which has a rating of 100. Full hardness canbe regained by heat-treating procedures discussed herein.

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14Specijìcation for AusteniticManganese-Steel Designation A 128)

28.5.13HeatTreatment. Welddepositsareusually not heat-treated, since the filler metals are formulatedto be

28.5.9 Identification. Because of the unusual response toheating of theEFeMnweld metal, correct identification before welding is very important. A small magnet and a grinding wheel usually suffice; since a clean ground surface is substantially nonmagnetic, and grinding sparks are plentiful in contrast to the nonmagnetic stainless steels.

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Castings (ASTM

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28.5.10 Metallography. Thechief constituent of EFeMn weld deposits is austenite, the nonmagnetic form of iron that can holdconsiderable carbonin solid solution.

28.5.12 EFeMn-B (Molybdenum-Manganese). The addition of molybdenum to manganese steel tends to raise its yield strength. Like nickel, molybdenum increases the toughness of the lower-carbon manganese steels, and can be used interchangeably to produce a satisfactory welding electrode. Either approximately 3 to 5 percent nickel or 1/2 to 1-1/2 percent molybdenum will stabilize the tensile strength of the low-carbon type near the standardlevel of 120,000 psi (827 MPa) after heat treatment. The associated elongation with 1/2 to 1-1/2 percent molybdenum is not so high, but it has a compensating higheryield strength. Deposits of EFeMn-B electrodes have given satisfactory performance insuch exacting applications as railway switches and frogs, where battered-down castings are rebuilt with molybdenum-manganese weld deposits.

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28.5.8Machinability. Machining is very difficult with ordinary tools and equipment; finished surfaces usually are ground.

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28.5.7 Metal-to-Metal Wear and Mechanical Properties in Compression. Metal-to-metal wear resistance is frequently excellent. The yield strength in compression is low, but anycompressive deformationrapidly raises it until plastic flow ceases.This behavior is an asset in battering, pounding, and bumping wear situations.

28.5.11 EFeMn-A (Nickel-Manganese). Nickel additions to the standard gradeof manganese steel produce no apparent changes in yield strength, but there is a distinct trend toward higherelongation. The quenching rate is perhaps less critical, but quenching is still necessary to obtain the maximum toughness. A lower carbon contentis much moreeffective in conferring toughnesswithoutquenching.Becauseadded nickel seems to prevent the lower intrinsic toughness of the straight 12-percent-manganeselow-carbon steels, an alloy of 0.50 to 0.90 percent carbon and about3 to 5 percent nickel hasbecomepopular for weldingelectrodes. This alloy exhibits greater resistance to embrittlementfromreheating up to 800°F (425°C) than the standard grade.14

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28.5.6Abrasion. Abrasion resistance tohigh-and low-stress abrasion is moderateagainsthard abrasives like quartz, as shown by the following data. Wet Quartz Sand Abrasion Factor: 0.75 to 0.85 (compared to SAE 1020 steel as 1.00). Dry Quartz Sand Erosion Factor: 0.41 to 0.56 (compared to SAE 1020 steel as 1.00) The assumption that abrasion resistance increases with hardness hasnot been confirmed with carefully controlled testing using quartz as an abrasive.

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28.5.5 Oxidation Resistance and Corrosion Resistance. The EFeMn weld metal issimilar to ordinary carbon steels in this respect and is not resistant to oxidation or corrosion.

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28.5.4Impact. The EFeMn electrodes, as-deposited, usually are considered the outstanding engineeringmaterials for heavy-impact service.

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28.5.3 Hot Hardness. Reheating above 500 to 600°F (260 to 315°C) may cause serious embrittlement. Thus, hot hardness is not a property that can be exploited.

Austenite that is nearly saturated with carbon is responsible for the properties of these filler metals. The austenite is notentirely stable. It will reject some of the carbon at intermediate temperatures or during deformation. This rejectedcarbontakestheformofmanganese-iron carbides that occur as fine particles; as films at grain boundaries; as flat, brittle plates: and as formationsin pearlite. Carbide precipitationinany of these formsleadstoincreasedhardnessand brittleness. Deformation (work-hardeningfrom pounding, etc.) raises hardness most effectively with the least loss in toughness. Carbide precipitation, caused by slow cooling from the completely austenitic range or by reheatingthetough structure, is undesirable. The normal tough structure of manganese steel is producedin manufacture by water-quenching from above 1800°F(980°C). Weld deposits depend on modifiedcompositions to approximate this toughness after air-cooling from the welding temperature.

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28.5.2 Hardness. The normal hardness of these weld deposits is 170 to 230 BHN; but this is misleading, since they work-harden very readily to 450 to 550BHN.

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“air-toughening.” However, sometimes it may be advisable to heat-treat a weldmentto restore the toughness of a manganese base embrittled by too much reheating. Water quenching after two hours at 1850°F (1010°C) is usually sufficient for this purpose. The weld deposit should be free of cracks if this is done; otherwise, oxidation of the cracks may cause considerable structural damage and cancel the benefits of thetoughening heat treatment.

28.5.14 Welding Characteristics

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even half an electrode. In no instance should a bead longer that 9 in. (230 mm) be left without immediate peening. 28.5.14.6 The weld metal is weakest while hot. Since it is easiest to deform at red or yellow heats, and since cracking is most likely to occur above 1500°F(815”C), it is advisable to peen the bead as quickly as practicable. 28.5.14.7 There is experimentalevidencethatarc power, arc length, bead size, and melting rate are related to bead cracking. Unless the beads can be peened quickly and properly, arc power above 3.5 kw or melting rates above 12 in./min (5.1 mm/s) should be avoided. In any case, a weaving bead that has a cross-sectional area greater than 0.18. inz (116 mm’) - for example, 0.8 in. (20mm) wide by 0.2in. (5.1 mm) high above the base; which may mean about 0.40 in. (10 mm) thick - is desirable. These conditions may not prevent underbead cracking, but they should minimize fissuring in the weld. 28.5.14.8 MuchuseofsurfacingwithEFeMn electrodes is to build up worn manganese steel parts. To avoid embrittling this base metal, it should be kept below 500”F, (260°C) within2 in. (5 1mm) from the weld by watercooling, intermittent welding, or other procedures.

28.5.14.1 If EFeMn filler metal is deposited on carbon or low-alloy steel, the transition zone may be too low in manganese; thus, it may develop a martensitic structure, which can permit spalling of the weld deposit because of brittleness.Suchuse ofan austeniticmanganesesteel overlayforabrasionresistanceisgenerallynotrecommended, since an air-hardening steel or martensitic iron is usually more satisfactory. 28.5.14.2 Manganesesteelis so popular for battering metal-to-metal wear that it has seen considerable service as an overlay on carbon steels despite its tendency to develop martensite. For many years, it has been used asan overlay on large steel-mill coupling boxes, pinions, spindles, and other items working under heavy impact load. Cracking has28.6 RFeCr-A1 and EFeCr-A1 Austenitic High Chromium Iron Filler Metals beenobserved;however,sincethecontactingfacesare enclosed, highly stressed edges are avoided. Also, perhaps 28.6.1Applications. RFeCr-Alweldingrods and because large surface areas are in contact, the surface proEFeCr-A1 electrodes have proved very popular for factectiontechniquehasbeenconsideredsatisfactory.Four ing agricultural machinery parts. Arc welding is used on layers of the manganese steel overlay are recommended. heavy materials and large areas; oxyfuel welding is used 28.5.14.3 Not all users of this proceduremay be so fortunate in avoiding trouble from the brittle fusion zone. One for thin sections. Plowshares can be considered as a typical application; because these filler metals flow well way to avoid cracking is to “butter” the carbon steel with enough to produce a thin edge deposit, and because the a layer of austenitic stainless steel. This blends well with wear conditions in sandy soil are typically those of erocarbon or low-alloy steels and manganese steel without sion or low-stress scratching abrasion. It is significant forming brittle structures. The EFeMn filler metalmay then be welded on top of thestainless steel deposit without that the FeCr-Al filler metals become unsuitable in very sacrificing the toughnessof austenite. rocky soil because of the associated impact. Industrial applications include co*ke chutes, steel mill guides, sand28.5.14.4 Bare EFeMn electrodes frequently are used. blasting equipment, brick-making machinery, etc. Acceptable welds can be produced with sufficient power, and the high melting rates are considered an asset. Covered electrodes permit the use of lower power, are easierfor an 28.6.2 Hardness. The as-welded hardnessfor FeCr-Al inexperienced welder to use, and minimize annoying short filler metals when deposited by oxyfuel welding will vary circuits in restricted space; but they generally have a lower with carbon content. The average Rockwell hardness of meltingrate.Direct-current,electrodepositive(dcep) is 104 production quality control tests was (256.1 with an preferred for both covered and bare electrodes. observed range of C5 1 to C62, representing a range of 4.3 28.5.14.5 Whilemanganesesteelhashighductility to 5.2 percent carbon. Macrohardness values, such as when strained in one direction, the two- and three-dimenRockwell or Brinell numbers, will increase slowly as carsional stresses that occur in weld deposits can, and frebon increases. Such figures reflect the greater proportion quently do, cause failure with no apparent ductility. The of the hard carbides in the softer matrix, but they do not undesirable weld-bead tensile stresses that develop on coolreliably indicate abrasion resistance. ing can be changed to compressive stress by peening the Since dilution is not expected in normal oxyfuel welddeposit. Such peening, preferably with a pneumatic haming, the chief variable is carbon pickup per flame adjustmer, flows the outer surface; and the deformation relieves ment. With a 3x feather-to-cone reducing flame, a pickup the tension that would otherwise cause cracks. The peenof 0.4percent carbon has been observed if the welding rod ing, for which a machinist’s ball-peen hammer is suitable, should be performed promptly after deposition of one or is on the low side of the carbon range. On the high side of

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91

the carbon range, a neutral flame can slightly decarburize the deposit. The austenitic matrix can work-harden somewhat under impact; however,since the consequent deformationleads to crackmg,impact service is avoided.

28.6.3HotHardness. Hardness for FeCr-Al filler metals falls slowly with increasing temperatures up to about 800 to 900°F (425 to 480°C); thereafter, it falls rapidly and also becomes strongly affected by creep. At 900'F (480"C), the instantaneous Rockwell hardness is about C43, and three minutes under load will cause an apparentdrop to nearC37.At1200°F(650°C), the instantaneous value may be no higher than C5, and the apparent loss due to creep in three minutes may be as much as 45 points on the C scale. However, the loss of hardness due to tempering is negligible in comparison with many martensitic alloys, and the drop in hardness shown by hot testing is practically recovered upon cooling to ordinary temperatures. Very little is known about the resistance of these filler metals to thermal shockand thermal fatigue. 28.6.4 Impact. FeCr-Al deposits may withstand very light impact withoutcracking, but cracks will form readily if blowsproduce plastic deformation.These filler metalsseldom are usedunderconditions ofmedium impact; and they are generally considered unsuitable for heavy impact, where crackingis objectionable. Dynamic compression stresses above 60,000psi (413 MPa) should be avoided. 28.6.5 Oxidation Resistance. Thehighchromium content of FeCr-Al filler metals confers excellent oxidation resistance up to 1800°F (980"C), and theycan be considered for hot wear applications in which their hot plasticity is not objectionable. 28.6.6CorrosionResistance. The matrix chromium content of the deposited FeCr-A1filler metals is comparativelylow and, thus,notvery effective in providing resistance to liquid corrosion. These deposits will rust in moist air and are not stainless, but they are more stable than ordinary iron and steel. 28.6.7 Abrasion. Resistance of FeCr-Al filler metals to low-stress scratching abrasion is outstanding and is related to the volume of the hard carbides. Deposits of FeCr-Al will wear about one-eighteenth asmuch as soft (SAE 1020)steel against rounded quartz sand grains and against sharp angular flint fragments. As stress on abrasion increases, their performance declines. As deposited, the resistance of FeCr-Al is only mediocre under high--

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stress grinding abrasion,and it isusuallynotadvantageous for such service.

28.6.8 Metal-to-MetalWear. Low-stressabrasion produces a good polish on FeCr-Al filler metals, with a resulting low coefficient of friction. Where the polish is produced by metal-to-metalwear,performance is also good. Resistance to galling is considered better for these filler metals thanfor ordinary hardenedsteel, because tempering from frictional heat is negligible. Austenite alone is prone to gall, and its presence may lead to unfavorable performance.Also, the hardcarbides can standinrelief through wear of the austenite, and cancut or cause excessive wearuponamatingsurface. Therefore, metal-tometalserviceshouldbeapproachedcautiously.Rolling mill guides have been foundto be appropriate applications. 28.6.9 Mechanical Propertiesin Compression. In compression, the depositedFeCr-A1 filler metals are expected to have a yield strength (0.1 percent offset) of between 80,000 to 140,000 psi (551 to 965 MPa), with an ultimate strength ranging from 150,000 to 280,000 psi (1034 to 1930 MPa). Theywill show about one-percent elastic deformation and tolerate from 0.5 to 3 percent additional plastic deformation before failure at the ultimate. Like othercast iron types, their tensile strength is low; therefore, tension should be avoided in designs for their use. 28.6.10Machinability. TheFeCr-A1 deposits are consideredcommerciallyunmachinablewith cutting tools, andtheyare also very difficult to grind. For machine shop use, the recommended grinding wheels are aluminum-oxide abrasive with a 24-gritsize, hard (Q) and mediumspacedresinoidbond for off-hand high-speed work, and a slightly softer (P) vitrified bond for off-hand low-speed use. 28.6.11 Metallography. Deposits of these filler metals consist ofhard carbides of the chromiumcarbide (Cr,C3) type, dispersed in a matrixof austenite that is stable during slow cooling. The FeCr-Al classification does not apply to those high-chromiumirons that are subject to pearlite formation, martensitic hardening, and other manifestations of austenite transformation. The Cr+, carbides have a diamond pyramid hardness (DPH) or Vickerspyramidnumber (VPN) of approximately 2000. They are harder than quartz; thus, they confer resistance to scratching abrasion by most common materials. The austenite matrix is softer (about 450DPH) and somewhat plastic. It can be eroded from around the carbides and may not give them competent support under conditions of high-stress abrasion. The austenite is rich in dissolved carbon as welded. Much of it separates out as

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STD*.AWS UGFM-ENGL 3995 92

welded into place to provide localized abrasion resistance, but such carbide inserts for this useful technique are not covered by the specification.A quick field inspection for tungsten-carbide particles, to determine if the carbide is alloyed with other constituents, is to empty a tube and pass a small magnet over the carbide granules. Tungstencarbide that contains an appreciableamount of iron, cobalt, or nickel will be attracted to the magnet. An excess of magnetic material will indicate the need for a chemical analysis check. 28.7.1.4 Thetungsten-carbideweldingrodsandelectrodes are usedtomakeoverlayswhoseabrasion resistance currently surpasses that of any other available hardfacing material. They typically are usedto armor the cutting teeth and gage holding surfaces of rock drill bits; the wearing surfaces of mining, quarrying, digging, and earthmovingequipment;and a multitude of partswherethe roughness of the weld deposit (as it wears) is nota handicap, but where the high abrasion resistance is needed. 28.7.1.5 The deposits donot consist of hard carbidesin a soft steel matrix, as might be supposed. When the sheath of carbon steel melts during welding,it dissolves enough of both tungsten and carbon to form a hard matrix that is a competent support for the hard granules that it anchors in place. This matrix has characteristics that range from those of air-hardening tungsten steelto those of cast-iron structurescontainingconsiderablesecondarytungsteniron carbides. 28.7.1.6 Surface roughness of abraded deposits depends upon initial granule size and welding procedures. Abrasion resistance depends largely upon the volume of undissolved carbides and is generally better for oxyfuel gas welds.

spine-like crystals of Cr$, during cooling, although some crystallizes as smaller particles, and some remains in solid solution. The hard carbides are brittle and fracture readily.

28.6.12HeatTreatment. The austenite in FeCr-A1 filler metals, which is stabilized partlyby dissolved chromium and partly by manganese, does not transform by usual steel-hardening reactions. It can precipitate some carbon in dispersed form during aging heat treatments, but this hardening is minor and is negligible in practical surfacing operations. 28.6.13Welding Characteristics. In oxyfuelgas welding with FeCr-Al filler metals, flat-position welding with a 3x feather-to-cone reducing flame is recommended. The coefficient of thermal expansion is about 50 percentgreater than that of carbonsteels and irons. Contraction stresses are prone to crack the deposit; and, while these cracks may do no harm, they may be minimized by preheating and postheating techniques. The use of a flux may be helpful in dealing with dirt, scale, and other undesirable surface contamination, but on a clear, bright metal surface such as grinding produces, flux is ordinarily unnecessary. A good bond can be produced on all iron-base materials, provided the base metal is not damaged by the high-temperature conditions of welding and weld cooling. In arc welding, the procedure for applying FeCr-A1 filler metals is similar to that used for other surfacing electrodes. 28.7 Tungsten-Carbide Welding Rods and Electrodes 28.7.1Applications 28.7.1.1 These welding rods and electrodes usually are sold as steel tubes containing 60-percent carbide granules by weight (designated 60:40), but lower tungsten-carbide percentages are available for certain applications. The carbide isa mixture of WC and W2Ctungsten-carbides thatis produced by melting, solidifying, crushing,and sizing the carbide with screens. The size of the carbide granules has an important influence on weld deposit properties and is appropriately included by the various grades in the specification. The shapeof the carbide granules is also important. Granules approaching cubes or spheres are desired. 28.7.1.2 Therequirementsfortungsten-carbidegranules given in the specification may be applied to tungstencarbidepurchased in bulk.Someusersapplytheloose granules by welding, and others prefer to make their own welding rods by filling tubes. 28.7.1.3 Crushed,sinteredtungsten-carbidebonded with cobalt or other constituents has been used in similar welding rods; however, it is not covered by ANSI/AWS A5.21-80 because it usually is considered inferior for the purpose. Cobaltmay also be melted with tungsten-carbide, and the product cast into small inserts or slugs. These are

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28.7.2 Hardness. The hardness of good-quality, cast tungsten-carbide is: Vickers pyramid number . . . . . .About 2400 Rockwell A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 to 95 Knoop KI, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1500 Scratch (Mohs scale, about . . . .9.4 same as silicon carbide) The Microhardness of the 6.1-percent-carbon, tungsten-carbide crystals occurring in the cast carbide is Knoop (KI,) 1880. The hardness of the bonding metal will vary - from RC30 for a deposit of 10-mesh particles (40-60) in a carbon steel tube, to RC60 for 100-mesh particles deposited with a carburizing flame from a carbon-steel tube.

28.7.3 Hot Hardness. Tungsten confers hot hardness, and the matrix of these composite weld deposits retains its hardness up to 1000°F(540"C), considerably better than ordinary hardened steels. (See Figure 5 . ) The higher temperatures of arc welding permit more tungsten-carbide solution during arc welding; such welds,

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STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL 1995 M 07842b5 05L453b TL5 D 93 therefore, exhibit betterhot hardness than oxyfuel gas welds. The pattern of hardness versustemperature is shown in Figure 6.

28.7.5 Oxidation Resistance. Tungsten-carbide has a low resistance to oxidation. Exposed granules of tungsten-carbide will oxidize to form voluminousyellow tungsten oxide at temperatures above 1000°F(540°C).

28.7.4 Impact. Both the carbide granulesand the weld deposits are relatively brittle and vulnerable to sudden tensile stresses. Theyhavehigh compressive strength, however, and can withstandlight impacts that do not produce compression stress above the yield strength, which mayreach 200 ksi (1379MPa) for thematrix.Impact blows faster than 50 fus (15.2 d s ) should be avoided, and the design should avoid tensile stress.

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28.7.6 Corrosion Resistance. Though the granules may be resistant to many media, the matrix of the standardized tube-welding-rod deposits is practically as vulnerable torustingandcorrosion as ordinary steel. The materials covered by thespecificationshouldnotbe selected if corrosion resistance is required. If their great abrasion resistance impels the risk of application in a cor-

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Figure 5 - Apparent Hot Hardness of Hard Surfacing Alloys at 1000°F (540°C)

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COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL 3995 m 0764265 0534537 953 m 94

rosive environment, a preliminary service test should be conducted to establish practicability. 28.7.7 Abrasion Resistance. Composite weld deposits made from these materials are appropriate for resisting low-stress scratching or high-stress grinding abrasion. In either type, the matrix tends to abrade more rapidly, permitting the carbides to stand in relief. As long as matrix erosion doesnot undermine the carbide granules, this is of L I

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little concern unless the resultant roughness is objectionable. This selective action may cause more-rapid weight loss in the early stage of a given use, but the wear rate tends to decrease and stabilize eventually. These stages may not beapparent in a field application, but they can be demonstrated in a laboratory test. This same test shows that arc welds have behavior related to granule size and welding current, while oxyfuelgas welds are usually higher in abrasion resistance and are more consistent. The

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Wds made withbue 3/16 in. dim. tube roch containing60%by m i M t of granulated tungsten carbide i i r d from -40 to +120 mmh, in the filler,and 40% by wight as the mild steel -th. O, 1,Z. 4, indicate the intervalin minutes after load applicrtion. and thus provide an hdax of creep tendmncies.

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-10

"

L L

-20

Figure 6 - Hot Hardnessof Composite Tungsten-Carbide Weld Deposits, Effect of Temperature on Apparent Hot Hardness

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-

STDaAWS UGFM-ENGL 1995

07842b5 0534538 898 95

ho7

OAW mldr

P P

t

aro

0.1Sa-

3

am--

ar)

--

0.40

--

am-" hm"

-

amao--

om1.0

"

1.1 1.2

"

1.I

e

-

i ?

9

"

t

rl I

Figure 7 - Abrasion Resistanceof Composite Tungsten-CarbideWeld Deposits As Affected by Granule Size and WeldingProcess effect of these variables is shown in the high-stress grinding results in Figure 7. The extreme is attained if high-current arc welding is usedwith electrodes containing very fine granules, whereby all of the tungsten-carbide may be dissolved to form tungsten steel, andthe resulting behavior isthat of an air-hardening steel only.

28.7.9 Mechanical Properties in Compression. Depositscanbemade by usinghigh-strengthbonding alloys to give a deposit with high compressive strength; but the usual carbon-steel binders givedeposits that have a compressive strength about the same as a high-carbon steel deposit.

28.7.8 Metal to Metal Wear. Tungsten-carbide deposits are not applicable for conditions of metal-to-metal wear. This is because the wear is chiefly in the matrix, and the carbideleft in relief produces arough surface.

28.7.10 Machinability. Tungsten-carbide deposits are considered commerciallyunmachinable. The deposits are finished, when required, using silicon-carbide or diamond grinding wheels.

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96

28.7.11 Identification. Tungsten-carbideparticles have the following properties that may be used for identification. (1) They are nonmagnetic. (2) They have high density (over 16 specific gravity). (3) They are insoluble in most acids. (4) They readily form a yellow oxide when heated red hot in air. ( 5 ) They have a high melting point; practically impossible to melt in oxyacetylene flame. (6) They are very hard and quite brittle. 28.7.12 Heat Treatment. The properties of tungstencarbide are not changed by heat treatment. However, the metal holding the particles of tungsten carbide in the surfacing layer may or may not respond to heat treatment. The response of the bonding metal depends upon the original analysis of the binder and upon the carbon and tungsten pickup during application. Carburizing and hardening may be used toharden the bonding metal. 28.7.13 Welding Characteristics

28.7.13.4 Thefollowingconditionshavebeenfound suitable for arc welding: Current Diameter Electrode h m

1/8 (3.2) 3/16 (4.8)

DCEP

Ac

100 to 125 125 to 150

100 to 135 135 to 160

28.7.13.5 The usual overlay is about 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) thick, though skilled welders can make thinner deposits, and thicker ones are possible by using several layers.In the latter case, tension cracksin the overlay are likely.

Part L:

Brazing and Braze Welding 29. Guide to Classification of Filler Metals for Brazing and Braze Welding 29.1Provisions. Excerpts from ANSUAWSA5.8-92, Specification f o r FillerMetals f o r Brazingand Braze Welding. 29.2 Introduction

28.7.13.1 The bare, tubular welding rods used for oxy29.2.1 This guide has been prepared for prospective acetyleneweldingaremadefromcarbonsteel,andthe users of the brazing filler metals presented in techniques for oxyfuel gas welding carbon steel should be ANSVAWSA5.8-92, as anaidin determining which used. Oxidation of the base metal that will interfere with classification of brazing filler metal is best for a particuwettingandoxidation of themoltenmetalcanleadto lar job. TheA WS Brazing Handbook should be consultporosity,andshouldbeavoided.Withadequate skill, ed for more detailed information. If the component will excellent oxyacetylene deposits can be obtained. critical applications, the latest edition of However, mechanical behavior of the melt will differ from have ANSVAWS C3.3, Recommended Practices for Design, that ofcarbonsteelbecauseoftheincludedgranules. Manufacture, and Inspection of Critical Brazed Somesolution of thetungsten-carbidegranulesduring Components, should be followed. welding is expected, but the undissolved portion is important to the performance of the hard overlay. Granule distributionisinfluenced by manipulation of thewelding 29.2.2 Brazing is a group of welding processes that torch and of the welding rod. The welder should strive for produces coalescence of materials by heating them to the a uniform final distributionof the granules. brazing temperature in the presence of a filler metal having a liquidus above 840°F (450°C)and below the 28.7.13.2 Electricarcdepositionfromcoveredelectrodes will involve little difficulty for a skilled welder, but solidus of the base metal. The filler metal is distributed thetungsten-carbidegranulesmustbeconsidered.Arc between the closely fitted faying surfaces of the jointby deposition temperatures are higher than those for oxyfuel capillary action. gas welding, and thereis a greater tendency to dissolve the tungsten-carbide granules. It is desirable to use the lowest 29.2.3 Brazing filler metals are metals that are added feasible arc power in order to minimize granule solution. when making a braze. They have a liquidus below that of Granuledistribution is controlledalmostentirely by the materials being brazed and above 840°F (450"C), and manipulation of the electrode. If the result is segregation they possess properties suitable for making joints by capof the granules in streaks, the resultant differential wear pattern in service may be undesirable. With arc deposition, illary action between closely fitted surfaces. the welder also should try to attain uniform granule deposition, which is more difficult than with oxyfuel gas welding. 29.3 Methodof Classification 28.7.13.3 The molten steel matrix is expected to readi29.3.1 The classification method for brazing filler metlywetthetungsten-carbidegranulesandform a strong bond. If this does not occur, the presence of dirt (from the als is based on chemical composition rather than on base metal) or excessive oxidation should be suspected. mechanical property requirements. The mechanical prop--

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STD*AWS UGFM-ENGL 1975

W 0784265 0534540 446

m 97

erties of a brazed joint depend on, among other things, the base metal and filler metal used. Therefore, a classificationmethodbased on mechanicalpropertieswouldbe misleading; since it would apply only if the brazing filler metal were used on a given base metal with a specific joint design. If a user of brazing filler metal desires to determine the mechanical properties of a given base metal and filler metal combination, tests should be conducted usingthelatest edition ofANSVAWS C3.2, Standard Method for Evaluating the Strength of Brazed Joints.

29.3.2 Brazing filler metals are standardized into seven

classification groups as follows: silver, gold, aluminum, copper, nickel, cobalt, and magnesiumfiller metals. Many filler metals of these classifications are used to join assemblies for vacuum applications, such as vacuum tubes and otherelectroniccomponents.Forthesecriticalapplications, it is desirable to hold the high-vapor-pressure elements to a minimum, as they usually contaminate the vacuumwithvaporizedelementsduringoperationofthe device. Filler metals for electronic components have been incorporated as additional “vacuum grade” classifications.

29.3.3 The basic classification groups for brazing filler metals are identified bytheprincipal element in their chemical composition.In a typicalexample,such as BCuP-2, the “B” isfor brazing filler metal (as the “E” for electrodes and the “R’ for welding rods in other AWS specifications). The “RB”in RBCuZn-A, RBCuZn-C, and RBCuZn-Dindicates that thefiller metal issuitable as a welding rod and as a brazing filler metal. The chemical symbol CUPis for copper-phosphorus, the two principal elements in this particular brazing filler metal. (Similarly, in other brazing filler metals, Si is for silicon, Ag for silver, etc., using standard chemical symbols.) The numeral or letter following the chemical symbol indicates chemical composition within a group. -|||| || || || || |||| || || ||||| | |||| | ---

The vacuum grade nomenclature follows the examples above, with two exceptions. The first exception is the addition of theletter “V”, yielding the generic letters “BV”for brazing filler metals for vacuum service. The second exception is the use of the grade suffix number; Grade1 is to indicate the more stringent requirementsfor high vapor pressure impurities, and Grade 2 is to indicate less stringentrequirements for high-vapor-pressure impurities. Vacuum grade filler metals are considered to be spatterfree. Therefore, ANSVAWS A5.8-92 does not list spatterfree and non-spatter-free vacuumgrades. An example of a filler metal for vacuum service isBVAgdb, Grade 1. ~.

~~

~-

”ASM Handbook, 8th Ed. Vol 1.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

~

~~~

~~~~

29.4 Brazing Considerations 29.4.1 To avoid confusion, solidusand liquidus are specified instead of melting and flow points. The terms solidus and liquidus are defined as follows:15 (1) Solidus. The highest temperature under equilibrium conditions at which the metal is completely solid; that is, the temperature at which melting starts. (2) Liquidus. The lowesttemperature under equilibrium conditions at which the metalis completely liquid; that is, the temperature at which freezing starts. 29.4.2 Table 23 lists the solidus and liquidus, as well as the recommended brazing temperature range for the various brazing filler metals. When brazing with some brazing filler metals (particularly those with a wide temperature range between solidus and liquidus) the several constituents of the filler metals tend to separate during the melting process. The lower-melting constituent will flow, leaving behind an unmeltedresidue or “skull” of the highmelting constituent. This occurrence, called liquation, is usually undesirable inthat the unmelted skull does not flow readily into the joint. However, where wide joint clearance occurs, a filler metal with a wide temperature range usually will fill the capillary joint more easily. 29.4.3 Brazing requires an understanding of several procedural elements whichare beyond the scope of this guide. Thelatest edition of the A WS Brazing Handbook should be referred to for particulars on such items as cleaning, brazing fluxes, brazingatmospheres, joint clearances, etc. Also, the latest edition of ANSUAWS C3.3, Recommended Practices Design, for Manufacture, and Inspection of Critical Brazed Components, should be referred to for information on procedures for critical components. 29.5 Brazing Characteristics and Applications 29.5.1 BAg Classifications (Silver). Brazingfiller metals of theBAg classifications are used for joining most ferrous and nonferrousmetals, except aluminum and magnesium. These filler metals have good brazing properties and are suitable either for preplacement in the joint, or for manual feeding into the joint. Although lap joints generally are used, buttjoints may be usedif requirements are less stringent. Joint clearances of 0.001 to 0.005 in. (0.025 to 0.13 mm) are recommended for proper capillary action. Flux generally is required on mostmetals; however, when furnace brazing in a protective atmosphere, flux generally is notrequired. If filler metals containingzinc or cadmiumareusedin a protective-atmosphere furnace, thenthezinc or cadmiumwill be vaporized, changing chemical composition as well as the solidus and liquidus.

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STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL L995 m 07842b5 05L454L 382 98

Table 23 Sdidus, Liquldut, and Brazing Temperature Ranges' Solidus

AWS

Classif~cation

O F

Brazing Tempmtuze R-

Liquidus OC

O C

OF

1145- 1400 1175- 1400

1205

618 635 702 710 688 779 743 774 652

1435

779

1410

766 718 738 857 893 718

OF

O C

SILVER

1265

685

I I95 I270 1761 I435 I435 I435

646 688

I420 Ill5 1400 1250

1275 1260

1760 I220 1305

1125 1200

961 779

Ill5

779 779 602

I155

624

1485

807 824 900

1515

1650

1325 I360 I575 1640

I325 I635 1410 I475

891

766 802 699 970 750 800 745 710 682 72 I 754 677

1290

I780 I 305

I475 I375 1310 I260 1330 I390 1251 1435 I761 I 602 I435 1463 1325 I305 I490

779

%I 872

779 795 718

m7 810

852 950

1565 1740

1295- 1550

1310- ISSO 1270- 1 s o 0 1435- 16% 1370- ISSO 142% 1600

1ms-1400 1435- 1650 1410- 1600 1325-1550 1360- ISSO 1575- 1775 1 6 0 0 - 1800 1325-1550 1610- 1800 1410- 1600

1475- 1650 1290-1525

1780-1900 1305-1550

1475- 1600 1375- I575 1310- 1550 1260- 1 4 0 0 l33O- ISSO 1390- 1545 I 2 5 1 - 1495 1435- 1625 I761 - 1900 1600- I s 0 0 1435- 1650 1470- 1650 1325- IS50 1305- 14M 1490- 1700 1565- 1625 1740- 1800

-

-

-

BAu-4

991

1635 I785 1740 m75 1845 1635 1740

891 974 949 I I35 1007 89 I 949 I102

2015

1860 1635

I885 I 740

1016 891

I o29

1860-2000 1635- 1850 1885- 1995 1740- 1840 2130-22s 1915-2050 1635-1850

1915

949 I166 IO46

1635 1740 20%

891 949 1 I21

2050-21 IO

1240

2265-2325

2130

174-1840

1016-1093 891- I010 102994911661046891

1091 1004 1232 i121 1010 949- 1004 1121-1154 1240- 1274

-

--

BAU-5 BAu-6 BVAU-2 BVAu-4 BVAU-7

1815

---

COLD BAU- I BAU-2 BAU-3

|

II25 lm

718 77I 602 760 677 69 I 680 960 660 705 605 649 607 649

I325

1310 I270 1435 I 370 1425

| ||||

69 1

1295

618-760 635- 760 702-843 710-843 688-816 779-899 143- 843 m-871 652-760 779 -899 766-871 718-843 738-843 857-968 871 -982 718-843 m-982 7M-871 802-899 "830 970- 1038 750-843 800-870 745 860 710-843 6 8 1 -760 721 -843 754-841 677-813 779-885 961 I038 871 -982 T19-899 799 -899 718-843 707-788 830-927 852 885 950-982

|||| || || |||||

1270 I145 I435 1410 I 240 1275

1145 I I75

|| || ||

1225

607 627 607 607 632 67 I 663 688 618 779 766 67 I

||

I125 1160 I I25 I125 I I70 I 240

||||

BA@I BAg-la BAp-2 BAg-2a BAB-3 BAg-4 BAg-5 BAg-6 BAg-7 BAg-8 BA$-8a BA@ BA$- 1O BAg- 13 BAg- 13a BAB- I8 BAg-19 BAg-20 BAg-2 1 BAg-22 BAg-23 0Ag-24 BAg-26 BAg-27 0Ag-28 BAg-33 BAg-34 BAe-35 BAg-36 BAg-37 BVAg4 BVAg-6b BVAg-8 BVAg-8b BVAg-18 BVAg-29 BVAg-U) BVAg-3 I BVAg-32

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STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL 3995

m

07842b50534542

219 99

Table 23 (continued)

solidus

AWS Clutifcation

O F

Range

BnzingTnnperuurc tiquidus "C

"C

O F

OC

O F

PALLADIUM

BVPd-I

2245

I230

BAISI-2 BAISì-3 BAISi-4 BAISì-5 BAIS¡-7 BAIS¡-9 BAISI-I 1

1070 970 lorn

577 521

1070

577

1038 IO44

559 562 559

22%

1235

m5-2285

1235- 1252

617 585 582 59 I

1110-1150 1060- 1 I 2 0

599-621 571 -604 582-604 588 -604

BCu- I a BVCU-I X

BCU-2 RBCuZn-A RBCuZn-B RBCuZnS RBCuZn-D BCUP-I BCUP-2 BCUP-3 BCuP4 BCUP-S BCuP4 BCUP-7 BNC 1 BNi-I a BNi-2 BNi-3 BNi4 BNi-5 BNi-Sa BNid BNi-7 BNi-8 BNi-9 BNi-IO BNi- I I BCo- I

I98 I 1981

1981 I 630

I083 I083 1083 1083 888

1590 I 590 1690

866 866 921

1310

710 710 643 643 643 643 643

1981

1310

I190 I190 I190

I190 I190 1790

I 790 1780 1800

I975 193I 1610 I 630

977 977 971 982 982

1o79 1065

877

1780

888 982 1055 970 9m

2050

1120

1800

I930 1780

I98 I

1981 1981 1650

16x1 1630 1715 1695 1460

I 495 I3 2 I475 I450 1420 NICKEL

S82 5%

I120 I120

1090- 1120

588-604 582-604 588-604

I083 1083 1083 1083 899 882 888 935 924 793 813 718 802 788

nl

2000-2100 2000-2100 #100-2100

1300-1500

1093- I149 1093-1 I49 1093- I149 1093- I149 910-954 882-982 910-9n 938-982 788-927 732-843 718-816 691 -788 704-816 732-816 704-816

2ooo-2100

1670-1750 1620- 1 8 0 0 1670- 1750 1720-1800

1450- 1700 1350- 1550 1325- I 5 0 0 1275- 1450 1300-1m

13U1-INO

1900

1038

1950-2200

1066-1m

1970 I830

I077 1W I135 1 lu)

19m-u00 1850-2150 1850-2150 18M-2150 2100-uO0 2100-2200

877

lfoo-2ooo

888 1010 10s I105 1095

1700-2000 1850-2000 1950-2200 2100-22Lm 2100-2200

1077- 1204 1010- I I 7 7 1010- I 177 1010- I 1 7 7 1149- 1204 1149- I 2 0 4 927- 1093 1093 1010- 1093 1066-1204 1149- I 2 0 4 1149- 1204

1 I49

2100-2250

1149- 1232

599

1120- I 1 6 0

604-627

999 1038

1900

1950 2075 2111 1610 1630 I850 1930 2020 2003 COBALT 2100

9n-

MAGNESIUM BMg-l

443

1110

Solius urd lquidrrc shown arc for the nomnd composttion in each clpcuficauon.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

| | |||| |||| || || |||||

1120

||||

los0 I I05 COPPER I98 I

II20

|| || ||

5%

1080109010901"

||

1085 1080 1095 1 105

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ECU-1

IO38

sn

I I42

---

ALUMINUM

STD-AWS UGFM-ENGL L995 m 07842b5 0514543 155 m 1O0

Therefore, filler metals free of cadmium or zinc are recommended for furnace brazingin a protective atmosphere.

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29.5.1.1 BAg-1. This brazing filler metal has the lowest brazing temperature range of the BAg filler metals. It alsoflowsmostfreelyintonarrow-clearancecapillary joints. Its narrow melting range is suitable for either rapid or slow methods of heating. This filler metal contains cadmium; the special precautions of the warning label presented in Figure 8 should be followed. BAg-1 is more economical (i.e., less silver) than BAg-la. 29.5.1.2 BAg-la. This brazing filler metal has propertiessimilar to BAg-1. BAg-la hasanarrowermelting range than BAg-1, making it slightly more free-flowing. It also has a higher ratio of silver-plus-copper to zinc-pluscadmium,resultinginaslightlyincreasedresistanceto corrosioninchlorine,sulfur,andsteamenvironments. Either composition may be used where low-temperature, free-flowing filler metals are desired. This filler metal containscadmium;thespecialprecautionsofthewarning label presented in Figure 8 should be followed. 29.5.1.3 BAg-2. This brazing filler metal, like BAg-1, isfree-flowingandsuitedforgeneral-purposework.Its broader melting range is helpful where clearances are wide or are not uniform. Unless heating is rapid, care must be taken that the lower-melting constituents do not separate out by liquation. This filler metal contains cadmium, and the special precautions of the warning label presented in Figure 8 should be followed. 29.5.1.4 BAg-2a. This brazing filler metal is similar to BAg-2; but it is more economical than BAg-2, since it containsfive-percentlesssilver.Thisfillermetalcontains cadmium; the special precautions of the warning label presented in Figure 8 should be followed. 29.4.1.5 BAg-3. This brazing filler metal is a modification of BAg-la - i.e., nickel is added. It has good corrosionresistanceinmarineenvironmentsandcaustic media. When used on stainless steel, it will inhibit crevice (interface) corrosion. Because its nickel content improves wetability on tungsten-carbide tool tips, the most prevalent use is for brazing carbide tool assemblies. Melting range and low fluidity make BAg-3 suitable for forming larger fillets or filling wide joint clearances. This filler metal contains cadmium; the special precautions of the warning label presented in Figure8 should be followed. 29.5.1.6 BAg-4. This brazing filler metal, like BAg-3, is used extensively for carbide-tip brazing; but it flows less freely than BAg-3.This filler metal does not contain cadmium. 29.5.1.7 BAg-5 and -6. These brazing filler metals are used especiallyfor brazing in the electrical industry. They also are used - along with BAg-7 and-24 - in the dairy and food industries, where the use of cadmium-containing fillermetalsisprohibited.BAg-5isanexcellentfiller metalforbrazingbrassparts(such as inships’piping, band instruments, lamps, etc.). Since BAg-6 has a broad meltingrangeandisnot so free-flowingasBAg-1and |||| || || || || |||| || || ||||| | |||| | ---

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

BAg-2, it is a better filler metal for filling wide joint clearances or forming large fillets. 29.5.1.8 BAg-7. This brazing filler metal, a cadmiumfree substitute for BAg-1, is low-melting with good flow andwettingproperties.Typicalapplicationsincludethe following: (1) food equipment, in which cadmium must be avoided; ( 2 )to minimize stress corrosion cracking of nickel or nickel-base alloys at low brazing temperatures; and (3)wherethewhitecolorwillimprovecolormatching with the base metal.

29.5.1.9 BAg-8. This brazing filler metal is suitable for furnace brazing ina protective atmosphere without the use ofa flux, as well as for brazing procedures requiring a flux. It usually is used on copper or copper alloys. When molten, BAg-8 is very fluid and may flow out over the workpiece surfaces during some furnace brazing applications.Italsocanbeusedonstainlesssteel,nickel-base alloysandcarbonsteel,althoughitswettingactionon thesemetals is slow.Higherbrazingtemperatureswill improve flow and wetting. 29.5.1.10 BAg-8a. This brazing filler metal is used for brazinginaprotectiveatmosphereandisadvantageous whenbrazingprecipitation-hardenedstainlesssteels,and other stainless steels in the1400 to 1600°F (760 to870°C) range. The lithium content serves to promote wetting to and increase the flow of the filler metal on difficult-to-braze metals and alloys. Lithium is particularly helpful on base metals containing minor amounts of titanium or aluminum. 29.5.1.11 BAg-9 and BAg-10. These filler metals are used particularly for joining sterling silver. These filler metals have different brazing temperatures and so can be used for step brazingof successive joints. The color, after brazing, approximates the color of sterling silver. 29.5.1.12 BAg-13. This brazing filler metal is used for 700°F (370°C).Itslowzinc servicetemperaturesupto content makes it suitable for furnace brazing. 29.5.1.13 BAg-13a. This brazing filler metal is similar to BAg-13, except that it contains no zinc, which is advantageous where volatilizationis objectionable in furnace brazing. 29.5.1.14 BAg-18. This brazing filler metal is similar to BAg-8 in its applications. Its tin content helps promote wetting on stainless steel, nickel-base alloys, and carbon steel.BAg-18hasalowerliquidusthanBAg-8andis used in step-brazing applications where fluxless brazing is important. 29.5.1.15 BAg-19. This brazing filler metal is used for the same applications as BAg-Sa. BAg-19 is used often in higher-temperature brazing applications, where precipitation-hardening heat treatment and brazing are combined. 29.5.1.16 BAg-20. This brazing filler metal possesses good wetting and flow characteristics, andit has a brazing temperature range higher than the popular Ag-Cu-Zn-Cd compositions.Newusesforthisfillermetalarebeing

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STDmAWS UGFM-ENGL 1995

W

er total zinc-plus-cadmium content may require more care developed,due to itsgoodbrazingproperties,freedom duringbrazing.Thespecialprecautionsofthewarning from cadmium, and more economical silver content. label presented in Figure 8 should be followed. 29.5.1.17 BAg-21. This brazing filler metal is used in brazing AlSI 300- and 400-series stainless steels, as well 29.5.1.25 BAg-34. This brazing filler metal is a cadastheprecipitation-hardeningnickelandsteelalloys. mium-free filler metal with free-flowing characteristics. BAg-21 is particularly suited to furnace brazing in a proThe brazingtemperaturerange is similartothat of tective atmosphere because of the absence of zinc and cadBAg-2andBAg-2a,makingitanidealsubstitute for mium. It does not require a flux for proper brazing when these filler metals. the temperature is 1850°F (1010°C) or above. It requires a high brazing temperature, and it flows in a sluggish man29.5.1.26 BAg-35. This is a cadmium-free filler metal ner. The nickel-rich layer (halo) formed along the fillet used for brazing ferrous and non-ferrous base metals. It is edges during melting and flow of the filler metal prevent amoderate-temperaturefillermetalfrequentlyusedfor crevice (interface) corrosionof stainless steels. This is parproduction brazing applications. ticularly important for the 400-series steels - which containnonickelandare,therefore,moresusceptibleto 29.5.1.27BAg-36. Thisisalow-temperature,cadmicrevice(interface)corrosion.BAg-21hasbeenusedfor um-free, filler metal suitable for brazing ferrous and nonbrazing stainless steel vanes of aircraft gas turbine engines. ferrousbasemetals. The lowerbrazingtemperature makes it a useful replacement for several of the cadmium29.5.1.18 BAg-22. This is a high-temperature, cadmium-free filler metal with brazing characteristics that are bearing classifications. improvedoverBAg-3,particularlyinbrazingtungstencarbide tools. All packages (including individual unit pack29.5.1.19BAg-23. Thisisahigh-temperature,freeages enclosed within a larger package) of BAg-1, flowing filler metal usable for both torch brazing and furBAg-la, BAg-2,BAg-h, BAg-3, BAg-27, and B A p nace brazing in a protective atmosphere. This filler metal 33 shall haveas a minimum the following cadmium is used mainly in brazing stainless-steel, nickel-base and warning, permanently affixed and prominently discobalt-basealloysforhigh-temperatureapplications.If played in legible print. this filler metal is used in a hard vacuum atmosphere, a loss of manganese will occur due to its high vapor presDANGER: sure. Thus, a soft vacuum, produced by inert-gas backfillCONTAINSCADMIUM. Protect yourself and ing a hard vacuum, is desirable when brazing with this Dthers. Read andunderstand this label. filler metal. FUMES ARE POISONOUS AND CAN KILL 29.5.1.20BAg-24. ThisbrazingfillermetalislowBefore use, read,understand, and follow the manumelting, free-flowing, cadmium-free, and suitable for use facturer’s instructions, Material Safety Data Sheets in joining300-seriesstainlesssteels(particularlyfood(MSDSs) and youremployer’s safety practices. handling equipment and hospital utensils) and small tungDo not breathe fumes. Even brief exposure to high sten-carbide inserts for cutting tools. conccntrations should be avoided. 29.5.1.21 BAg-26. This brazing filler metal is a lowUse only with enough ventilation, exhaust at the silver, cadmium-free filler metal suitable for carbide and work, or both to keep fumes from your breathing stainless steel brazing. The filler metal is characterized by its low brazing temperature, good wetting and flow, and zone and the general area. If this cannot be done, moderate-strength joints when used with carbide and stainuse air supplied respirators. less-steel base metals. Keep children away when using. 29.5.1.22 BAg-27. This brazing filler metal is similar See American Standard Z49.1, Safety in Welding to BAg-2; but it has a lower percentage of silver and is und Cutting available from the American Welding somewhat more subject to liquation, due to a wider meltSociety, 550N.W.LeJeune Road, P.O. Box 3 5 1 W ing range. This filler metal contains cadmium; the special Miami, Florida 33135; OSHA Safety und Health precautionsofthewarninglabelpresentedinFigure 8 Srandurch, 29 CFR 1910, available from the U.S, should be followed. Government Printing Office,Washington, DC 29.5.1.23BAg-28. Thisbrazingfillermetalhasa 20402. lower brazing temperature with a narrower melting range If chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, or fevel than other cadmium-free classifications with similar silver develop after use, obtain medical help immediately. content. BAg-28 also has free-flowing characteristics. DO NOT REMOVE THIS LABEL 29.5.1.24 BAg-33. This brazing filler metal was developed to minimize brazing temperature for a filler metal Figure 8 - Special Precautions Warning Label for containing 25-percent silver. It has a lower liquidus and, Cadmium-Containing Filler Metals therefore, a narrower melting range than BAg-27. Its high-

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STD.AWS UGFM-ENGL 5995 m 0784265 0554545 T28 102

295.3.1 BAIS¡-2. This brazing filler metal is available as sheet oras a cladding on one or both sides of a brazing

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

29.5.4.1 BCuP-1. This brazing filler metal is particularly suited for resistance-brazing applications. This filler

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29.5.4 BCuP Classifications (Copper-Phosphorus). Brazing filler metals of the BCuP classifications are used primarily for joining copper and copper alloys; although they have some limited use on silver, tungsten, and molybdenum. These filler metals should not be used on ferrous or nickel-base alloys, or on copper-nickel alloys having a nickelcontent in excess of 10 percent; since brittle intermetalliccompounds will formatthefiller metalhase metal interface. B C G filler metals are suitable for all brazing processes. They have self-fluxing properties when used on copper; however, a flux is recommended when used on all other base metals, including alloys of copper. Corrosion resistance is satisfactory, except when the joint is in contact with sulfurous atmospheres. It should be noted that the brazing temperature ranges begin below the liquidus.

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29.5.3 BAlSi Classifications (Aluminum-Silicon). Brazing filler metals of the BAlSi classifications are used for joining the following grades of aluminum and aluminum alloys; 1060,1350,1100,3003,3004,3005,5005, 5050, 6053, 6951, 7005, and cast alloys 710.0 and 711.0. Joint clearances of 0.006 to 0.010 in. (0.15 to 0.25 mm) are common for members which overlap less than 114 in. (6.4 mm). Joint clearances up to 0.025 in. (0.64 mm) are used for members which overlap more than 1/4 in. Fluxing is essential for all processes, except when brazing aluminum in avacuum. After brazing with flux, the brazed parts should be cleaned thoroughly. Immersion in boiling water generally will remove the residue. If this is not adequate, the parts usually are immersed in a concentrated commercial nitric acid or other suitable acid solution, and then rinsed thoroughly.

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29.5.2.1 BAU-1, -2, and -3. These brazing filler metals, when used for different joints in the same assembly, permit variation in brazing temperature so that step-brazing can be used. 29.5.2.2BAU-4. This brazingfillermetalisusedto braze a wide range of high-temperature, iron- and nickelbase alloys. 29.5.2.3 BAU-5. This brazing filler metal is used primarily for joining heat- and corrosion-resistant base metals where corrosion-resistant joints with good strength at high temperatures are required. This filler metal is well suited for furnace brazing under protective atmospheres (including vacuum). 29.5.2.4 BAU-6. This brazing filler metal is used primarily for joining iron and nickel-base super alloys for service at elevated temperature. This filler metal is well suited for furnace brazing under protective atmospheres (including vacuum).

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29.5.2 BAUClassifications (Gold). Brazingfiller metals of the BAUclassifications are used for the brazing of iron, nickel, and cobalt base metals where better ductility or a greater resistance to oxidation and corrosion is required. Because of their low rate of interaction with the base metal, they commonly are used on thin base metals. These filler metals usually are used with induction, furnace, or resistance brazing in a protective atmosphere. In these cases, no flux is used. For other applications, a borax-boric acid flux is used.

sheet having a core of either 3003 or 695 aluminum 1 alloy. It is used for furnace and dip brazing only. 29.53.2 BAISi-3. This isageneral-purposebrazing fillermetal.Itisusedwithallbrazingprocesses,with some casting alloys,and where limited flowis desired. 29.5.3.3BAIS¡-4. This is ageneral-purposebrazing filler metal. It is used with all brazing processes requiring a free-flowing fillermetal and good corrosion resistance. 29.5.3.4 BAIS¡-5. This brazing filler metal is available as sheet and as a cladding on one side or both sides of a brazingsheethavingacore of 6951aluminumalloy. BAlSi-5 is used for furnace brazing and dip brazing at a lower temperature than BAlSi-2. In brazing sheet with this filler metal cladding, the 6951 core alloy can be solution heat-treated and aged. 29.5.3.5BAIS¡-7. Thisisafiller metal suitable for brazing in a vacuum, available as a cladding on oneor both sides of a brazing sheet having a core of 3003 or 695 alu1 minum alloy. The 6951 alloy core can be solution heattreated and aged after brazing. 29.5.3.6BAIS¡-9. Thisisafiller metal suitablefor brazing in a vacuum. It is available as a cladding onone side or both sides of a brazing sheet having a core of 3003 aluminum alloy, and itis used typically in heat-exchanger applications to join fins made from 5000- or 6000-series aluminum alloys. 29.53.7 BAIS¡-11. This is a brazing sheet clad on one or two sides of alloy 3105 to form a composite sheet suitable for brazing in a vacuum. It also is designed for brazing in a multizone furnace, where the vacuum level is interrupted one or more times during a brazing cycle. The composite can be used in batch-type vacuum furnaces; however, vacuum sheet suitable for brazing with a 3003 core is more resistant to erosion. The maximum brazing temperature for the BAlSi-11/3 105 composite is 1110°F(595°C).

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29.5.1.28 BAg-37. This brazing filler metal is a cadmium-free material frequently used for brazing steel, copper and brass. The low silver content makes it an economical filler metal suitable for applications where lower ductility is acceptable.

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29.5.4.5 BCuP-7. This brazing filler metal is slightly more fluid than BCuP-3 or-5, and it has a lower liquidus temperature. It is used extensively in the form of preplaced rings in heat-exchanger joints and tubing joints. Joint clearances of 0.002 to 0.005 in. (0.06to 0.13 mm) are recommended. 29.5.5 BCu and RBCuZn Classifications (Copper) and (Copper-Zinc). Brazing filler metals of the BCu and RBCuZn classifications are used for joining various ferrous and nonferrous metals. They also can be used with various brazing processes. However, with the RBCuZn filler metals, overheating should be avoided; since voids may be formed in the jointby entrapped zinc vapors.

29.5.5.1 BCu-l. This brazing filler metal is used for joining ferrous metals, nickel-base alloys and copper-nick29.5.6 BNI Classification (Nickel). Brazing filler metel alloys; and itis very free-flowing. It often is used in furals of the BNi classifications are used generally for their nace brazing with a protective atmosphere - such as parcorrosion-resistant and heat-resistant properties. The BNi tially-combusted natural gas, hydrogen, dissociated filler metals have excellent properties at high service temammonia, or one of the nitrogen-based atmospheres peratures. They also are satisfactorily used for room-temand generally it is used without flux. On metals that have perature applications and where the service temperatures constituents with difficult-to-reduce oxides (e.g.,chromiare equal to the temperature of liquid oxygen, helium, or um,manganese,silicon,titanium,vanadium,andalunitrogen. Best quality can be obtained by brazing in an minum) a fluxmay be required. However, puredry hydroatmosphere which is reducing to both the base metal and gen, argon, dissociated ammonia, and vacuum atmospheres the brazing filler metal. are suitable for base metals containing chromium, manganese, or silicon. Flux also may be used with zinc-conNarrow joint clearances and post-braze thermal diffutaining base metals to retard vaporization. Vacuum atmos- sion cycles are often employed to minimize the presence pheres, electrolytic nickel plating, or both, are used for base of intermetallic compounds and low-ductility joint condimetals containing titanium and aluminum. tions. When BNi filler metals are used with torch, airatmosphere furnace, and induction brazing processes, a 29.5.5.2 BCu-la. This brazing filler metalis a powder form similar to BCu- 1, and its application and use are sim- suitable flux must be used. BNi filler metals are particularly suited to vacuum systems and vacuum-tube applicailar to thoseof BCu-l. tions because of their low vapor pressure. Chromium is the limiting element in metals to be used in vacuum appliRBCuZn-X Filler metals are used for braze welding applications.

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295.4.4 BCuP-6. This brazing filler metal combines some of the properties of BCuP-2 and BCup-3. It has the ability to fill wide joint clearances at the lowerend of its brazing range. At the high end of the brazing range it is more fluid. Joint clearancesof 0.002 to 0.005 in. (0.06 to O. 13 mm) are recommended.

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29.5.4.3 BCuP-3 and -5. These brazing filler metals maybeusedwherenarrow joint clearances cannot be held. Joint clearances of 0.002 to 0.005 in. (0.06 to 0.13 mm) are recommended.

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29.5.4.2BCuP-2 and These brazing filler metals are very fluid at brazing temperatures and will penetrate joints with small clearances. Best results are obtained with clearances of 0.001 to 0.003in. (0.03 to 0.08 mm).

295.5.3 BCu-2. This brazing filler metal is supplied as a copper-oxide suspension in an organic vehicle. Its applications are similar to BCu-1 and BCu-la. 29.5.5.4RBCuZn-A.I6 Thisbrazingfillermetal is used on steels, copper, copper alloys, nickel, nickel alloys, and stainless steel where corrosion resistance is not of importance. It is used with torch, furnace, and induction brazingprocesses.Fluxinggenerally is required, and a borax-boric acid flux commonly is used. Joint clearances from 0.002 to 0.005 in(0.05to 0.13 mm) are suitable. 29.5.5.5RBCuZn-B. Theselow-fuming,brass-nickle welding rods are similar to RBCuZn-A,but contain additions of iron and manganese which serve to increase the hardness and strength.Ïn addition, a smallamount of silicon (0.04-0.15 percent) servesto control the vaporization of the zinc; hence, the “low-fuming” property. The nickel addition (0.2 to 0.8 percent) assures uniform distribution of the iron in the deposit. This filler metal is used for brazing and braze welding of steel, cast iron, copper, copper alloys, nickel, nickel alloys, and stainless steel. RBCuZn-B filler metal also is used for the surfacingof steel. It isused with torch, induction, and furnace processes. Flux and joint clearances are the same as those specified for RBCuZn-A. 29.5.5.6 RBCuZn-C. This brazing filler metal is used on steels, copper, copper alloys, nickel, nickel alloys, and stainless steel. It is used with torch, furnace,and induction brazing processes. Fluxing is required, and a borax-boric acid flux commonlyis used. Joint clearances from 0.002 to 0.005 in. (0.05to 0.13 mm) are suitable. 29.5.5.7 RBCuZn-D. This brazing filler metal (called nickel silver) is used primarily for brazing tungsten carbide. It alsois used with steel, nickel, and nickel alloys. It can be used with all brazing processes. This filler metal is not suitablefor furnace brazing in a protective atmosphere.

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metal is somewhat more ductile and less fluid at brazing temperature than other BCuP filler metals containing more phosphorus. Joint clearances of 0.003 to 0.005 in (0.8to O. 13 mm) are recommended.

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29.5.6.9 BNi-7. This brazing filler metal is used for the brazing of honeycomb structures, thin-walled tube assemblies, and other structures which are used at high temperatures. It is recommended for nuclear applications where boron cannot be used. The best results are obtained when it is used in the furnace brazing process. Microstructure and ductility of the joint are improvedby increasing time at brazing temperature. 29.5.6.1BNi-1. This fillermetalwasthefirstofthe 29.5.6.10BNi-8. Thisbrazingfillermetal is usedin nickel filler metals to be developed. The nickel, chromium, honeycomb brazements and on stainless steels and other andironcontentsrenderitsuitableforbrazingnickel, corrosion-resistant base metals. Since this filler metal conchromium or iron base metals. While high carbon content tains a high percentage of manganese, special brazing proin 300-seriesstainlesssteelsusuallyismetallurgically cedures should be observed. Because manganese oxidizes undesirable from a corrosion standpoint, the high carbon in morereadilythanchromium,thehydrogen,argon,and BNi-1wouldappeartomakeitundesirableforbrazing helium brazing atmospheres must be pure and very dry, stainless steels. The Strauss test for corrosion has been con- with a dew point of -70°F (-57°C) or below. The vacuum ducted by one aircraft engine company, and it did not show atmosphere must have low pressure and a low leak rate to any adverse effects of the high carbon content on the corinsure a very low partial pressure or oxygen. It should be rosion resistanceof joints in base metals such as AIS1 347 noted that the chemical composition and the melting charstainless steels. The reason given for this is that the carbon acteristics of this filler metal will change when the manalready is tied up with the chromium in the filler metal. ganese is oxidized or vaporized during brazing in gas or vacuum atmospheres. However, the effect of manganese is 29.5.6.2 BNi-la. This brazing filler metal is a low-carnot a problemin an atmosphere of proper quality. bon grade of BNi-1, with an identical chemical composition - except that, while the specified carbon content is 29.5.6.11 BNi-9. This brazing filler metal is a eutectic 0.06 percent maximum, the carbon content usually is0.03 nickel-chromium-boronfillermetalthatisparticularly percent or lower. Although the carbon content is lower, well suited for diffusion-brazing applications. Boron has a corrosion testing results with the Strauss and Huey test small molecular diameter; thus, it diffuses rapidly out of were no better than for joints made with BNil. This filler the brazed joint, leaving the nickel-chromium alloy in the metal produces stronger joints but is less fluid than the joint along with elements that diffuse from the base metal BNi-1 filler metal. intothe joint - suchasaluminum,titanium,etc. 29.5.6.3 BNi-2. This brazing filler metal has a lower Depending on the diffusion time and temperature, the joint and narrower melting range and better flow characteristics remelt temperature can be above 2500°F (1371°C); and, thanBNi-1.Thesecharacteristicshavemadethisfiller depending on the base metal, the hardness can be as low as metal the most widely used of the nickel filler metals. HRB70. With further diffusion time, the grains can grow across the joint, and it may appear as all base metal. The 29.5.6.4BNi-3. Thisbrazingfillermetalisusedfor singlesolidusandliquidustemperature(i.e.,eutectic) applications similar to BNi-1 and BNi-2, andis less it seneliminates the possibility of liquation and thus helps in sitive to marginally protective atmospheres. brazing thick sections that require slower heating. 29.5.6.5 BNi-4. This brazing filler metal is similar to 29.5.6.12 BNi-10. This brazing filler metal is a highbut more ductile than BNi-3.isItused to form large fillets strength material for high-temperature applications. The or joints where fairly large joint clearances are present. tungsten is a matrix-strengthener; this makes it useful for 29.5.6.6 BNi-5. This brazing filler metal is used for brazing base metals containing cobalt, molybdenum, and applications similar to BNi-1, except that it can be used tungsten. This filler metal has a wide melting range and incertainnuclearapplicationswhereboroncannot has been used for brazing cracks .O20 in in. (0.5 mm) thick be tolerated. combustion chambers. It results in a layer of filler metal 29.5.6.7BNi-Sa. ThisisamodifiedBNi-5composiacross the joint which acts as a doubler, while the lowertion with a reduced silicon content plus a small addition of melting constituentis fluid enough to flow through the thin boron.Thepresenceofboronexcludesthisalloyfrom crack and produce a suitable brazement. nuclear applications. Otherwise, the applications are simi29.5.6.13 BNi-11. This brazing filler metal is a strong lar to those of BNi-5. High-strength joints can be promaterial for high-temperature brazement applications. The duced. BNi-Sa material can be used in place of BNi-1 filler tungsten matrix-hardener makesitsuitableforbrazing metal where a reduced level of boron is desired. The brazbase metals containing cobalt, molybdenum, and tungsten. ing of thin-gauge honeycomb to sheet-metal base parts is a With its wider melting range, it issuitableforslightly typical application. higher-than-normal brazing clearances. 29.5.6.8 BNi-6. This brazing filler metal is free-flowing,and it is usedinmarginallyprotectiveatmos29.5.7 BCo Classification (Cobalt). Brazing filler pheres and for brazing low-chromium steels in exothermic atmospheres. metals of the BCo-1 classification generally are used for

cations. It should be noted that when phosphorus is combined with some other elements, these compounds have very low vapor pressures and can be used readilyin a vacuum brazingatmosphere of 1x10-3 torr (O. 13 Pa) at 1950°F(1066°C) withoutremovalof the phosphorus. Greater strength and ductility inthis group of filler metals is obtainable by diffusion brazing.

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07842b5 0514548

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their high-temperature properties and their compatibility with cobalt alloys.

29.5.8 BMg Classification (Magnesium). Brazing filler metal BMg-1 is used for joining AZlOA, KIA, and MIA magnesium alloys.

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29.5.9 Filler Metals for Vacuum Service. These brazing filler metals are specially controlled to fabricate high-quality electronic devices, for which the service life and operating characteristics are of primeimportance. Brazing filler metals for vacuum service should be used in a high-purity protective atmosphere in order to maintain the purity of the filler metal and to assure proper brazing and final brazement quality. It is very important in some applications that the brazing filler metal does not spatter onto areas near the joint. In addition to these special grades, BCo-1andBNi brazing filler metals (except BNi-8)are suitable for vacuum service.

Proper prebraze cleaning is an initial step in any brazing process; however, additional protection and cleaning is required to maintain this condition throughout the brazing procedure.Fluxes may be usedto maintain cleanliness and protection from oxidation. Controlled atmospheres, including vacuum, and active deoxidizing elements are alternate methodsofprovidingthenecessary surface cleanliness during brazing.

30.4.2 Brazing fluxes are mixtures of chemical compounds, which mayinclude inorganic salts and mild acids selected for their ability to provide chemical cleaning or protection of the faying surfaces and the filler metal during brazing. Fluxes must perform thisprotective cleaningand-fluxing action in conjunction with not only the specific filler metals beingused, but also with the other brazing variables such as base metal, brazing process, mass of the workpieces, and method of flux application. For further information, refer to the Brazing Handbook, published by the American WeldingSociety.

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30. Guide to Classification of Fluxes for Brazing and 30.5 Description and Intended Use of Brazing Fluxes || || || ||

Braze Welding

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chlorides of some of the alkali-metals.-Water or alcohol 30.2 Introduction. The purpose of this guideistocorre-maybeused for thinning. late the flux classifications presentedinANSVAWS A5.31-92 with their intended applications. Reference to 30.5.2 FB1-B. This is a brazing flux in powder form appropriatebasemetals,fillermetals, and brazing intended for torch and furnace brazing of aluminum and processes is made whenever possible and when it would its brazeable alloys. The lowerend of its activity temperbe useful. Such references are intended only as examples ature range is slightly lower than that of the FBI-A clasrather than complete listings of the materials and processsification. It consists primarily of fluorides and chlorides es for which each brazing flux is suitable. of some of the alkali metals. Water or alcohol may be used for thinning. 30.3 Classification System. The system for identifying the brazing flux classifications is based on three factors: 30.5.3 FB1-C. This is a brazing flux in powder form applicable base metal, applicable filler metal, and activintended for salt-bath dip brazing of aluminum and its ity temperature range. The letters FB at the beginning of brazeable alloys. The lower endof its activity temperature each classification designation identify the material as a range is much lower than that of the FB1-A and FBI-B flux for brazing or braze welding. Thethird character is classifications. It consists primarily of fluorides and chloa numeral that stands for a group of applicable base metrides of some of the alkali metals. Water should be avoidals. The fourth character, a letter, designates a change in ed in the flux or removed prior to immersion of the brazeform and attendant composition withinthe broader basem*nt in the salt bath. metal classification. | ---

30.4 Brazing Considerations 30.4.1 Successful brazing requires that the surfaces of the workpieces and the filler metal be free of oxide, tarnish, or other foreign matter at the time the brazing filler metal flows into the joint.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

30.5.4 FB2-A. This is a brazing flux in powder form intended for salt-bath dip brazing- of magnesium alloys whose designators start with AZ. It consists primarily of fluorides and chlorides of some of the alkali metals. Water should be avoided in theflux or removed prior to immersion of the brazement in the salt bath.

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305.5 FB3-A. This is a general-purpose brazing flux in paste form intendedfor use withmost brazing processes in the brazing of steels, copper, copper alloys, nickel, and nickel alloys. It is not suitable for aluminum bronze or other base metals containing alloying elements, such as aluminum, which form refractory oxides. It consists primarily of boric acid, borates, and complex fluorine compounds. Water is used for thinning. ||||

30.5.6FB3-C. This is abrazing flux in paste form similar to FB3-A - except that the activity temperature range extends toa higher temperature, and it may contain elemental boron. Water is used for thinning. || || || || |||| || || ||||| | ||||

30.5.7FB3-D. This is abrazing flux in paste form intended for torch, furnace, and inductionbrazing of steels, nickel and its alloys, and carbides using high-temperature filler metals. It consists primarily of boric acid, borates, and complex fluorine compounds. It may contain elemental boron. Water is used for thinning. | ---

30.5.8 FB3-E. This is a low-activity liquid brazing flux used in the torch brazing of jewelry or to augment borderline furnace-brazing atmospheric conditions. Flux usually is applied by dipping or by the use of semi- or fully-automatic spray dispensing equipment. The flux constituents are similar to those in FB3-D fluxes. 30.5.9 FB3-F. This is a brazing flux somewhat similar to the FB3-A flux, except that no vehicle is added to the powder during manufacture. In application, water may be used as a thinning vehicle.

The flux typically contains complex borates and fluoride compounds plus powdered boron. Water may be used as the thinning vehicle.

30.5.14 FB3-K. This is a liquid flux used almost exclusively in torch brazing. The fuel gas is passed through the container of liquid flux entrainingflux in the fuel gas.The flux is applied by the flame where needed on base metals such as carbon steels, low-alloy steels, cast-iron, copper and copper alloys, nickel and nickel-alloys, and precious metals. The flux consists primarily of liquid borates. 30.5.15 FB4-A. This is a brazing flux in paste form intended for brazing of copper alloys and other base metals containingup to 9-percentaluminum - e.g., aluminum bronze. It may also be suitable for base metals containing up to 3-percent titanium or other metals that form refractory oxides. It consists primarily of borates, complex fluorine compounds, and complex chlorine compounds. Water is used for thinning.

Part M:

lbngsten Electrodes 31. Guideto Classification of Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting 31.1 Provisions. Excerpts from ANSUAWSA5.12-92, Speczjìcutionfor Tungsten und Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for Arc Welding und Cutting. 31.2 Introduction

30.5.10 FB3-G. This is a brazing flux in slurry form for use with automatic spray-dispensing equipment. The general range of applications is similar to that of FB3-A flux. Water may be used as the thinning vehicle. 30.5.11 FB3-H. This is a brazing flux in slurry form for use with automatic spray-dispensing equipment. The general range of applications is similar to that of the FB3-C flux. The flux typically contains complex borates and fluoride compounds, plus powdered boron.Water may be used as the thinning vehicle. 30.5.12 FB3-I. This is a brazing flux in slurry form for use with automatic spray-dispensing equipment. The general areas of application are similar to those of the FB3-D flux. The flux typically contains complex borates and fluoride compounds plus powdered boron. Water maybe used as the thinning vehicle. 30.5.13 FB3-J. This is a brazing flux in powder form for areas of application similar to those ofthe FB3-D flux.

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31.2.1 The purpose of this guide is to correlate the electrode classifications presented in ANSUAWS A5.12-92 with their intended applications. 31.2.2 Tungsten electrodes are nonconsumable in that they do not intentionally becomepart of the weld metalas do electrodes used as filler metals. The function of a tungsten electrode is to serve as one of the terminals of an arc which supplies the heat requiredfor welding or cutting. 31.3 Classification 31.3.1 The system for identifying the electrode classifications follows the standard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The letter “E’ at the beginning of the classification designation stands for electrode. The chemical symbol, W, indicates that the electrode is primarily tungsten. The “Findicates that the electrode is essentially pure tungstenand contains no intentionally added alloying elements. The chemical symbols- Ce, La, Th, and Zr -indicate that theelectrode is alloyed with oxides

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31.4 Operation Characteristics

of cerium, lanthanum, thorium, or zirconium, respectively. The numeral at the end of some of the classifications indicates a different chemical compositionlevel or product within a specific group. 31.3.2 Thisguideincludes electrodes classified as EWG. The “ G indicates that the electrode is of a “general” classification, It is general because not all of the particular requirements specified for each of the other classifications are specified for this classification. The intent in establishing this classification is to provide a means by which electrodes that differ in some respect (chemical composition,for example) fromall other classifications in ANSUAWS A5.12-92 still can be classified according to the specification. In the case of the example, if the chemical composition does not meetthe composition specified for any of the classifications in the specification, the electrode still canbeincluded within the “ G classification. The purpose is to allow a useful electrode - one that otherwise would have to await a revision of the specification -to be classified immediately, underthe existing specification. This means, then, that two electrodes each bearingthe same “ G ’ classification - may be quite different in some respect. To prevent the confusion that this situation could create, ANSI/AWS A5.12-92 requires the manufacturer to identify, in the label, the type and nominal content of the alloy addition made in the particular product.

31.4.1 The choice of an electrode classification, size, and welding current is influenced by the type and thickness of thebasemetalsbeingwelded. The capacity of tungsten electrodes tocarry current isdependentupon numerous factors in addition to the classification and size -including type and polarityof the current, the shielding gas used, the type of equipment (air or water cooled), the extension of the electrode beyond collet the (i.e., the sleeve or tube that holds the electrode), and the welding position. An electrode of a given size will haveits greatest currentcarrying capacity with direct current, electrode negative (straight polarity); less with alternating current; and still less with direct current, electrode positive (reverse polarity). Table 24 lists some typical current values that maybe used with argon shielding gas. However, the other factors mentioned above should be carefully considered before selecting an electrode for a specific application. 31.4.2 Tungsten hasan electrical conductivity which is about 30-percent that of copper, and a thermal conductivity which is 44-percent that of copper. Therefore, there will be moreheating as current is passedthrough the tungsten electrode. When welding with tungsten electrodes, the arc tip should be the only hot part of the electrode; the remainder should be kept as cool as possible. 31.4.3 One method of preventing electrode overheating is to keepthe extension of the electrode from the col-

Table 24 Typical Current Ranges forTungsten E l e c t m k P Electrode Diameter in.

DCEN (DCSP) A A mm EWX-X EWX-X

DCEP

(DCRP) A

0.010 0.020 0.040 0.060

0.30

Up to 15

0.50

0.093 0.125 0.156 0.187 0.250

2.40

5-20 15-80 70-150 150-250

3.20

25o-400

10-20 15-30 25-40

4.00

400500

40-55

5.00

500-750

6.40

750-1000

55-80 80-125

I .OO 1.M

nab na 118

Alternating Cumnt Unbalanced Wave A EWP EWX-X

Alternating Cumnt Balanced Wave

EWP

EM-X

Up to 15

Up to 15

Up to 15

Up to 15

5-15 10-60

5-20 15-80 70- I50 140-235 225-325

10-20

5-20 20-60 60-120 100-180 160-250 200-320 290-390 340425

50-100 100-160 150-200 200-275 250-350 325-450

300400 400500 500-630

20-30 30-80 60-130 100-180 160-240 190-300

25o-400

Na. ~ ~ ~ r r c ~ ~ w r b u c ~ o n OlbcrNrrcatvlluornupkem~~orchrrh#ldialpr,ypcdcq.ipawrc t h c ~ d ~ p r

Imd.pp(laDbr

h. M = Mn applioMa

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31.5.2 EWCe-2 Electrode Classification. The EWCe-2 electrodes were f i s t introduced into the United States market in 1987. Several other grades of this type of electrode are commercially practical, including electrodes containing 1-percent Ceo; but only one grade, EWCe-2, has been included as having commercial significance. The EWCe-2 electrodes are tungsten electrodes containing cerium-oxide, referred to as ceria. Advantages of tungsten electrodes containing ceria, compared to pure tungsten, include increased ease of starting, improved arc stability, and reduced rate of vaporization or burn-off.

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31.5.4.2 Should it be desired to use these electrodes for alternating-current welding, then balling can be accomplished by briefly and carefully welding with direct current electrode positive (dcep) prior to welding with alternating current. During ac welding, the balled end does not melt; so emission is not as good as from a liquid ball on anEWP electrode.Thehigherthoriacontentinthe EWTh-2electrodecausestheoperatingcharacteristic improvements to be more pronounced than in the lower thoria content EWThl. 31.5.5 EWZr-1 Electrode Classification. The EWZr-1 electrode is a tungsten electrodecontaining zirconium oxide, referred to as zirconia. This electrode is preferred for applications where tungsten contamination of the weld must be minimized. This electrode performs well when used with alternatingcurrent,asit

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31.5.4.1EWTh-1andEWTh-2. Theseelectrodes were designed for direct-current applications. They have the thoria content dispersed evenly throughout their entire length.Theymaintain a sharpenedpointwell,which is desirable for welding steel. They can be used on alternating-current work; but a satisfactory balled end, which is desirable for the weldingof non-fernous materials, is diffícult to maintain.

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31.5.1 EWP Electrode Classification. The EWP electrodes are unalloyed tungsten electrodes (99.5-percent tungsten, minimum). Their current-carrying capacity is lower than that of other electrodes. They provide good stability when used with alternating current, either balanced-wave or continuously high-frequency stabilized. They may be used withdirect current and also with either argon or helium, or a combination of both, as a shielding gas. They maintain a clean, balled end, which is preferred for aluminum and magnesium welding. These electrodes have reasonably good resistance to contamination of the weld metal by the electrode, although the oxide-containing electrodes are superior in this respect. EWP electrodes generally are used on less critical applications, except for welding aluminum and magnesium. The lower-cost EWP electrodes can be used for less critical applications where some tungsten contamination of welds is acceptable.

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31.5 Description and Intended Use of Electrodes

31.5.4 EW'Zh-X Electrode Classifications. The EWTh-X electrodes m tungsten electrodes containing thorium oxide, referred to as thoria. The thoria in all classes is responsible for increasing the usable life of these electrodes beyond hat of the EWP electrodes because of their higher electron emission, better arc starting, and greater stability. They generally have longer life and provide greater resistance to tungsten contamination of the weld. Thoria is a vzry low-level radioactive material. For the amount of thorja present in these electrodes, the level of radiation has not been found to represent a health hazard. However, if welding is to be performed in confined spaces for prolonged periods of time, or if electrode grinding dust might be ingested, special precautions regarding ventilation should be considered. The user should consult appropriate safety personnel.

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31.4.5 All tungsten eiectrodes may be used in a similar manner. However, electrodes of each classification have distinct advantages with respect to other classifications. The following section discusses the specific electrode classifications with regard to their operating characteristics and usability.

31.5.3 EWLa-1 Electrode Classification. The EWLa-1 electrodes are tungsten electrodes which contain nominally 1-percent lanthanum oxide, referred to as lanthana. The advantages and operating characteristics of this electrode type are very similar to those of EWCe-2 electrodes.

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31.4.4 Many electrode classificstions contain emissive oxide additions. These additions lower the temperature at which the electrode emits electrons, to ;L temperature below the melting point of tungsten. Such an electrode operates cooler; or it can operate at higher currents, as will be noted from Table 24. Benefits of these additions include easier starting, particularly when using superimposedhighfrequency;morestableoperation;and reduced contamination. These benefits are noted in the description listed for the various classifications containing oxide additives.

These advantages increase with increased ceria content. Unlike thoria, ceria is not a radioactive material. These electrodes contain about two-percent ceria. They will operate successfully with alternating current or direct current, either polarity.

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let short. If the extension is too long, even a relatively low current can cause the electrode to overheat and meltabove the terminus of the arc. Conversely, if the current density is too low, the arc will be erratic and unstable.

1o9

retains a balled end during weldingand has a high resistance to contamination.

Part N:

31.5.6 EWG Electrode Classification. The EWG electrode is a tungsten electrode containing an unspecified addition of an unspecified rare-earth oxide or combination of oxides. The purposeof the addition is to affect the nature or characteristics of the arc, as defined by the manufacturer. Although no rare-earth oxide addition is specified, the manufacturer must identify the specific addition or additions and the nominal quantity or quantities added.

32. Guide to Classification of Consumable Inserts

Consumable Insert 32.1 Provisions. ExcerptsfromANSVAWS Specijìcation for Consumable Inserts.

A5.30-79,

32.2Introduction. The purpose of this guide is to correlatethefillermetalclassificationpresented in ANSVAWS A5.30-79 with intended applications.

31.6.4 The shielding-gas flowshouldbemaintained until the electrode has cooled. When the electrodes are properly cooled, the arc end will appear bright and polished. When improperly cooled, the end may oxidize and appear to have a coloredfilm which can, unless removed, adversely affect the weld quality on subsequent welds. All connections, both gas and water, should be checked for tightness.

31.6.5 The electrode extension within the gas shielding pattern should be kept to a minimum, generally dictated by the application and equipment. This is to ensure protection of the electrode by the gas, even at low gasflow rates. 31.6.6 The equipment- and, in particular, the shielding-gas nozzle - should be kept clean and free of weld spatter. A dirty nozzle adversely influences the gas shielding. This contributes to improper gas-flow patterns and arc wandering, which can result in poor weld quality. It may also contribute to excessive electrode consumption.

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32.4.2Purging.Toprovide weldedpiping systems with the integrity requiredby existing codes, the weldjoint must allow full penetration with weld metalof consistently good quality. One methodof obtaining this high levelof quality is the use of preplaced consumable inserts in conjunction with a specific joint configuration, together witha suitable protective-gas back purge. The GTAW process, either manual or automatic, generally is used to consume or fuse the consumable insert. This method is particularly adaptable to conditions encountered in pipe welding, but it may be applied to flat plate-type joints. The main consideration is that a full-penetration butt weld is required when the accessibility is limited to one side or when the backside of the joint is inaccessible for welding. In order to obtain a suitably smooth, uniform back side weld surface without crevices or oxidation, a purge must be established

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32.4.1 General. Consumable inserts are used for rootpass welding from one side, where consistent high-qualior rejects. ty welds are required with minimum repairs They also are used where welding conditions may be less than optimum, such as a confined space for welding or the necessity for maximuminsuranceagainstweld cracks, etc. They usually are used in pipe joints, but they are used often in pressure vessel and structural applications also.

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31.6.3 The electrodes should be handled carefully and kept as clean aspossible. To obtain maximum cleanliness, they should be stored intheir original package until used.

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32.3 Classification System 31.6 General Recommendations. These recommendations, when followed, should maintain high weld quality 32.3.1 The classification system follows as closely as and promote welding economy in any specific application. possible the standard pattern used in AWS filler metal specifications. The inherent nature of the products being classi31.6.1 The appropriate current (type andmagnitude) fied have, however, necessitated specific changes that more should be selected for the electrode size to be used. Too ably classify the product. As an example, consider IN308. great a current will cause excessive melting, dripping, or Theprefix “IN’ designates a consumableinsert.The volatilization of the electrode. Too small a current will numeral 308 designates the chemical composition. cause cathode bombardment and erosion due to the low temperature, and this will result in arc instability. 32.3.2 The solid products are classified on the basis of their chemical composition. However,their cross-section31.6.2 The electrode shouldbeproperlybroken or al configurations are another consideration that must be ground tapered by following the supplier’s suggested proselected and specified when ordering. cedures. Improper breaking may cause a jagged end or a bent electrode, which usually results in a poorly shaped 32.4 Description of Process arc and excessive electrode heating.

110

using a suitable protective gas. Since the second and third passes in the joint may take the previously deposited consumable insert root-pass above the oxidizing temperature of the base and filler metal, it may be necessary to maintain the purge until three layers or 3/16 in. (4.8 mm) root thickness is obtained.

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32.4.3 Ferrite Content. For use of austenitic consumable inserts, the purchaser should specify in the purchase order either the applicable limits for femte or the ferrite number required in the consumable inserts. In general, the limits applied tothe matching filler-metal type beingused in the joint are recommended for the consumable insert. The femte shall bemeasured by meansofa suitable instrument that has been calibrated in accordance with AWSA4.2-74, StandardProcedures for Calibrating Magnetic Instruments to Measure the DeltaFerrite Content of Austenitic StainlessSteel Weld Metal.

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32.4.4 Joint Configuration.It should benoted that the joint-end-preparation configuration must be compatible with the shape of the consumable insert used in order to obtain consistently high quality, particularly under fieldwelding conditions. For configurations of all shapes, the butt gap inthe insert (fitted and ready for tack welding) shall not exceed 1/16 in. (1.6 mm). 32.5 Usability 32.5.1 The control of chemical compositionis generally sufficient to insure usability of these classifications. However, a fusibility test is sometimes specified. 32.5.2 A complete description of the characteristics of theconsumable insert classifications covered by the specification is beyond the scope of this document. For further information, see AWS D10.4-79, Recommended Practices for WeldingAusteniticChromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Piping and Tubing; and AWS D1O.ll79, Recommended Practicesfor Root Pass Welding and Gas Purging.

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Index of Filler Metal Classifications and Specifications

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A4.2 . . . 14.4.2,15.5.2,16.4.2,32.4.3 A4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4.9,11.4.9 A5.01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1,2.2,18.3.3 A5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . .4.1 -4.7, 23.5.3.1 A5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1-3.5 A5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1 - 17.5 A5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1- 14.7, 16.5 A5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1-5.8,4.6.3 A5.6 . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1- 19.4,27.8.1 A5.7 . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1 - 20.4, 27.8.1 A5.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29.1-29.5 A5.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1-15.7, 16.5 A5.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18.1- 18.5 A5.11 . . . . 21.1-21.5,22.3.3,27.6.11 A5.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.1-31.6 A5.13 . . . . . . . . . . 27.1-27.9,28.3.4 A5.14 . . . . . . . . . . 22.1-22.5,21.3.3 A5.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23.1-23.6 A5.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.1-24.5 A5.17 . . . . . . . . . . 10.1-10.4, 11.3.1 A5.18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1-6.5 A5.19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.1-25.5 A5.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.1-8.5 A5.21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.1-28.7 A5.22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1- 16.6 A5.23 . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 - 11.4,10.4.4 A5.24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26.1-26.5 A5.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1- 12.4 A5.26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1- 13.4 A5.28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.1-7.5 A5.29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1-9.4 A5.30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.1-32.5 A5.31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.1-30.5 AMlOOA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.5.1 AZlOlA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.5.1 AZ61A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.5.1 AZ92A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25.5.1 BAg ..................... 29.5.1 BAlSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.5.3 BAU ..................... 29.5.2 BCo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.5.7 29.5.5 BCu ..................... BCuP .................... 29.5.4 BMg .................... 29.5.8 BNi ..................... 29.5.6 Ell00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.5.1 E16-8-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.39 E209 .................... 14.5.1 E2209 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4.8,14.5.41 E240 .................... 14.5.2 E2553 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4.8,14.5.42 E300T . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5.3.16.5.4 |||| || || || || |||| || || ||||| | |||| | ---

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

E3003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.5.2 14.5.3 E307 .................... E307T . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.8, 16.6.1 14.5.4 E308 .................... E308H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14.5.5 E308L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.6 E308LT . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.8,16.6.3 E308Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.7 E308MoL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.8 E308MoLT . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.8,16.6.5 E308MoT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.4 E308T . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.8, 16.6.2 14.5.9 E309 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E309Cb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.1 1 E309CbLT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.8 E309L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.10 E309LT . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5.2.3, 16.6.7 E309Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.12 E309MoL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.13 E309T . . . . . . 16.5.2.3, 16.5.3, 16.6.6 E310 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4.8, 14.5.14 E310Cb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.16 E310H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.15 E310Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.17 E310T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.9 E312 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4.8, 14.5.18 E312T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.10 E316 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.19 E316H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.20 E316L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.21 E316LT . . . . . . . . . . 16.5.2.3, 16.6.12 E316T . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5.2.3, 16.6.11 E317 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.22 E317L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.23 E317LT . . . . . . . . . . 16.5.2.3, 16.6.13 E318 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.24 E320 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4.8, 14.5.25 E320LR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.26 E330 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14.5.27 E330H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.28 E347 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.29 E347T . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.8, 16.6.14 E349 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.30 E383 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.31 E385 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.32 E4OOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5.3, 16.5.4 E4043 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.5.3 E409T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.15 E410 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.33 E41ONiMo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.34 E410NiMoT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.17 E4 1 ONiTiT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.18

E410T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.16 E430 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.35 E430T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.19 E502 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.36 E502T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.20 E505 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.37 E505T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.21 E6010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.5.6,4.7.1 E6011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.6,4.7.2 E6012 .................... 4.7.3 E6013 .................... 4.7.4 E6019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7.12 E6020 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7.13 E6027 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7.15 E60XX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4.7 E630 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.38 E7014 .................... 4.7.5 E7015 . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3,4.7.6,4.7.7 E7016 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7.6,4.7.8 E7018 . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3,4.7.6,4.7.9 E7018M . . . . . . . . 4.4.3,4.7.6,4.7.10 E7024 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7.14 E7028 . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3,4.7.6,4.7.11 E7029 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7.16 4.4.3 E7038 .................... E7048 .................... 4.7.6 E70XX . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.7, 4.6.3, 4.6.4 E7Cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5.40 E80C-B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 E80C-B2L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.2 E80C-Nil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.5 ESOC-Ni2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.6 ESOC-Ni3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.7 E90C-B3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 E90C-B3L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.4 27.7 ECoCr .................... ECU ..................... 19.4.2 ECuAl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.4.6,27.8 ECuMnNiAl . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.4.6.5 ECuNi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.4.5 ECuSi . . . . . . . 19.4.3, 27.8.8, 27.8.12 ECuSn . . . . . . 19.4.4, 27.8.1, 27.8.12 ECuZn . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.8.8, 27.8.9 EFe5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.4,28.4 EFeCr-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.6 EFeCr-Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.6 EFeMn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.5,28.5 ENi-1 .................... 21.5.1 ENI-CI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.5.2.1 ENi-CI-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.5.2.2 27.9 ENiCr ..................... ENiCrCoMo- 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 -5.5

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STD-AWS UGFH-ENGL 3995

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ENiCrFe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.5.3 ENiCrMo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21S.6 ENiCu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23.5.2.6 ENiCu-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1S.2 ENiFe-CI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.5.2.3 ENiFe-CI-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.5.2.4 ENiFeMn-CI . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.5.2.5 ENiFeT3-CI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.5.5 ENiMo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 4 ERlOOS-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.9 ERlOOS-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.4.9 ERllOS-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.9 ER120S-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.9 ER16-8-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.47 ER19-1OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.48 ER209 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15.6.1 ER218 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.2 ER219 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.3 ER2209 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.49 ER240 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.4 ER2553 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.50 ER307 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.5 ER308 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.6 ER308H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.7 ER308L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.8 ER308LMo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.1 1 ER308LSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.9 ER308Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.1O ER308Si . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.12 ER309 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.13 ER309L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.14 ER309LMo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.17 ER309LSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.18 ER309Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.16 ER309Si . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.15 ER310 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.19 ER312 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.20 ER316 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.21 ER316H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.22 ER316L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.23 ER316LSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.24 ER316Si . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15.6.25 ER317 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.26 ER317L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.27 ER318 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.28 ER320 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.29 ER320LR . . . . . . . . . . 14.4.8, 15.6.30 ER321 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.31 ER330 . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4.8, 15.6.32 ER347 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.33 ER347Si . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15.6.34 ER3556 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.5 1 ER383 . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4.8, 15.6.35 ER385 . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4.8, 15.6.36 ER409 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.37 |||| || || || || |||| || || ||||| | |||| | ---

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

ER409Cb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.38 ER410 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.39 ER41ONiMo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.40 ER420 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.41 ER430 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.42 ER446LMo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6.43 ER502 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.44 ER505 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.45 ER630 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.46 ER70S-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 ER70S-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 ER70S-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.3 ER7OS-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.4 ER7OS-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 ER70S-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 ER70S-G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.7 ERSOS-B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 ER80S-B2L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.2 ER80S-D2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.8 ER80S-Nil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.5 ER80S-Ni2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.6 ER80S-Ni3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.7 ER90S-B3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 ER90S-B3L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.4 ERCu .................... 20.4.2 ERCuAl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27.8 ERCuSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4.3 22.5.1 ERNi .................... ERNi-CI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.5.4.2 ERNiCr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.5.3 ERNiCrCoMo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.5.8 ERNiCrFe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.5.4 ERNiCrMo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22.5.7 ERNiCu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.5.2 ERNiFeCr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.5.5 ERNiFeMn-CI . . . . . . . . . . . 23.5.4.1 ERNiMo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.5.6 ERTi- 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.5.1 ERTi-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.5.9 ERTi-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.5.10 ERTi-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.5.1 ERTi-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.5.1 ERTi-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24.5.1 ERTi-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24.5.2 ERTi-SELI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.5.3 ERTi-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.5.4 ERTi-6ELI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.5.5 ERTi-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.5.6 ERTi-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24.5.7 ERTi-9ELI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.5.8 ERXXS-G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.4.10 ERZr2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.5.1 ERZr3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26.5.2 ERZr4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.5.3 EWC ..................... 28.7

EWCe-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315.2 EWG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.5.6 EWLa-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.5.3 EWP .................... 31.5.1 EWTh-X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31.5.4 EWZr-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.5.5 EXXl5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.4 EXX16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.6.4 EXX18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.4 EXXC-G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.10 EXXT-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.4,9.4.5.1 EXXT-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.5 EXXT-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.5.6 EXXT-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.7, 9.4.5.2 EXXT-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.8, 9.4.5.3 EXXT-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.9 EXXT-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.10 EXXT-8 . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.1 1,9.4.5.4 EXXT-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.12 EXXT-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.13 EXXT-G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.14 EXXT-GS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.5.15 EXXT1-X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.4. 5.1 EXXT4-X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.4. 5.2 EXXT5-X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..9.4. 5.3 EXXT8-X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..9.4. 5.4 EXXTX-G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.5.5 EZ33A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.5.1 FB1-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.5.1 FBI-B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.5.2 FB1-C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30.5.3 FJ32-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.5.4 FB3-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.5.5 FB3-C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.5.6 FB3-D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.5.7 FB3-E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.5.8 FB3-F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30.5.9 FB3-G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.5.10 FB3-H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.5.11 FB3-I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.5.12 FB3-J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30.5.13 FB3-K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30.5.14 FB4-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.5.15 RBCuZn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.5.5 23.4.2 RCI ..................... RCI-A . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.4.2,23.5.1.2 RCI-B . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.4.3,23.5.1.3 RCoCr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.7 27.8 RCuAl .................... RFe5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.4,28.4 RFeCr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.628.6 27.9 RNiCr ..................... RWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.7

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114

AWS Filler Metal Sbecifications and Related Documents AWS

Designation Title FMC

Metal Comparison Filler Charts

A4.2

StandardProceduresforCalibratingMagneticInstrumentstoMeasuretheDeltaFerriteContent Austenitic and Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steel Weld Metal

A43

StandardMethodsforDetermination of theDiffusibleHydrogenContent Ferritic Steel Weld Metal Produced by Arc Welding

A5.01

Metal Filler Procurement Guidelines

ofMartensitic,Bainitic,and

A5.1 Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding A5.2

Rods forOxyfuelGasWelding

SpecificationforCarbonandLowAlloySteel

A5.3SpecificationforAluminumandAluminumAlloyElectrodesforShieldedMetalArcWelding A5.4

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A5.5

Specification for Low Alloy Steel Covered

A5.6

Specification for Covered Copper and Copper Alloy

A5.7

Specification for Copper and Copper Alloy Bare Welding

A5.8

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A5.9

Specification for Bare Stainless Steel Welding Electrodes and

Arc Welding

Arc Welding Electrodes ~

~~

~~~~~~~~~

Arc Welding Electrodes

Rods and Electrodes

Rods

A5.10 Specification for Bare Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Welding Electrodes and

Rods

A5.11SpecificationforNickelandNickelAlloyWeldingElectrodesforShieldedMetalArcWelding A5.12

SpecificationforTungstenandTungstenAlloyElectrodesforArcWeldingandCutting

A5.13 Specification for Solid Surfacing Welding

Rods and Electrodes

Rods

A5.14

SpecificationforNickelandNickelAlloyBareWeldingElectrodesand

A5.15

Specification for Welding Electrodes and

A5.16

Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Welding Electrodes and

Rods for Cast Iron

Rods

A5.17SpecificationforCarbonSteelElectrodesandFluxesforSubmerged

Arc Welding Rods forGasShieldedArcWelding

A5.18SpecificationforCarbonSteelElectrodesand A5.19

Specification for Magnesium Alloy Welding Electrodes and

Rods

A5.20 Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding Rods and Electrodes

A5.21 Specification for Composite Surfacing Welding A5.22

Specification for Flux Cored Corrosion-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Steel Electrodes

A5.23SpecificationforLowAlloySteelElectrodesandFluxesforSubmergedArcWelding Rods

A5.24

Specification for Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Welding Electrodes and

A5.25

SpecificationforCarbonandLowAiloySteelElectrodesandFluxesforElectroslagWelding

A5.26

SpecificationforCarbonandLowAlloySteelElectrodesforElectrogasWelding

A528

SpecificationforLowAlloySteelFillerMetalsforGasShieldedArcWelding

A5.29

SpecificationforLowAlloySteelElectrodesforFluxCored

A530

Specification Consumable for Inserts

A5.31

Specification for Fluxes for Brazing and Braze Welding

Arc Welding

For ordering information, contact the Order Department, American Welding Society 550 N. W. LeJeune Road, Miami, Florida 33126. Phone: 1-800-334-9353.

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COPYRIGHT 2002; American Welding Society, Inc.

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American Welding Society - User's Guide to Filler Metals - PDF Free Download (2024)

FAQs

What is the best filler metal for 304 stainless steel? ›

To weld 304L austenitic stainless steel tube and pipe, the proper filler metal match is one with an American Welding Society (AWS) 308 or 308L designation. A 316L filler metal is the appropriate choice for welding 316 austenitic stainless steels.

What is the F number in filler? ›

Filler Metals: The F Number

This number is used to group filler metals used in welding procedures and welder performance qualifications.

How do you choose what size diameter the filler material should be? ›

Generally speaking, use a filler rod that has a diameter that is LESS THAN the thickness of the metal being welded. With a base metal thickness under 1/8 inch, for instance, the rod diameter should be slightly thinner than the metal being welded.

What is the best filler metal for welding? ›

For DIY hobbyists, these are good general filler metal diameters to have on hand:
  • 0.030 for MIG steel ER70S-6.
  • 0.035 for E71T-11.
  • 1/8-in. for your E6013 stick electrodes.
  • 0.035 4043 or 4943 for MIG welding aluminum with a spool gun.
  • 3/32-in. 4043 or 4943 for TIG welding aluminum.
  • 1/16-in. and 3/32-in.
Sep 8, 2022

What is the best filler metal for 6061 aluminum? ›

Q: Which filler wire is best for welding 6061-T6 aluminum, 5356 or 4043? A: Both are acceptable for welding 6061-T6, but each has advantages and disadvantages depending on the application. An aluminum alloy containing 5 percent magnesium, 5356 generally is stronger and more ductile than 4043.

When should I use 308L 309L or 316L filler metal? ›

ER308L/309L/316L is used for welding types 304, 304L, 308, and 308L stainless steels. It is very similar to type 308, but has a carbon content held to a max of . 03% to avoid carbide precipitation. This product can also be used for welding types 321 and 347 stainless steels.

Which steel is stronger 304 or 316? ›

While both 304 and 316 stainless steel are strong, the addition of the Molybdenum in the 316 gives it a small advantage in strength over the 304.

Can I weld 304 with 316 filler? ›

The general rule with Welding Stainless Steel is to weld it with either the same grade of Welding Rod, Tig Wire or Mig Wire, or a higher grade. So you could weld 304 Stainless Steel with a 308 or 316 Rod/Wire, but you shouldn't weld 316 with a 308 Rod/Wire.

What is the G number in welding? ›

A 1F welding position indicates a flat welding position (1) with a fillet weld (F), while a 1G tells you it's a flat position (1) but with a groove weld (G). In the flat welding position you will do your weld on the top side of your joint.

What is the p number in welding? ›

Frequently asked questions. To reduce the number of welding procedure qualifications that are required, P-Numbers (shortened to P-No) are assigned to base metals according to the characteristics of the material, such as composition, weldability, brazeability and mechanical properties.

What do 1F, 2f, 3f, and 4f mean in welding? ›

Welds with a 1 are flat position, 2 is horizontal, 3 is vertical and 4 is overhead. F stands for fillet weld, while G is a groove weld. A fillet weld joins together two pieces of metal that are perpendicular or at an angle. A groove weld is made in a groove between workpieces or between workpiece edges.

What should be considered when selecting filler metals? ›

The material's chemical and mechanical properties, its shape and thickness, and the welding procedures to which welding operators must adhere are some factors dictate filler metal choice. Carefully considering each of these can help ease the selection and ensure quality welds with fewer complications.

How do you calculate filler metal consumption? ›

HOW TO CALCULATE FILLER METAL CONSUMPTION
  1. D=Weight of steel deposited.
  2. L=Total electrode losses. ...
  3. Size of fillet Steel deposited Pounds of electrodes required.
  4. L per linear foot per linear foot of weld* (approx.) ...
  5. *Includes scrap end and spatter loss.
  6. S Steel deposited per linear foot of Pounds of electrodes required per.

What determines the size of the filler metal that should be used? ›

The type and size of equipment being used impacts what filler metal is best for the job. Specifically, the power source needs to provide enough amperage for the diameter of wire being used for the job.

What factors are considered when selecting a filler metal? ›

The material's chemical and mechanical properties, its shape and thickness, and the welding procedures to which welding operators must adhere are some factors dictate filler metal choice. Carefully considering each of these can help ease the selection and ensure quality welds with fewer complications.

What stainless steel filler metal would be selected for welding? ›

The most common austenitic steels are 304, 308, 309 and 316. For 304 and 308, a 308 filler metal can be used. For a 309 base material, there are numerous options, including 308, 309 or 316 filler metals. For 316 base materials, it's recommended to use a 316 filler metal.

Which questions should you ask before selecting an aluminum filler metal? ›

It is therefore essential to have the answers to some basic questions prior to the selection of the most appropriate filler metal.
  • What is the aluminum base metal designation?
  • Will the welded component be exposed to sustained elevated temperature? ...
  • Will shear strength, ductility, and toughness be of prime consideration?

What filler to use on metal? ›

3M™ FC Epoxy Metal Filler has a unique formulation, is lead-free, contains 100% solids and thus will not shrink whilst curing.

References

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